A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government. Unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration. In Canada, each province creates its own system of local government, so terminology varies substantially. In certain provinces there is only one level of local government in that province, so no special term is used to describe the situation. British Columbia has only one such municipality, Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, established in 2009. In Ontario the term single-tier municipalities is used, for a similar concept.
Their character varies, while most function as cities with no upper level of government, some function as counties or regional municipalities with no lower municipal subdivisions below them. They exist as individual census divisions, as well as separated municipalities. In Germany, kreisfreie Stadt is the equivalent term for a city with the competences of both the Gemeinde and the Kreis administrative level; the directly elected chief executive officer of a kreisfreie Stadt is called Oberbürgermeister. The British counties have no directly corresponding counterpart in Germany; this German system corresponds in the Czech Republic. Until 1 January 2007, the municipalities of Copenhagen and Bornholm were not a part of a Danish county. In New Zealand, a unitary authority is a territorial authority that performs the functions of a regional council. There are five unitary authorities; the Chatham Islands, located east of the South Island, have a council with its own special legislation, constituted with powers similar to those of a regional authority.
In Poland, a miasto na prawach powiatu, or shortly powiat grodzki is a big, city, responsible for district administrative level, being part of no other powiat. In total, 65 cities in Poland have this status. In the United Kingdom, "unitary authorities" are English local authorities set up in accordance with the Local Government Changes for England Regulations 1994 made under powers conferred by the Local Government Act 1992 to form a single tier of local government in specified areas and which are responsible for all local government functions within such areas. While outwardly appearing to be similar, single-tier authorities formed using older legislation are not Unitary Authorities thus excluding e.g. the Isle of Wight Council or any other single-tier authority formed under the Local Government Act 1972 or older legislation. This is distinct from the two-tier system of local government which still exists in most of England, where local government functions are divided between county councils and district or borough councils.
Until 1996 two-tier systems existed in Scotland and Wales, but these have now been replaced by systems based on a single-tier of local government with some functions shared between groups of adjacent authorities. A single-tier system has existed in Northern Ireland since 1973. For many years the description of the number of tiers in UK local government arrangements has ignored any current or previous bodies at the lowest level of authorities elected by the voters within their area such as parish or community councils. Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes. In Northern Ireland local councils have no responsibility for road building or housing, their functions include waste and recycling services and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. Since their reorganisation in 2015 councils in Northern Ireland have taken on responsibility for planning functions; the collection of rates is handled by the Property Services agency.
Category: Subdivisions of Northern Ireland Local authorities in Scotland are unitary in nature but not in name. The Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a single tier of local government throughout Scotland. On 1 April 1996, 32 local government areas, each with a council, replaced the previous two-tier structure, which had regional and district councils. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar uses the alternative Gaelic designation Comhairle; the phrase "unitary authority" is not used in Scottish legislation, although the term is encountered in publications and in use by United Kingdom government departments. Local authorities in Wales are unitary in nature but are described by the Local Government Act 1994 as "principal councils", their areas as principal areas. Various other legislation (e.g. s.9
Downend, South Gloucestershire
Downend is a residential outer suburb of Bristol in Gloucestershire, the housing stock is terraced Victorian, 1930s and 1950s semi-detached and detached. It is in the South Gloucestershire local district, located to the northeast of Bristol and bordered by the Bristol City suburb of Fishponds, the South Gloucestershire suburbs of Staple Hill, Frenchay and Emersons Green. Downend forms, with the suburb of Bromley Heath, the civil parish of Downend and Bromley Heath, created in 2003. An electoral ward in the same name exists; the total population of the ward at the 2011 census was 10,785. Downend residents are represented by the Mayor of the West of Tim Bowles. W. G. Grace, the cricketer, was born at Downend House on North Street. Olympic bronze medal winner Jenny Jones was born in Downend. Downend air crash Downend School Website Rotary Club of Fishponds & Downend Downend Round Table Downend & Bromley Heath Parish Council Website Downend Parish Magazine – August 1905
Aust is a small village in South Gloucestershire, about 10 miles north of Bristol and about 28 miles south west of Gloucester. It is located on the eastern side of the Severn estuary, close to the eastern end of the Severn Bridge, now part of the M48 motorway; the village has a church and a public house. There is a large area of farmland on the river bank, sometimes flooded due to the high tidal range of the Severn. Aust Cliff, above the Severn, is located about 0.5 miles from the village. The civil parish of Aust includes the villages of Littleton-upon-Severn. Aust, on the River Severn, was at one end of an ancient Roman road, its name, may be one of the few English place-names to be derived from the Latin Augusta. The name of Aust is recorded in 793 or 794 as Austan when it was returned to the Church of Worcester after having been taken by King Offa's earl, Bynna. In Domesday, Aust Cliff was recorded as Austreclive, "clive" being a Middle English spelling of cliff. and the estate was held by Turstin FitzRolf in 1066.
In 1368 the area was called Augst, "the short unmistakable form of Augusta. Aust was a village and manor in the parish of Henbury, it was reported as a part of the church of Worcester's Westbury on Trym estate in the Domesday book. About 1100 Winebaud de Ballon gave the church to the Abbey of St. Vincent at Le Mans. In the 14th century, the chapel at Aust was part of the Church of Westbury; the Lollard theologian John Wycliffe is by tradition said to have been prebend of Aust and to have preached there, yet Baker was unable to find any record of such an appointment in the diocesan registers at Worcester, which see held Aust for many centuries. The existing church is dedicated to St John, is built in the Perpendicular Gothic style; the timber roofs and octagonal stone font date from the 15th century, the western church tower, with an embattled parapet, was rebuilt in the Tudor period. The church contains several 18th century marble memorial tablets, the earliest dated 1704 to Sir Samuel Astry; the whole church was restored in 1866 by the firm of Bindon.
The estate at Aust was held from the Bishop of Worcester as part of the extensive feudal barony of Turstin FitzRolf who had acted as standard-bearer to William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. FitzRolf's properties in Gloucestershire were held in capite, including Aust, reverted to the Crown and where granted to Wynebald de Ballon from Maine. Wynebald had a holding at Caerleon on the River Usk near the manor of his brother Hamelin de Ballon of Abergavenny. Both brothers made significant donations to the Abbey of St Vincent at Le Mans, including Wynebald's donation of the church of Aust. A daughter of de Ballon married a man named de Newmarch, their son Henry held the estate of Aust in 1166. John, his son and heir, next held Aust. One of John's daughters and co-heiress married Ralf Russell of Kingston Russell, who held the estate, it passed in moiety through generations of the Russell and Dennis families, through Margret Russell who married Sir Gilbert Denys to her grandson Walt Dennis.
The moiety was purchased by the Astry family, The other moiety of Aust was held by Roger de Acton and was sold to the Astry family. It came into the Astry family in 1652, it was sold several times. In 1801 it was owned by Sacheverell Sitwell of Derbyshire; the village is within a short walking distance of 24hr shops at near-by Severn View services at Aust is a small motorway service area operated by Moto on the M48 motorway near the Severn Bridge. There are Burger King, Costa Coffee located there; the main building is a two-storey stone construction. The service area was listed as the last-known whereabouts of former Manic Street Preachers band member Richey Edwards presumed deceased since 2008; the Severn Bridge, a suspension bridge opened as part of the M4 motorway in 1966, crosses the Severn estuary between Aust and Beachley. It was the first Severn road crossing south of Gloucester, took five years to construct at a cost of £8 million, it replaced the Aust ferry. The Aust Ferry passage across the Severn estuary between Aust and Beachley – known as the Old Passage – was used from antiquity.
In the 12th century, responsibility was granted to the monks of Tintern Abbey, it continued to operate in subsequent centuries. From 1827, a regular steamboat ferry service was established, but it lost much of its trade when a rival service was set up downstream at New Passage in 1863, when the Severn rail tunnel was opened in 1886; the growth of road traffic led to the re-establishment of a ferry between Aust and Beachley in 1926, carrying no more than 17 vehicles each time. Bob Dylan was photographed in 1966 standing outside the ferry ticket office, with the almost-completed Severn Bridge behind; the ferry service closed when the Severn Bridge was opened in September 1966. Aust Cliff SSSI Olveston and Aust website Aust in the Domesday Book
Shadrack Byfield was a British infantryman who served in the 41st Regiment during the War of 1812. He is best known as the author of a memoir of his wartime experiences, A Narrative of a Light Company Soldier's Service, published in his hometown of Bradford on Avon in England in 1840; this work is notable as one of the only accounts of the conflict penned by a common British soldier. Born in Woolley, a suburb of Bradford on Avon to a family of weavers in 1789, Byfield enlisted in the Wiltshire Militia in 1807, aged eighteen. Two years he volunteered into the 41st Regiment and was sent to join the regiment in North America, serving in Lower Canada and at Fort George in modern-day Niagara-on-the-Lake prior to the outbreak of war; as a private in the 41st, Byfield saw heavy action during the Anglo-American War of 1812. In the conflict's western theatre, he served at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Frenchtown, where he was wounded in the shoulder, as well as at the Siege of Fort Meigs and the Battle of Fort Stephenson.
Byfield narrowly escaped capture after British defeat at the Battle of the Thames and rejoined elements of his regiment in the Niagara Peninsula. Byfield participated in the Capture of Fort Niagara and the Battle of Lundy's Lane, but his left arm was shattered by a musket ball at the Battle of Conjocta Creek, an unsuccessful British raid on 3 August 1814 preceding the Siege of Fort Erie. Byfield's forearm was subsequently amputated and he was invalided back to England, where he was awarded a pension from the Royal Hospital Chelsea in 1815. Byfield returned to Bradford on Avon and married but was prevented from working at his trade because he required use of both hands to operate a loom. However, according to his memoirs, a design for an'instrument' came to him one night in a dream. Byfield published a memoir of his wartime experiences in 1840. Although some sources speculate that he died c.1850, more recent research suggests that Byfield died on 17 January 1874 in Bradford, aged 84. He served as keeper of the Lord Edward Somerset Monument at Hawkesbury Upton in Gloucestershire from its completion in 1845 until he was dismissed from the post in 1853.
Shadrack Byfield's Narrative provides a rare common soldier's perspective of the War of 1812, as such his account, considered to be a critical source for studying the conflict, has been republished or anthologised. Byfield has been portrayed as the archetypical 1812-era British soldier by modern historians. John Gellner, who edited Byfield's memoirs in 1963, asserted that his story "could have been told by any one of those humble, iron-hard British regulars who more than made up in discipline and bravery for their lack of numbers." Byfield's account has been referenced in secondary histories of the war, notably in Pierre Berton's popular histories The Invasion of Canada and Flames Across the Border. Shadrack Byfield's story has been featured in museum exhibits and in documentaries on the War of 1812, including Canada: A People's History and PBS's The War of 1812. Byfield is the protagonist in a 1985 children's novel, Redcoat, by Canadian author Gregory Sass, which presents a fictionalised account of his military experiences.
A PDF copy of Byfield's A Narrative of a Light Company Soldier's Service, held by the Toronto Public Library A transcribed version of Byfield's Narrative, courtesy of the 41st Military Living History Group
Alveston in South Gloucestershire, England, is a village, civil parish and former manor inhabited in 2014 by about 3000 people The village lies about 1 mile south of Thornbury and 10 miles north of Bristol. Alveston is twinned with France, it has two hotels, a variety of small shops, several parks and fields, two churches and a Hyundai car dealership. Alveston is the gateway from Thornbury, it is the home of Thornbury Cricket Club and Marlwood secondary school. The civil parish includes the villages of Rudgeway and Earthcott; the Domesday Book of 1086 recorded the following entry for Alveston: In Langelei Hundredum tenuit comes Herald Alwestan ibi erant X hidae in dominio, I carruca, XXIII villi, V bordarii cui XXII carrucae, II servii. Ibi ppos..accrevc.. II carucae, V servos. Reddat XII libri ad pensu. Translated as follows: "In Langeley Hundred Earl Harold held Alveston. There were there 10 hides in demesne, 1 plough-team, 23 villeins, 5 bordars for whom there were 22 plough-teams, 2 serfs. There... 5 serfs.
It returned £12...." This was a large manor, of 35 households in total. As the manor had been held by King Harold it was seized into the royal demesne by William the Conqueror and remained in use as a royal hunting park until 1149. Early in March 1093 King William II was at the royal manor of Alveston awaiting his passage across the River Severn to Wales via the Aust ferry, he was attacked by a serious illness, thought to have been a disorder of the stomach or bowels. He was rushed to Gloucester Castle 25 miles to the north, near which the monks of Gloucester Abbey were relied upon to provide a medical cure, it was believed the illness had been brought on as a result of the king's sinful behaviour and he determined to repent and make amends. This illness contracted at Alveston thus resulted in the issuance of a charter which elaborated the king's coronation pledge, akin to a charter of liberties, he pledged to protect and defend the church, to abolish simony, to abolish unjust laws and deter wrong-doers.
He ordered the release of prisoners, remission of debts and all offences against himself he pardoned. He was confined to his chamber for the whole of Lent, covering the period 2 March to 17 April 1093. On 6 March he consented to appoint Anselm Abbot of Bec as Archbishop of Canterbury, which he had strongly opposed. In 1149 it was granted by Henry Plantagenet heir to the throne of King Stephen to Fulk I FitzWarin, a powerful Marcher Lord from Shropshire. In 1160 Fulk was in charge of arming and provisioning for King Henry II Dover Castle, the second most important fortress in England after the Tower of London. Henry valued his services; the grant was a reward for Fulk's loyalty to the cause of Henry's mother the Empress Matilda in the civil war with "The Usurper" Stephen. Alveston was inherited in 1171 by Fulk's son Fulk II. During the Barons' wars of the reign of King John which led up to Magna Carta signed in 1215, Fulk II's son and heir Fulk III FitzWarin rebelled and the manor escheated to the crown and passed temporarily into the stewardship of Hugh de Nevill.
In 1204 Fulk III regained possession, but on 30 June 1216 King John ordered that Alveston should be seized once again from Fulk III FitzWarin. On 15 January 1230 King Henry III granted the park of Alveston back to Fulk III FitzWarin, Fulk is recorded as having incurred a debt of 300 marks for this grant As a royal favour the king pardoned Fulk 200 marks of this debt. Fulk was in royal favour as in June 1234 he received from the king a gift of 3 deer from the royal Forest of Cannock. In September he received 2 bucks and 8 does from the royal Forest of Braden, near Purton, Wiltshire, to help him to stock his deer park at Alveston. In 1236 Fulk was given another 6 does from Braden and 6 more does from the Forest of Selwood, again to help him stock his park at Alveston. In November 1246 the king gave Fulk 10 does for the same purpose. In 1249 Fulk III became involved in a lengthy legal dispute brought against him by Nicholas Poyntz, his near neighbour from Iron Acton who had accused Fulk of expelling him from the common pasture of Tockington, which adjoined Alveston manor.
Fulk IV FitzWarin fell at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, loyally supporting King Henry III in his struggle against the barons. He left his son and heir a minor, Fulk V. Fulk V was awarded in Wardship by Simon de Montfort, victor of Lewes, to Peter de Montfort, "The Nemesis of the Marcher Lords", he was rescued from this unpleasant position by his warder's death at the Battle of Evesham following which King Henry III re-granted him in wardship to the Fitzwarin's long-time friend Hamo le Strange. In 1273 Fulk V attained his majority of 21 years of age and gained possession of his father's lands including Alveston; the early 14th-century legend, based on a lost 13th-century ancestral romance relates as follows, regarding the donation of Alveston to Fulk by King Henry: "King Henry called Fulk, made him constable of all his host. Thus was Fulk made master over all; the king remained at Gloucester. Jervard had taken the whole march from Chester to Worcester, he had disinherited all the barons of the march.
Sir Fulk, with the king's host, gave many fierce assaults to Jervard.
Almondsbury is a large village near junction 16 of the M5 motorway, in South Gloucestershire, a civil parish which includes the villages of Hortham, Gaunt's Earthcott, Easter Compton, Compton Greenfield, Hallen. Almondsbury is in the South Gloucestershire unitary authority area; the electoral ward of Almondsbury covers the same area as the civil parish, stretching from Gaunt's Earthcott east of the M5 motorway south west to Hallen on the boundary with Bristol. The village is split by part of the escarpment overlooking the Severn floodplain. At the bottom of the hill is Lower Almondsbury where a pub and hotel, The Bowl Inn, is situated. South Wales, the Forest of Dean, the River Severn and both Severn Bridges are visible from the higher parts of the village; the place-name'Almondsbury' is first attested in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it appears as Almodesberie. The name means'Æthelmod's or Ealhmund's burgh or fortified place'; the pub takes its name from the bowl shape of the land surrounding the estuary.
Parts of this whitewashed-stone inn were the three cottages erected in 1146 to house the monks building the adjacent church of St Mary the Virgin. The present building became a licensed inn in 1550. At the bottom of the hill is the local church, dedicated to Saint Mary the Virgin; the church and tower were built in 1140 AD. The lead-covered spire was added some time before 1619. In 1817, a woman purporting to be Princess Caraboo was found in the town, in what was to become one of the more elaborate deceptions of the period. Another pub, The Swan Inn, is located on the A38, in the upper part of the village opposite an open space known as Almondsbury Tump. In March 2009 a community shop was opened in the village by the not-for-profit Almondsbury Community Services Association, situated opposite the Old School Hall at 14 Church Road; the community shop is staffed by unpaid volunteers. The aim of the project goes beyond a village shop, being a service for the village, to support local suppliers wherever possible, to be another focal point where people in the village can meet.
A proportion of the surplus generated by the shop is returned to community projects and organisations in the village. In 2018, the village community purchased the premises from the church through a Community Share issue; the chairman of the shop committee is John Mclevy. The village has an ambulance station, a motorway police station, a garden centre, a restaurant/pub. A helicopter base is in development next to the Almondsbury Interchange as a new home for NPAS Filton and the Great Western Air Ambulance. Almondsbury is home to non-League football club Almondsbury UWE who play at Almondsbury Sports & Social Complex on Gloucester Road. Almondbury Cricket Club and Almondsbury Tennis club are based at the same site. Gloucestershire FA are based in Almondsbury at Oakland Park. North Bristol RFC play next door. Education is provided by Almondsbury Church of England Primary School; this is a state maintained school. The Ofsted report, dated April 2009, rated the school as good. For secondary education Almondsbury is served by Patchway Community College.
Almondsbury is the birthplace of the lead singer of Franz Ferdinand. The civil parish of Almondsbury is much larger than the village, it includes the villages of Hortham, Gaunt's Earthcott, Easter Compton, Compton Greenfield and Hallen. It includes Cribbs Causeway and the site of the village of Charlton, now the western end of Filton Airfield; when it was created in 1866 the civil parish included Patchway, but not Easter Compton, Compton Greenfield, Cribbs Causeway or Charlton, all of which were transferred from the parish of Henbury in 1935. The parish of Patchway was separated from Almondsbury in 1953. Almondsbury Church Almondsbury Community Services Organisation Almondsbury Parish Council website Almondsbury Shop Website Almondsbury in the Domesday Book
Church of St Mary, Hawkesbury
The Church of St Mary in Hawkesbury, South Gloucestershire, England was built in the 12th century. It is a Grade I listed building; the church was built in the 12th century. The site was used for an earlier Saxon church, from which some of the stine was incorporated into the current building. A priest at Hawkesbury in the 11th centiry was Wulfstan. Parts of the Early English style building from the 13th century remain but the majority was built in the Perpendicular style of the 14th and 15th centuries; the tower was added in the 15th century. It underwent a Victorian restoration by W Wood Bethell between 1882 and 1885; the parish is within the Badminton benefice, part of the Diocese of Gloucester. The church is built of Cotswold stone, it consists of a four-bay nave with clerestory, south aisle and chapel and has both north and south porches. The six-stage west tower is supported by diagonal buttresses, includes a bell dating from the 14th century. Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1812 to 1827 has a memorial in the chancel, along with many members of the Jenkinson family who were the local lords of the manor.
The churchyard is surrounded by yews. There are 170 marked graves; the monument to Thomas Esbury made by Thomas Paty