Walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals. Walking is slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step; this applies regardless of the unusable number of limbs—even arthropods, with six, eight or more limbs, walk. The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan "to roll". In humans and other bipeds, walking is distinguished from running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground and there is a period of double-support. In contrast, running begins; this distinction has the status of a formal requirement in competitive walking events. For quadrupedal species, there are numerous gaits which may be termed walking or running, distinctions based upon the presence or absence of a suspended phase or the number of feet in contact any time do not yield mechanically correct classification; the most effective method to distinguish walking from running is to measure the height of a person's centre of mass using motion capture or a force plate at midstance.
During walking, the centre of mass reaches a maximum height at midstance, while during running, it is at a minimum. This distinction, only holds true for locomotion over level or level ground. For walking up grades above 10%, this distinction no longer holds for some individuals. Definitions based on the percentage of the stride during which a foot is in contact with the ground of greater than 50% contact corresponds well with identification of'inverted pendulum' mechanics and are indicative of walking for animals with any number of limbs, although this definition is incomplete. Running humans and animals may have contact periods greater than 50% of a gait cycle when rounding corners, running uphill or carrying loads. Speed is another factor. Although walking speeds can vary depending on many factors such as height, age, surface, culture and fitness, the average human walking speed at crosswalks is about 5.0 kilometres per hour, or about 1.4 meters per second, or about 3.1 miles per hour. Specific studies have found pedestrian walking speeds at crosswalks ranging from 4.51 kilometres per hour to 4.75 kilometres per hour for older individuals and from 5.32 kilometres per hour to 5.43 kilometres per hour for younger individuals.
Champion racewalkers can average more than 14 kilometres per hour over a distance of 20 kilometres. An average human child achieves independent walking ability at around 11 months old. Regular, brisk exercise of any kind can improve confidence, energy, weight control and life expectancy and reduce stress, it can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, bowel cancer and osteoporosis. Scientific studies have shown that walking, besides its physical benefits, is beneficial for the mind, improving memory skills, learning ability and abstract reasoning, as well as ameliorating spirits. Sustained walking sessions for a minimum period of thirty to sixty minutes a day, five days a week, with the correct walking posture, reduce health risks and have various overall health benefits, such as reducing the chances of cancer, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, anxiety disorder and depression. Life expectancy is increased for individuals suffering from obesity or high blood pressure.
Walking improves bone health strengthening the hip bone, lowering the harmful low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raising the useful high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Studies have found that walking may help prevent dementia and Alzheimer's; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's fact sheet on the "Relationship of Walking to Mortality Among U. S. Adults with Diabetes" states that those with diabetes who walked for 2 or more hours a week lowered their mortality rate from all causes by 39 per cent. "Walking lengthened the life of people with diabetes regardless of age, race, body mass index, length of time since diagnosis, presence of complications or functional limitations." It has been suggested that there is a relationship between the speed of walking and health, that the best results are obtained with a speed of more than 2.5 mph. Governments now recognize the benefits of walking for mental and physical health and are encouraging it; this growing emphasis on walking has arisen.
In the UK, a Department of Transport report found that between 1995/97 and 2005 the average number of walk trips per person fell by 16%, from 292 to 245 per year. Many professionals in local authorities and the NHS are employed to halt this decline by ensuring that the built environment allows people to walk and that there are walking opportunities available to them. Professionals working to encourage walking come from six sectors: health, environment, schools and recreation, urban design. One programme to encourage walking is "The Walking the Way to Health Initiative", organized by the British walkers association The Ramblers, the largest volunteer led walking scheme in the United Kingdom. Volunteers are trained to lead free Health Walks from community venues such as libraries and doctors' surgeries; the scheme has trained over 35,000 volunteers and have over 500 schemes operating across the UK, with thousands of people walking every week. A new organization called "Walk England" launched
Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii. Its peak is 4,207.3 m above sea level. Most of the mountain is under water, when measured from its oceanic base, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world measuring over 10,000 m. Mauna Kea is about a million years old, has thus passed the most active shield stage of life hundreds of thousands of years ago. In its current post-shield state, its lava is more viscous. Late volcanism has given it a much rougher appearance than its neighboring volcanoes due to construction of cinder cones, decentralization of its rift zones, glaciation on its peak, weathering by the prevailing trade winds. Mauna Kea last is now considered dormant; the peak is about 38 m higher than its more massive neighbor. In Hawaiian mythology, the peaks of the island of Hawaii are sacred. An ancient law allowed only high-ranking aliʻi to visit its peak. Ancient Hawaiians living on the slopes of Mauna Kea relied on its extensive forests for food, quarried the dense volcano-glacial basalts on its flanks for tool production.
When Europeans arrived in the late 18th century, settlers introduced cattle and game animals, many of which became feral and began to damage the mountain's ecological balance. Mauna Kea can be ecologically divided into three sections: an alpine climate at its summit, a Sophora chrysophylla–Myoporum sandwicense forest on its flanks, an Acacia koa–Metrosideros polymorpha forest, now cleared by the former sugar industry, at its base. In recent years, concern over the vulnerability of the native species has led to court cases that have forced the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources to eradicate all feral species on the mountain. With its high elevation, dry environment, stable airflow, Mauna Kea's summit is one of the best sites in the world for astronomical observation. Since the creation of an access road in 1964, thirteen telescopes funded by eleven countries have been constructed at the summit; the Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum and comprise the largest such facility in the world.
Their construction on a landscape considered sacred by Native Hawaiians continues to be a topic of debate. Mauna Kea is one of five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaii, the largest and youngest island of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Of these five hotspot volcanoes, Mauna Kea is the fourth oldest and fourth most active, it began as a preshield volcano driven by the Hawaii hotspot around one million years ago, became exceptionally active during its shield stage until 500,000 years ago. Mauna Kea entered its quieter post-shield stage 250,000 to 200,000 years ago, is dormant. Mauna Kea does not have a visible summit caldera, but contains a number of small cinder and pumice cones near its summit. A former summit caldera may have been filled and buried by summit eruption deposits. Mauna Kea is over 32,000 km3 in volume, so massive that it and its neighbor, Mauna Loa, depress the ocean crust beneath it by 6 km; the volcano continues to slip and flatten under its own weight at a rate of less than 0.2 mm per year.
Much of its mass lies east of its present summit. Mauna Kea stands 4,207.3 m above sea level, about 38 m higher than its neighbor Mauna Loa, is the highest point in the state of Hawaii. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, it rises over 10,000 m greater than the elevation of Mount Everest above sea level. Like all Hawaiian volcanoes, Mauna Kea has been created as the Pacific tectonic plate has moved over the Hawaiian hotspot in the Earth's underlying mantle; the Hawaii island volcanoes are the most recent evidence of this process that, over 70 million years, has created the 6,000 km -long Hawaiian Ridge–Emperor seamount chain. The prevailing, though not settled, view is that the hotspot has been stationary within the planet's mantle for much, if not all of the Cenozoic Era. However, while Hawaiian volcanism is well understood and extensively studied, there remains no definite explanation of the mechanism that causes the hotspot effect. Lava flows from Mauna Kea overlapped in complex layers with those of its neighbors during its growth.
Most prominently, Mauna Kea is built upon older flows from Kohala to the northwest, intersects the base of Mauna Loa to the south. The original eruptive fissures in the flanks of Mauna Kea were buried by its post-shield volcanism. Hilo Ridge, a prominent underwater rift zone structure east of Mauna Kea, was once believed to be a part of the volcano; the shield-stage lavas that built the enormous main mass of the mountain are tholeiitic basalts, like those of Mauna Loa, created through the mixing of primary magma and subducted oceanic crust. They are covered by the oldest exposed rock strata on Mauna Kea, the post-shield alkali basalts of the Hāmākua Volcanics, which erupted between 250,000 and 70–65,000 years ago; the most recent volcanic flows are hawaiites and mugearites: they are the post-shield Laupāhoehoe Volcanics, erupted between 65,000 and 4,000 years ago. These changes in lava composition accompanied the slow reduction of the supply of magma to the summit, which led to weaker eruptions that gave way to isolated episodes associated with volcanic dormancy.
The Laupāhoehoe lavas are more viscous and contain more volatiles than the earlier tholeiitic basalts.
Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Preserve. The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, proven to be false; the first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, therefore the most popular in use. On September 2, 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry. Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region, known as the "McKinley cluster". Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America and the northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, it is among the largest mountains situated above sea level. Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft.
By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 ft on the south side to 17,100 ft on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft. Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 ft of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies under water. Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft and a prominence of 1,270 ft; the North Summit is sometimes counted as sometimes not. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain; the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier; the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, the Russian translation of Denali, it was called Densmore's Mountain in the late 1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector, the first European to reach the base of the mountain. In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the following year; the United States formally recognized the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson declared the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in honor of British statesman Winston Churchill; the Alaska Board of Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to Denali in 1975, how it is called locally.
However, a request in 1975 from the Alaska state legislature to the United States Board on Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's hometown of Canton. On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the Barack Obama administration announced the name Denali would be restored in line with the Alaska Geographic Board's designation. U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell issued the order changing the name to Denali on August 28, 2015, effective immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time coming"; the renaming of the mountain received praise from Alaska's senior U. S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew criticism from several politicians from Pres
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Driskill Mountain is the highest natural summit in Louisiana, with an elevation of 535 feet above sea level. It lies about 5.3 miles southeast of Bryceland, in Bienville Parish. A large pile of rocks marks the high point. Driskill Mountain is a landform created by the erosion of unlithified Paleogene sediment, its summit consists of nonmarine quartz sands of the Cockfield Formation. These sands overlie shallow marine and coastal clays and sands of the Cook Mountain Formation, which form the bulk of Driskill Mountain. Mountaintop flora dogwood. James Christopher Driskill, the person for whom Driskill Mountain was named, was born in Henry County, Georgia, on June 27, 1817. In 1840, he married the former Eugenia Irwin Walker. In October 1859, Driskill sold his land in Troup County and moved his family, which by consisted of his wife, eight boys, one girl, to Louisiana. By December 1859, Driskill had purchased in Louisiana 324 acres. During the American Civil War, Driskill served in the Home Guard, his eldest son, William B.
Driskill, was killed in action at the Battle of the Wilderness in Virginia on May 5, 1864. Another one of his sons, James B. Driskill, disappeared. Except for one son and daughter, Driskill's family remained in Bienville Parish, his descendants still live in the area. Jimmie Davis and his band played. Davis became governor of Louisiana just five years after the performance and the song became the state song of Louisiana. Geography portal Louisiana portal Mountains portal List of U. S. states by elevation Media related to Driskill Mountain at Wikimedia Commons Driskill Mountain Driskill Mountain, the Highest Point in Louisiana
Mount Washington (New Hampshire)
Mount Washington, called Agiocochook by some Native American tribes, is the highest peak in the Northeastern United States at 6,288.2 ft and the most topographically prominent mountain east of the Mississippi River. The mountain is notorious for its erratic weather. On the afternoon of April 12, 1934, the Mount Washington Observatory recorded a windspeed of 231 miles per hour at the summit, the world record from 1934 until 1996. However, Mt. Washington still holds the record for highest measured wind speed not associated with a tornado or tropical cyclone; the mountain is located in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, in the township of Sargent's Purchase, in Coös County, New Hampshire. While nearly the whole mountain is in the White Mountain National Forest, an area of 60.3 acres surrounding and including the summit is occupied by Mount Washington State Park. The Mount Washington Cog Railway ascends the western slope of the mountain, the Mount Washington Auto Road climbs to the summit from the east.
The mountain is visited by hikers, the Appalachian Trail crosses the summit. Other common activities include glider flying, backcountry skiing, annual cycle and running races such as the Auto Road Bicycle Hillclimb and Road Race. Before European settlers arrived in the region, the mountain was known by various indigenous peoples as Kodaak Wadjo or Agiochook or Agiocochook; the Algonquians called it Waumbik, "white rocks". The first European to mention the mountain was Giovanni da Verrazzano. Viewing it from the Atlantic Ocean in 1524, he described what he saw as "high interior mountains." The Abenaki people inhabiting the region at the time of European contact believed that the tops of mountains were the dwelling place of the gods, so among other reasons did not climb them out of religious deference to their sanctity. Darby Field claimed to have made the first ascent of Mt. Washington in 1642. Field climbed the mountain in June of that year to demonstrate to the Abenaki chief Passaconaway that the Europeans bargaining for tribal land were not subject to the gods believed to inhabit the summit, a political move that facilitated colonists' northern expansion.
Field again summited Agiocochook in October 1642 on an early surveying expedition that created maps of land as far as Maine, maps which assisted the delegations from the Massachusetts colony seeking to acquire the more arable coastal regions. A geology party, headed by Manasseh Cutler, named the mountain in 1784; the Crawford Path, the oldest mountain hiking trail in the United States, was laid out in 1819 from Crawford Notch to the summit and has been in use since. Ethan Allen Crawford built a house on the summit in 1821, which lasted until a storm in 1826. Little occurred on the summit itself until the mid-19th century, when it was developed into one of the first tourist destinations in the nation, with construction of more bridle paths and two hotels; the Summit House opened in 1852, a 64-foot-long stone hotel anchored by four heavy chains over its roof. In 1853, the Tip-Top House was erected to compete. Rebuilt of wood with 91 rooms in 1872–1873, the Summit House burned in 1908 was replaced in granite in 1915.
The Tip-Top House alone survived the fire. Other Victorian era tourist attractions include a coach road —now the Mount Washington Auto Road—and the Mount Washington Cog Railway, both of which are still in operation. For forty years, an intermittent daily newspaper, called Among the Clouds, was published by Henry M. Burt at the summit each summer, until 1917. In November 2010, it was revealed that Orlando, Florida-based CNL Financial Group, which owns the Mount Washington Hotel at the foot of the mountain, had formally filed to trademark the "Mount Washington" name. CNL officials said they were directing their efforts against other hotels that use the mountain's name and not the numerous businesses in the area that use it. CNL's application at the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office seeks registration of the trademark "Mount Washington" for any retail service, any restaurant service, any entertainment service; the summit station of Mount Washington has an alpine climate or tundra climate, although it receives an high amount of precipitation, atypical for most regions with such cold weather.
Lower elevations have a subarctic climate. The weather of Mount Washington is notoriously erratic; this is due to the convergence of several storm tracks from the Atlantic to the south, the Gulf region and the Pacific Northwest. The vertical rise of the Presidential Range, combined with its north-south orientation, makes it a significant barrier to westerly winds. Low-pressure areas are more favorable to develop along the coastline in the winter due to the relative temperature differences between the Northeastern United States and the Atlantic Ocean. With these factors combined, hurricane-force wind gusts are observed from the summit of the mountain on average of 110 days per year. Mount Washington once held the world record and still holds the Northern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere record for directly measured surface wind speed, at 231 mph, recorded on the afternoon of April 12, 1934. A new wind speed record was discovered in 2009: on April 10, 1996, Tropical Cyclone Olivia had created a wind gust of 408 km/h at Barrow Island off the coast of Western Australia.
The first regular meteorological observations o