Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Church Hill, Tennessee
Church Hill is a city in Hawkins County, United States. The population was 5,916 at the 2000 census and 6,737 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Kingsport–Bristol –Bristol Metropolitan Statistical Area, a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region. The community was established as a trading post and stagecoach stop called Spencer's Mill and Patterson Mill in the late 18th century; the name "Church Hill" came following the establishment of a Methodist church "on the hill" overlooking the Holston River valley. The church still stands today on Grandview Street; the city of Church Hill was incorporated in 1958. One of Church Hill's most notable landmarks is the New Canton Plantation and its antebellum mansion, Canton Hall, built by slave labor and owned by the Hord family. Other landmarks include Smith Place, built in the early 20th century, the former site of Carter's Store, a 1770s-era trading outpost established by Tennessee pioneer John Carter.
Church Hill is located in eastern Hawkins County at 36°31′15″N 82°43′32″W. The city is situated among rolling hills on the northern portion of Smith Bend, overlooking the Holston River; the city is bordered by Mount Carmel to the northeast, the Holston Army Ammunition Plant lies to the southeast, across the Holston River. Bays Mountain, a prominent Ridge-and-Valley formation, dominates the horizon to the south. U. S. Route 11W connects Church Hill with Rogersville to the southwest and the Tri-Cities area to the northeast. State Route 346 intersects 11W near the center of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.8 square miles, of which 9.3 square miles are land and 0.46 square miles, or 4.63%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,916 people, 2,482 households, 1,772 families residing in the city; the population density was 665.8 people per square mile. There were 2,709 housing units at an average density of 304.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.95% White, 1.30% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.34% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.41% of the population. There were 2,482 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.5% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,563, the median income for a family was $43,423. Males had a median income of $32,305 versus $25,010 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,656. About 10.0% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.
Church Hill has one library, Church Hill Public Library, part of the Eastern Branch of the Hawkins County Library System. It was founded in 1952, was moved into a new building in 2007; the library serves over 6,000 patrons. Church Hill is home to the headquarters of the Ku Klos Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Five schools are located within Church Hill's city limits: Carter's Valley Elementary, Church Hill Elementary, Church Hill Middle School, Church Hill Intermediate and Volunteer High School. All fall under the Hawkins County Schools system. Church Hill has six parks: A. S. Derrick Park, Jaycees Park, J. W. Sally Park, S. L. Taylor Park, Bill Castle Park, Church Hill Skate Park; the city has one swimming pool, Church Hill Municipal Pool. The City of Church Hill, Town of Mount Carmel, Town of Surgoinsville have joined together to form a joint Recreation Department, they offer indoor/outdoor soccer, baseball and basketball. The city is governed by six aldermen; the city has a police department that provides animal control services and a fire department that handles public safety and fire emergencies.
Church Hill provides the community with trash pickup and ice removal and park maintenance services. Residents of the city obtain power services from Holston Electric Appalachian Power. Water services are provided by First Utility District of Hawkins County. Hawkins County Gas Utility provides natural gas services and internet and phone services are provided by Charter Communications or CenturyLink. Lloyd Carr, former football head coach for the University of Michigan was born in Church Hill, lived there as a child. Blake Leeper, 2012 U. S. Paralympian competing in track and field James Alan Shelton, bluegrass guitarist WMCH Media related to Church Hill, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons City of Church Hill official website MTAS entry for Church Hill
Flag of Hawkins County, Tennessee
The flag of Hawkins County, Tennessee, is the official flag of Hawkins County, Tennessee. It was designed by 15-year-old Dillon Barker, a local high school student, adopted by the Board of County Commissioners in 1999; the flag consists of a blue field and a Tennessee-style white and gold fly and is purposely modeled after the Tennessee state flag. The field bears six, golden stars; the stars represent the six incorporated municipalities of the county and are arranged as they would appear on a map. The county seal is trimmed in gold and placed within a white disc in the upper, hoist side of the flag; the gold bar is said to represent those. The seal of Hawkins County, was designed by the first Board of Trustees to govern the county after it transitioned from Spencer County, North Carolina, to Hawkins County, North Carolina, in 1787; the seal bears the all-seeing Eye of Providence. The year "1787" notes the year that the county's current name was established by the North Carolina General Assembly.
The county became a part of Tennessee in 1796. The flag was designed in 1999 by a fifteen-year-old student at Cherokee High School. Barker persuaded them to adopt the flag. Barker purposely based the flag on the Tennessee flag and designed the flag to represent the towns of the county as they would appear on a map; the resolution approving the flag's design was adopted unanimously, but no action was taken on procuring or raising it. In June 2008, a member of the Board of County Commissioners, Linda Kimbro, placed a resolution before the Board to procure the flag and fly it from the flagpole at the Hawkins County Courthouse in downtown Rogersville; the resolution, after some debate, was approved, Hawkins County Mayor Crockett Lee had the flag made for the first time. It was flown for the first time at the Courthouse in Rogersville during the Raising of the Colors Ceremony at Heritage Days on October 10, 2009. Brown, LeSaundra. "East Tennessee community gets new county flag". WBIR.com. Retrieved August 30, 2009.
Bobo, Jeff. "Hawkins considers having county flag made, displayed". Kingsport Times-News. Retrieved August 30, 2009. Flags of the World entry on the Flag of Hawkins County
Johnson City, Tennessee
Johnson City is a city in Washington and Sullivan counties in the U. S. state of Tennessee, with most of the city being in Washington County. As of the 2010 census, the population of Johnson City was 63,152, by 2017 the estimated population was 66,391, making it the ninth-largest city in the state. Johnson City is ranked the #65 "Best Small Place for Business and Careers" in the US by Forbes, #5 in Kiplinger's list of "The 10 Least-Expensive Cities For Living in the U. S. A." stating the low cost of living is attributed to affordable homes and below-average utility and health-care costs. Johnson City is the principal city of the Johnson City Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Carter and Washington counties and had a combined population of 200,966 as of 2013; the MSA is a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region. This CSA is the fifth-largest in Tennessee with an estimated 500,538 people in residence. William Bean, traditionally recognized as Tennessee's first colonizer, built his cabin along Boone's Creek near Johnson City in 1769.
In the 1780s, Colonel John Tipton established a farm just outside. During the State of Franklin movement, Tipton was a leader of the loyalist faction, residents of the region who wanted to remain part of North Carolina rather than form a separate state. In February 1788, an armed engagement took place at Tipton's farm between Tipton and his men and the forces led by John Sevier, the leader of the Franklin faction. Founded in 1856 by Henry Johnson as a railroad station called "Johnson's Depot", Johnson City became a major rail hub for the Southeast, as three railway lines crossed in the downtown area. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Johnson City served as headquarters for the narrow gauge East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad and the standard gauge Clinchfield Railroad. Both rail systems featured excursion trips through scenic portions of the Blue Ridge Mountains and were engineering marvels of railway construction; the Southern Railway passes through the city. During the American Civil War, before it was formally incorporated in 1869, the name of the town was changed to "Haynesville" in honor of Confederate Senator Landon Carter Haynes.
Henry Johnson's name was restored following the war, with Johnson elected as the city's first mayor on January 3, 1870. The town grew from 1870 until 1890 as railroad and mining interests flourished. However, the national depression of 1893, which caused many railway failures and a resulting financial panic, halted Johnson City's boom town momentum. In 1901, the Mountain Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Mountain Home, Tennessee was created by an act of Congress introduced by Walter P. Brownlow. Construction on this 450-acre campus, designed to serve disabled Civil War veterans, was completed in 1903 at a cost of $3 million. Before the completion of this facility, the assessed value of the entire town was listed at $750,000; the East Tennessee State Normal School was authorized in 1911 and the new college campus directly across from the National Soldiers Home. Johnson City began growing and became the fifth-largest city in Tennessee by 1930. Together with neighboring Bristol, Johnson City was a hotbed for old-time music.
It hosted noteworthy Columbia Records recording sessions in 1928 known as the Johnson City Sessions. Native son "Fiddlin' Charlie" Bowman became a national recording star via these sessions; the Fountain Square area in downtown featured a host of local and traveling street entertainers including Blind Lemon Jefferson. During the 1920s and the Prohibition era, Johnson City's ties to the bootlegging activity of the Appalachian Mountains earned the city the nickname of "Little Chicago". Stories persist that the town was one of several distribution centers for Chicago gang boss Al Capone during Prohibition. Capone had a well-organized distribution network within the southern United States for alcohol smuggling. Capone was, according to local lore, a part-time resident of Montrose Court, a luxury apartment complex now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. For many years, the city had a municipal "privilege tax" on carnival shows, in an attempt to dissuade traveling circuses and other transient entertainment businesses from doing business in town.
The use of drums by merchants to draw attention to their goods is prohibited. Title Six, Section 106 of the city's municipal code, the so-called "Barney Fife" ordinance, empowers the city's police force to draft into involuntary service as many of the town's citizens as necessary to aid police in making arrests and in preventing or quelling any riot, unlawful assembly or breach of peace. Johnson City is run by a five-person board of commissioners, who are as follows: Mayor: Jenny Brock Vice Mayor: Joe Wise Commissioner: Larry Calhoun Commissioner: Todd Fowler Commissioner: John HunterThe city manager is M. Denis "Pete" Peterson. Johnson City is in northeastern Washington County at 36°20′N 82°22′W, with smaller parts extending north into Sullivan County and east into Carter County. Johnson City shares a contiguous southeastern border with Elizabethton. Johnson City shares a small contiguous border with Kingsport to the far north along I-26 and a longer one with Bluff City to the northeast along US 11E.
According to t
Tennessee's 1st congressional district
The Tennessee 1st Congressional District is the congressional district of northeast Tennessee, including all of Carter, Greene, Hancock, Johnson, Sullivan and Washington counties and parts of Jefferson County and Sevier County. It is coextensive with the Tennessee portion of the Tri-Cities region of northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Cities and towns represented within the district include Blountville, Church Hill, Erwin, Johnson City, Kingsport, Mountain City, Pigeon Forge, Roan Mountain, Sneedville and Tusculum; the 1st District's seat in the U. S. House of Representatives has been held by Republicans since 1881; the district was created in 1805. The district's current Congressman, Phil Roe was first elected in 2008 after defeating one-term incumbent David Davis in the Republican primary The 1st has been a secure voting district for the Republican Party since the American Civil War, is one of only two ancestrally Republican districts in the state. Republicans have held the seat continuously since 1881 and for all but four years since 1859, while Democrats have held the congressional seat for all but eight years from when Andrew Jackson was first elected to the U.
S. House of Representatives in 1796 up to the term of Albert Galiton Watkins ending in 1859. Andrew Johnson, the seventeenth President of the United States, represented the district from 1843-1853; the 1st was one of four districts in Tennessee whose congressmen did not resign when Tennessee seceded from the Union in 1861. Thomas Amos Rogers Nelson was reelected as a Unionist to the Thirty-seventh Congress, but he was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D. C. and taken to Richmond. Nelson was paroled and returned home to Jonesborough, where he kept a low profile for the length of his term. Like the rest of East Tennessee, slavery was not as common in this area as the rest of the state due to its mountain terrain, dominated by small farms instead of plantations; the district was the home of the first abolitionist periodicals in the nation, The Manumission Intelligencer and The Emancipator, founded in Jonesborough by Elihu Embree in 1819. Due to these factors, this area supported the Union over the Confederacy in the Civil War, identified with the Republican Party after Tennessee was readmitted to the Union in 1867, electing candidates representing the Unionist Party—a merger of Republicans and pro-Union Democrats—both before and after the war.
This allegiance has continued through good times and bad since, with Republicans dominating every level of government. While a few Democratic pockets exist in the district's urban areas, they are not enough to sway the district; the district gives its congressmen long tenures in Washington. Only eight people have represented it since 1921. Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Political Graveyard database of Tennessee congressmen Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.