Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Hawkesbury is a hamlet consisting of a few cottages around a triangular green. It is the name of a civil parish in the South Gloucestershire unitary authority in England in which Hawkesbury itself lies, it is located west of Hawkesbury Upton, off the A46 road; the civil parish includes Hawkesbury itself, the larger village of Hawkesbury Upton and the hamlets of Dunkirk, Petty France and Little Badminton. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 1,235, increasing to 1,263 at the 2011 census. Prior to 1991 what is now the Hillesley and Tresham parish in Stroud District formed the northern part of the parish; the village is in'Cotswold Edge' electoral ward. This ward stretches south to Tormarton; the total population of this parish taken from the 2011 census was 3,381. The Cotswold Way passes by the two settlements. There is a monument on the Cotswold Edge at grid reference ST772878; the monument was erected in 1846 to commemorate General Lord Edward Somerset. He was a soldier son of the 5th Duke of Beaufort.
The first keeper of the monument was Shadrack Byfield, a one-armed veteran of the Anglo-American War of 1812, whose memoirs of that conflict have achieved a measure of fame. John Marius Wilson described nineteenth century Hawkesbury in his Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales as a "tything, a parish, a sub-district, in Chipping-Sodbury district, Gloucester…has a post office, of the name of Hawkesbury-Upton, under Chippenham, a police station, a fair on the last Friday of Aug." The population of Hawkesbury at that time was 466 and the town included 108 houses. Together with the tithings of Upton, Little Badminton, Saddlewood-with-Tresham and Killcott, the parish of Hawkesbury had a population of 2,173 with 499 houses Hawkesbury was a rural parish in Gloucestershire in which agriculture and animal husbandry were economically dominant; the climate in southwestern Gloucestershire was partial to raising potatoes, along with domesticated animals. Cattle and sheep were important to the livelihood of the residents of Hawkesbury as there was a fair held on last Friday in August for the sale of those animals.
The raising of sheep was a principal source of income for their wool. Homes constructed along streams aided in the wool production industry as it provided water necessary for dying and washing; this water provided means to grind corn in grist mills and finish cloth in fulling mills. The Church of St Mary was built in the 12th century, it is a Grade I listed building. Http://www.hawkesburyhistory.com/
The Cotswolds is an area in south central England comprising the Cotswold Hills, a range of rolling hills that rise from the meadows of the upper Thames to an escarpment, known as the Cotswold Edge, above the Severn Valley and Evesham Vale. The area is defined by the bedrock of Jurassic limestone that creates a type of grassland habitat rare in the UK and, quarried for the golden-coloured Cotswold stone, it contains unique features derived from the use of this mineral. Designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in 1966, the Cotswolds covers 787 square miles and is the second largest protected landscape in England and the largest AONB, its boundaries are 25 miles across and 90 miles long, stretching south-west from just south of Stratford-upon-Avon to just south of Bath. It lies across the boundaries of several English counties; the highest point of the region is Cleeve Hill at 1,083 ft, just east of Cheltenham. The hills give their name to the Cotswold local-government district, formed on 1 April 1974, which administers over half of the area.
Most of the District is in the county of Gloucestershire. The main town is Cirencester and the Cotswold District Council offices are located in that community; the population of the 450-square-mile District was about 83,000 in 2011. The much larger area referred to as the Cotswolds encompasses nearly 800 square miles, over five counties: Gloucestershire, Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the population of the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty was 139,000 in 2016. There is evidence of Neolithic settlement from burial chambers on Cotswold Edge, there are remains of Bronze and Iron Age forts; the Romans built villas, such as at Chedworth, settlements such as Gloucester, paved the Celtic path known as Fosse Way. During the Middle Ages, thanks to the breed of sheep known as the Cotswold Lion, the Cotswolds became prosperous from the wool trade with the continent, with much of the money made from wool directed towards the building of churches; the most successful era for the wool trade was 1250–1350.
The area still preserves numerous large, handsome Cotswold Stone "wool churches". The affluent area in the 21st century has attracted wealthy Londoners and others who own second homes there or have chosen to retire to the Cotswolds; the name Cotswold is popularly attributed the meaning "sheep enclosure in rolling hillsides", incorporating the term, meaning hills. Compare the Weald from the Saxon/German word Wald meaning'forest'. However, the English Place-Name Society has for many years accepted that the term Cotswold is derived from Codesuualt of the 12th century or other variations on this form, the etymology of, given,'Cod's-wold', which is'Cod's high open land'. Cod was interpreted as an Old English personal name, which may be recognised in further names: Cutsdean and Codesbyrig, some of which date back to the eighth century AD, it has subsequently been noticed that "Cod" could derive philologically from a Brittonic female cognate "Cuda", a hypothetical mother goddess in Celtic mythology postulated to have been worshipped in the Cotswold region.
The spine of the Cotswolds runs southwest to northeast through six counties Gloucestershire, west Oxfordshire and south western Warwickshire. The northern and western edges of the Cotswolds are marked by steep escarpments down to the Severn valley and the Warwickshire Avon; this feature, known as the Cotswold escarpment, or sometimes the Cotswold Edge, is a result of the uplifting of the limestone layer, exposing its broken edge. This is a cuesta, in geological terms; the dip slope is to the southeast. On the eastern boundary lies the city of Oxford and on the west is Stroud. To the southeast, the upper reaches of the Thames Valley and towns such as Lechlade and Fairford are considered to mark the limit of this region. To the south the Cotswolds, with the characteristic uplift of the Cotswold Edge, reach beyond Bath, towns such as Chipping Sodbury and Marshfield share elements of Cotswold character; the area is characterised by attractive small towns and villages built of the underlying Cotswold stone.
This limestone is rich in fossils of fossilised sea urchins. Cotswold towns include Bourton-on-the-Water, Burford, Chipping Norton, Dursley, Moreton-in-Marsh, Northleach, Stow-on-the-Wold, Stroud and Winchcombe. Bath, Cirencester, Gloucester and Swindon are larger urban centres that border on, or are surrounded by, the Cotswold AONB; the town of Chipping Campden is notable for being the home of the Arts and Crafts movement, founded by William Morris at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. William Morris lived in Broadway Tower, a folly, now part of a country park. Chipping Campden is known for the annual Cotswold Olimpick Games, a celebration of sports and games dating back to the early 17th century; the nearly 800 square miles of the Cotswolds 80% farmlands, contains over 3,000 miles of footpaths and bridleways. There are 4,000 miles of historic stone walls. A 2017 report on employment within the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, stated that the main sources of income were real estate, rentin
The A46 is an A road in England. It starts east of Bath and ends in Cleethorpes, but it does not form a continuous route. Large portions of the old road have been bypassed, or replaced by motorway development. Between Leicester and Lincoln the road follows the course of the Roman Fosse Way, but between Bath and Leicester, two cities linked by the Fosse Way, it follows a more westerly course, it opened in June 1974. The original route of the A46 was from Bath to Laceby, passing through Cheltenham, Stratford-on-Avon, Leicester and Lincoln. Unusually for such a long road, no changes were made to its route until the 1970s. In recent years the central sections of the road have been rerouted and renumbered and there are now two sections where there are gaps of over 10 miles where the road does not exist at all; the A46 has been extended from Laceby to Grimsby and Cleethorpes - the road between Laceby and Grimsby was part of the A18. The major realignments have been Between Coventry and Leicester the original road was downgraded to the B4065 and the B4114 as a result of the opening of the M69 motorway in 1977.
Between Cheltenham and Stratford-on-Avon the road was realigned in the 1980s through Evesham on the former route of the A435 and A439. The original route through some of the most picturesque parts of the Cotswold Hills was downgraded to the B4632; the route was subsequently cut between Cheltenham and Teddington and that section became the A435 again. The A46 was diverted to connect with the M5 motorway on part of the former route of the A438. Between Evesham and north of Stratford the route was again realigned to run by Alcester and by-pass Stratford on the former line of the A422; the previous route through Bidford-on-Avon to Stratford became the B439, north of Stratford the old route became the A439. A new alignment was built from Junction 21a of the M1 to by-pass Leicester to the north; the old route through Leicester was redesignated the A5460 and A607. The A607 deviates from the straight course of the Fosse Way, bypassing the village centres of Thurmaston and Syston; the A46 was realigned to by-pass Warwick and Coventry, the old route was redesignated the A429 and the A4600.
Bypasses were built around Market Rasen and Newark. The A46 starts at Isaac's Hill roundabout with the A1098 and the A180, it passes the King George V Stadium on the right. It meets the B1213 from the right crosses the A16 Peaks Parkway, it heads into Grimsby. It meets the B1444, it meets the A18 at a roundabout. This was the old terminus of the A46, what is now the A46 heading east into Grimsby used to be the A18; the road becomes the single carriageway road once again and runs alongside the north part of the Lincolnshire Wolds. It enters the East Midlands, it bypasses Swallow to the North. It climbs a hill to meet the B1225, A1173, A1084 just east of Caistor; the road crosses the Nottingham - Grimsby railway at a level crossing. The road becomes straight and flat, passing through Middle Rasen Plantation and meets the A1103 from the right; the A631 leaves to the right at a T junction. The road bypasses Dunholme to the south it passes close to the former RAF Dunholme Lodge, it passes the headquarters for Lincolnshire Police on the left.
It meets the B1182 at a roundabout. The A46 Lincoln Relief Road is concurrent with the A15; the A15 leaves to the right at a roundabout. The road traverses the Lincoln Cliff, it crosses the Lincoln - Gainsborough railway. After bypassing Lincoln, it starts following the route of the old Fosse Way; the A46 passes the former airfield of RAF Swinderby. The road becomes the boundary of Nottinghamshire for 1 mile; the road enters the road bypasses Brough. The new section of road finishes at the roundabout with the A1133; the A17 joins from the left at a roundabout. The road crosses the A1. Newark is bypassed to the North and West ending on a roundabout with the B6166; the road continues south-west, meeting the A52 near Bingham. The single carriageway section between Newark and the Widmerpool A606 junction was replaced by a new dual carriageway road, completed in April 2012. Heading South from the A606 junction, the existing dual carriageway still following the route of the Fosse Way; the road crosses the A6006 North of Six Hills.
Syston is bypassed to the West, at a roundabout with the A607 the route continues in a Westerly direction onto the Leicester Western Bypass. There are grade separated junctions with the A6, A5630 and A50; this section of the road ends at a junction with the B5380, with the forward route flowing on to the M1. It continued towards Coventry until the opening of the M69 motorway in the 1970s, which replaced the A46 as the main route between Leicester and Coventry, with the former A46 being downgraded; the A46 reappears at Coventry at junction 2 of the M6, it follows the boundary between the district of Rugby and the borough of Coventry, always staying inside Warwickshire. At Binley Woods the A428 is crossed at a roundabout; the next roundabout is the signal controlled Tollbar Roundabout, where there are exits for the A45 and Coventry Airport. There is a break in the road here, it resumes again at Festival Island where the it takes the southern exit on to the three lane Kenilworth bypass. Along the bypass there are exits for Stonelei
National Heritage List for England
The National Heritage List for England is England’s official list of buildings, monuments and gardens, wrecks and World Heritage Sites. It is maintained by Historic England and brings together these different designations as a single resource though they vary in the type of legal protection afforded to each. Conservation areas do not appear on the NHLE since they are designated by the relevant local planning authority; the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 established the first part of what the list is today, it established a list of 50 prehistoric monuments which were protected by the state. Further amendments to this act increased the levels of protection and added more monuments to the list; the Town and Country Planning Acts created the first listed buildings and the process for adding properties to it. As of 2018, more than 600,000 properties are listed individually; each year additional properties are added to the National Register as part of the different constituent registers that are part of the list.
The National Heritage List for England was launched in 2011 as the statutory list of all designated historic places including listed buildings and scheduled monuments. The list is managed by Historic England, is available as an on-line database with 400,000 listed buildings, registered parks and battlefields, protected shipwrecks and scheduled monuments. A unique reference number, the NHLE Code, is used to refer to the related database entry, such as 1285296 – this example is for Douglas House. Template:National Heritage List for England — the template used for generating a formatted citation containing the targeted external link. Historic England.org: National Heritage List for England
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Bradford-on-Avon is a town and civil parish in west Wiltshire, with a population of 9,402 at the 2011 census. The town's canal, historic buildings, shops and restaurants make it popular with tourists; the history of the town can be traced back to Roman origins. It has several buildings dating from the 17th century, when the town grew due to the thriving English woollen textile industry; the town lies on the Avon Valley, on the hill that marks the Vale's western edge, eight miles southeast of Bath, in the hilly countryside between the Mendip Hills, Salisbury Plain and the Cotswold Hills. The local area around Bath provides the Jurassic limestone from which the older buildings are constructed; the River Avon runs through the town. The town directly borders Trowbridge to the south east; the town includes the suburbs of Woolley. The Western Wiltshire Green Belt forms the eastern extent of the Avon Green Belt, it surrounds Bradford-on-Avon, helping to maintain the setting and preserve the character of the town, minimising urban sprawl between Bath and other nearby settlements such as Trowbridge and Westwood.
The earliest evidence of habitation is fragments of Roman settlements above the town. In particular, archaeological digs have revealed the remains of a large Roman villa with a well-preserved mosaic on the playing fields of St Laurence School; the centre of the town grew up around the ford across the river Avon, hence the origin of the town's name. This was supplemented in Norman times by the stone bridge; the Norman side is upstream, has pointed arches. The Town Bridge and Chapel is a grade, it was a packhorse bridge, but widened in the 17th century by rebuilding the western side. On 2 July 1643 the town was the site of a skirmish in the English Civil War, when Royalists seized control of the bridge on their way to the Battle of Lansdowne. On the bridge stands a small building, a chapel but was used as a town lockup; the weather vane on top takes the form of a gudgeon, hence the local saying "under the fish and over the water". Widbrook Grange is a Georgian manor house on the edge of the town, it was built as a model farm on Earl Manvers' estate.
The river provided power for the wool mills. The town has 17th-century buildings dating from the most successful period of the local textile industry; the best examples of weavers' cottages are on Middle Rank and Tory Terraces. Daniel Defoe visited Bradford-on-Avon in the early 18th century and commented: "They told me at Bradford that it was no extra-ordinary thing to have clothiers in that country worth, from ten thousand, to forty thousand pounds a man, many of the great families, who now pass for gentry in those counties, have been raised from, built up by this noble manufacture."With improving mechanisation in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, the wool weaving industry moved from cottages to purpose-built woollen mills adjacent to the river, where they used water and steam to power the looms. Around thirty such mills were built in Bradford-on-Avon alone, these prospered further until the English woollen industry shifted its centre of power to Yorkshire in the late 19th century.
The last local mill closed in 1905. Many have since stood empty and some became derelict. A notable feature of Bradford-on-Avon is the large Grade II* listed tithe barn, known as the Saxon Tithe Barn, 180 feet long and 30 feet wide, constructed in the 14th century and is now part of Barton Farm Country Park; the barn would have been used for collecting taxes, in the form of goods, to fund the church. There are several notable buildings around the town centre. Many of the old textile factories have been converted into modern apartments. One of the few is a public house and hotel set in the centre of town. Records show. In 1998 the Wiltshire Music Centre was opened in Bradford-on-Avon, on the grounds of St Laurence School. In 2000, the millennium sculpture nicknamed "Millie" was unveiled. On 8 October 2003, Bradford-on-Avon was granted Fairtrade Town status; the Saxon church dedicated to Saint Lawrence may have been founded by Saint Aldhelm around 705, could have been a temporary burial site for King Edward the Martyr.
It was rediscovered by Canon William Frampton in 1856. In his research Canon Frampton, who had an interest in archaeology, found reference to the church in the writings of William of Malmesbury, it is suggested that some of the building, containing the blind arcades at a higher level, may belong to a period while a leaflet available at the church, February 2012, seems to prefer the period 950–1050 for the whole building. The elaborate ornamentation of the exterior consists of pilaster-strips, a broad frieze of two plain string-courses between, a blind arcade of round-headed arches whose short vertical pilasters have trapezoidal capitals and bases, while on the eastern gable and the corners adjacent there is a series of mouldings as vertical triple semicylinders. Inside the church, high in the wall above a small chancel arch, are the carved figures of two