Government of West Virginia
The Government of West Virginia is modeled after the Government of the United States, with three branches: the executive, consisting of the Governor of West Virginia and the other elected constitutional officers. The capital and seat of government in West Virginia is the city of Charleston, located in the southwest area of the state. Like all states except Nebraska, West Virginia has a bicameral state legislature, the West Virginia Legislature; the lower house is the West Virginia House of Delegates and the upper house is the Senate. The West Virginia Legislature is a citizen's legislature or part-time legislature; the West Virginia Constitution imposes a limit of 60 calendar days the length of the regular session. Regular sessions of the Legislature commence on the second Wednesday of January of each year; the session may be extended by concurrent resolution adopted by a two-thirds vote of each house. The governor may call legislators to convene in special sessions whenever the governor deems one or more issues of state government in need of timely action by the Legislature.
The final day of the regular session includes last-minute legislation in order to meet a constitutionally-imposed deadline of midnight. Legislators do not make it a full-time occupation, but hold a full-time job in their community of residence; this differs from neighboring states such as Pennsylvania and Ohio, who have professional full-time legislatures. The House of Delegates has 100 members. All delegates are elected to two-year terms and are up for election in even-numbered years, elected from 67 districts that elect a varying number of members; the chief executive of West Virginia is the governor of West Virginia, elected to a four-year term at the same time as presidential elections. The governor is sworn in the January following the November election. A governor may only serve two consecutive terms. A governor may run for a third term. Democrat Jim Justice was elected governor in 2016. In addition to the governor, there are five other directly elected executive offices: Secretary of State of West Virginia West Virginia Attorney General West Virginia Commissioner of Agriculture Auditor Treasurer Regular elections are held concurrently with the election for governor every four years, but unlike the governor these offices have no term limits.
The state trial courts of general jurisdiction are the West Virginia Circuit Courts, There are 31 judicial circuits, each made up of one or more counties, with a total of 70 Circuit Judges. Domestic cases are handled by Family Courts. There are 27 Family Court Circuits with a total of 45 judges. Local judges are elected in partisan elections to serve eight-year terms on a partisan basis. Small claims and misdemeanor case are heard by magistrates elected for four years, with between two and ten in each county, based on population. Magistrates are not lawyers; the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals is the state supreme court. It purports itself to be the busiest appellate court of its type in the United States, in part because West Virginia is one of only 11 states to not have an intermediate appellate court; the Supreme Court of Appeals has five justices. Justices must have practiced law for at least ten years; the five justices are elected in partisan elections to 12-year terms. The current justices are Justice Brent Benjamin, Justice Robin Davis, Justice Margaret Workman, Justice Allen Loughry, Justice Menis Ketchum.
By tradition, the position of "Chief Justice" rotates yearly. It brings extra administrative duties. Most all members of the Supreme Court were impeached. From the 1930s through the 1990s, West Virginia's politics were dominated by the Democratic Party, Democrats still dominate most local and state offices. West Virginia has a strong tradition of trade union membership. In presidential elections, the state's electoral votes went to Democratic tradition by supporting Democrat Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, who won the state by large margins, but the state's five electoral votes went to George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004 and to John McCain in 2008; the most consistent support for Democrats is found in the coal fields of southern West Virginia, while Republicans find greatest success to the east of the Allegheny Mountains in the state's Eastern Panhandle, in the suburbs near Charleston and Huntington. In West Virginia, the county is the unit of government, although an unsuccessful attempt to introduce the township system was made in West Virginia's first constitution.
Each of the state's 55 counties have a county commission, consisting of three commissioners elected for six years but with terms so arranged that one retires every two years, the legislative and fiscal authority. The county commissions were called county courts before legal reform stripped the commissions of their judicial powers in 1976; the county commission still retains the judicial function as the probate court, however. Other offic
National Trails System
The National Trails System was created by the National Trails System Act, codified at 16 U. S. C. § 1241 et seq. The Act created a series of National trails "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." The Act authorized three types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails. The 1968 Act created two national scenic trails: the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest. In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, a fourth category of trail was added: the National Historic Trails. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. Of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. Today, the National Trails System consists of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails and over 1,000 National Recreation Trail and two connecting-and-side trails, with a total length of more than 50,000 miles.
These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving. As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by a federal agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service, or National Park Service. Two of the trails are jointly administered by the BLM and the NPS; these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites and viewsheds. More than not, they work in partnership with the states, local units of government, land trusts and private landowners, to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. All of the National Trails are supported by private non-profit organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System.
The Act is codified as 16 U. S. C. §§ 1241–1251. However, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most on October 18, 2004. National Scenic Trails are established to provide access to spectacular natural beauty and to allow the pursuit of healthy outdoor recreation; the National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east, on the Appalachian Trail, to the Rocky Mountains of the west on the Continental Divide Trail. These provide access to viewing the subtle beauties of the southern wetlands and Gulf Coast on the Florida Trail, wandering the North Woods from New York to North Dakota on the North Country Trail, or experiencing the vast diversity of landscapes of the southwest on the Arizona National Scenic Trail. Of the eleven national scenic trails, Natchez Trace, Potomac Heritage are official units of the NPS. National Historic Trails are designated to protect the remains of significant overland or water routes to reflect the history of the nation.
They represent the earliest travels across the continent on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. They commemorate the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans, on the Trail of Tears. There are 19 Historic Trails. Most of them are scenic routes instead of non-motorized trails. National Historic Trails were authorized under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, amending the National Trails System Act of 1968 The act established a category of trails known as connecting and side trails. To date, only two national side trails have been designated, both in 1990: The Timms Hill Trail, which connects the Ice Age Trail to Wisconsin's highest point, Timms Hill, the 86-mile Anvik Connector, which joins the Iditarod Trail to the village of Anvik, Alaska. Timms Hill Trail Anvik Connector The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail National Historic Trails Interpretive Center Recreational Trail Program Protected areas of the United States List of long-distance footpaths Long-distance trails in the United States Karen Berger, Bill McKibben & Bart Smith: America's Great Hiking Trails: Appalachian, Pacific Crest, Continental Divide, North Country, Ice Age, Potomac Heritage, Natchez Trace, Pacific Northwest, New England.
Rizzoli, 2014, ISBN 978-0789327413 About the Partnership for National Trails System PNTS Find a Trail Historic Trail Facts National Trails System Text of the National Trails System Act
Accessibility is the design of products, services, or environments for people with disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some entity; the concept focuses on enabling access for people with disabilities, or special needs, or enabling access through the use of assistive technology. Accessibility is not to be confused with usability, the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness and satisfaction in a specified context of use. Accessibility is related to universal design, the process of creating products that are usable by people with the widest possible range of abilities, operating within the widest possible range of situations; this is about making things accessible to all people. The disability rights movement advocates equal access to social and economic life which includes not only physical access but access to the same tools, services and facilities for which everyone pays.
Article 9 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities commits signatories to provide for full accessibility in their countries. While it is used to describe facilities or amenities to assist people with handicap impaired mobility, through the provision of facilities like wheelchair ramps, the term can extend include other types of disability. Accessible facilities therefore extend to areas such as Braille signage, audio signals at pedestrian crossings, walkway contours, website design and reading accessibility. Government mandates including Section 508, WCAG, DDA are all enforcing practices to standardize accessibility testing engineering in product development. Accessibility modifications may be required to enable persons with disabilities to gain access to education, transportation, recreation, or simply to exercise their right to vote. Various countries have legislation requiring physical accessibility which are: In the US, under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, new public and private business construction must be accessible.
Existing private businesses are required to increase the accessibility of their facilities when making any other renovations in proportion to the cost of the other renovations. The United States Access Board is "A Federal Agency Committed to Accessible Design for People with Disabilities." The Job Accommodation Network discusses accommodations for people with disabilities in the workplace. Many states in the US have their own disability laws. In Australia, the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 has numerous provisions for accessibility. In South Africa the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 2000 has numerous provisions for accessibility. In the UK, the Equality Act 2010 has numerous provisions for accessibility. In Sri Lanka, the Supreme Court, on 27 April 2011 gave a landmark order to boost the inherent right of disabled persons to have unhindered access to public buildings and facilities. In Norway, the Discrimination and Accessibility Act Diskriminerings- og tilgjengelighetsloven defines lack of accessibility as discrimination and obliges public authorities to implement universal design in their areas.
The Act refers to issue-specific legislation regarding accessibility in e.g. ICT, the built environment and education. In Canada, relevant federal legislation includes the Canadian Human Rights Act, the Employment Equity Act, the Canadian Labour Code. Legislation may be enacted on a state, provincial or local level. In Ontario, the Ontarians with Disabilities Act of 2001 is meant to "improve the identification and prevention of barriers faced by persons with disabilities..." The European Union, which has signed the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has adopted a European Disability Strategy for 2010-20. The Strategy includes the following goals, among others: devising policies for inclusive, high-quality education. A European Accessibility Act was proposed in late 2012; this Act would establish standards within member countries for accessible products and public buildings. The harmonization of accessibility standards within the EU "would facilitate the social integration of persons with disabilities and the elderly and their mobility across member states, thereby fostering the free movement principle".
Assistive technology is the creation of a new device that assists a person in completing a task that would otherwise be impossible. Some examples include new computer software programs like screen readers, inventions such as assistive listening devices, including hearing aids, traffic lights with a standard color code that enables colorblind individuals to understand the correct signal. Adaptive technology is the modifica
Charleston, West Virginia
Charleston is the most populous city in, the capital of, the U. S. state of West Virginia. Located at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha rivers, the population during the 2017 Census Estimate was 47,929; the Charleston metropolitan area as a whole had 214,406 residents. Charleston is the center of government and industry for Kanawha County, of which it is the county seat. Early industries important to Charleston included the first natural gas well. Coal became central to economic prosperity in the city and the surrounding area. Today, utilities, government and education play central roles in the city's economy; the first permanent settlement, Ft. Lee, was built in 1788. In 1791, Daniel Boone was a member of the Kanawha County Assembly. Charleston is the home of the West Virginia Power minor league baseball team, the West Virginia Wild minor league basketball team, the annual 15-mile Charleston Distance Run. Yeager Airport and the University of Charleston are in the city. West Virginia University, Marshall University, West Virginia State University have campuses in the area.
After the American Revolutionary War, pioneers began making their way out from the early settlements. Many migrated into the western part of Virginia. Capitalizing on its many resources made Charleston an important part of Virginia and West Virginia history. Today, Charleston is the largest city in the state capital. Charleston's history goes back to the 18th century. Thomas Bullitt was deeded 1,250 acres of land near the mouth of the Elk River in 1773, it was inherited by his brother, Cuthbert Bullitt, upon his death in 1778, sold to Col. George Clendenin in 1786; the first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1787 by Col. Savannah Clendenin and his company of Virginia Rangers; this structure occupied the area, now the intersection of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard. Historical conjecture indicates that Charleston is named after Charles. Charles Town was shortened to Charleston to avoid confusion with another Charles Town in eastern West Virginia, named after George Washington's brother Charles.
Six years the Virginia General Assembly established Charleston. On the 40 acres that made up the town in 1794, 35 people inhabited seven houses. Charleston is part of Kanawha County; the origin of the word Kanawha, "Kanawha", derives from the region's Iroquois dialects meaning "water way" or "Canoe Way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. It is the name of the river that flows through Charleston; the grammar of the "hard H" sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languages developed West Virginia. The phrase has been a matter of Register. In fact, a two-story jail was the first county structure built, with the first floor dug into the bank of the Kanawha River. Daniel Boone, commissioned a lieutenant colonel of the Kanawha County militia, was elected to serve in 1791 in the Virginia House of Delegates; as told in historical accounts, Boone walked all the way to Richmond. By the early 19th century, salt brines were discovered along the Kanawha River and the first salt well was drilled in 1806.
This created great economic growth for the area. By 1808, 1,250 pounds of salt were being produced a day. An area adjacent to Charleston, Kanawha Salines, now Malden, would become the top salt producer in the world. In 1818, Kanawha Salt Company, first trust in United States, went into operation. Captain James Wilson, while drilling for salt, struck the first natural gas well in 1815, it was drilled at the site, now the junction of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard In 1817, coal was first discovered and became used as the fuel for the salt works. The Kanawha salt industry declined in importance after 1861, until the onset of World War I brought a demand for chemical products; the chemicals needed were sodium hydroxide, which could be made from salt brine. The town continued to grow until the Civil War began in 1861; the state of Virginia seceded from the Union, Charleston was divided between Union and Confederate loyalty. On September 13, 1862, the Union and Confederate Armies met in the Battle of Charleston.
Although the Confederate States Army was victorious, occupation of the city was short-lived. Union troops returned just six weeks and stayed through the end of the war; the Northern hold on Charleston and most of the western part of Virginia created an larger problem. Virginia had seceded from the Union, but the western part was under Union control; the issue of statehood was raised. So amid the tumultuous Civil War, West Virginia became a state through Presidential Proclamation. Abraham Lincoln declared the northwestern portion of Virginia to be returned to the Union, on June 20, 1863, West Virginia became the 35th state. In addition to the issue of slavery, West Virginia was driven to separate from Virginia for economic reasons; the heavy industries in the North the steel business of the upper Ohio River region, were dependent on the coal available from western Virginia mines. Federalized military units were dispatched from Ohio to western Virginia early in the war to secure access to the coal mines and transportation resources.
Although the state now existed, settling on a state capital location proved to be difficult. For several years, the capital of West Virginia intermittently traveled between Wheeling and Charleston. In 1877, state citizens voted on the final location of their capital. Charleston received 41,243 votes, Clarksburg received 29,44
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WebCite offered interfaces to scholarly journals and publishers to automate the archiving of cited links. By 2008, over 200 journals had begun using WebCite. WebCite used to be, but is no longer, a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium. In a 2012 message on Twitter, Eysenbach commented that "WebCite has no funding, IIPC charges €4000 per year in annual membership fees."WebCite "feeds its content" to other digital preservation projects, including the Internet Archive. Lawrence Lessig, an American academic who writes extensively on copyright and technology, used WebCite in his amicus brief in the Supreme Court of the United States case of MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd. WebCite ran a fund-raising campaign using FundRazr from January 2013 with a target of $22,500, a sum which its operators stated was needed to maintain and modernize the service beyond the end of 2013; this includes relocating the service to legal support. As of 2013 it remained undecided whether WebCite would continue as a non-profit or as a for-profit entity.
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New River (Kanawha River tributary)
The New River is a river which flows through the U. S. states of North Carolina and West Virginia before joining with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River at the town of Gauley Bridge, West Virginia. Part of the Ohio River watershed, it is about 360 miles long; the origins of the name are unclear. Possibilities include being a new river, not on the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, an Indian name meaning "new waters", or the surname of an early settler. Despite its name, the New River is one of the five oldest rivers in the world geologically; this low-level crossing of the Appalachians, many millions of years old, has long been a biogeographical corridor allowing numerous species of plants and animals to spread between the lowlands of the American East Coast and those of the Midwest. Portions of this corridor are now used by various railroads and highways, some segments of the river have been dammed for hydroelectric power production; the New River Gorge is not only quite scenic, but offers numerous opportunities for white-water recreation such as rafting and kayaking.
Many open ledges along the rim of the gorge offer popular views, with favorites including Hawks Nest State Park and various overlooks on lands of the New River Gorge National River. The New River Gorge and the U. S. 19 bridge crossing it are shown on the West Virginia State Quarter, minted in 2005. This ancient river begins in the mountains of North Carolina near the Tennessee state line, flows northeastward across the Blue Ridge Mountains, Great Appalachian Valley and Valley Province, the Allegheny Front in western North Carolina and Virginia, before turning and following a more northwestward course into West Virginia, where it cuts through the Appalachian Plateau to meet the Gauley River and become the Kanawha River in south-central West Virginia; the Kanawha flows into the Ohio River at Point Pleasant, West Virginia. Much of the river's course is lined with steep cliffs and rock outcrops in its gorge in West Virginia; the New River is formed by the confluence of the South Fork New River and the North Fork New River on the Ashe County-Alleghany County line in North Carolina.
It flows through Alleghany County into southwestern Virginia, passing near Galax, Virginia. It is impounded by three small dams between Galax and Ivanhoe: at Fries, by Byllesby Dam, by Buck Dam. Continuing north, the river enters Pulaski County, where it is impounded by Claytor Dam, creating Claytor Lake. North of the dam the New River accepts the Little River and passes the city of Radford, Virginia before passing through Walker Mountain via a narrow water gap. After flowing north through Giles County and the town of Narrows, the river crosses into West Virginia; the New River is impounded by Bluestone Dam, creating Bluestone Lake in Summers County, West Virginia. The Bluestone River tributary joins the New River in Bluestone Lake. Just below the dam the Greenbrier River joins the New River, which continues its northward course into the New River Gorge. Near the end of the gorge the river flows by the town of West Virginia. A few miles northwest of Fayetteville, much of the New River's flow is diverted through the 3-mile Hawks Nest Tunnel for use in power generation.
The water re-enters the river just upstream of Gauley Bridge, where the New merges with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River. The Kanawha is a tributary of the Ohio River. Few highways cross the gorge, with the most dramatic bridge by far being the New River Gorge Bridge on U. S. 19, a steel arch bridge spanning 1,700 feet, with the roadway 876 feet above the average level of the river. This structure is the third-longest single-arch bridge in the world, is the world's twenty-third-highest vehicular bridge, the fourth highest in the Americas; the New River is considered by some geologists to be one of the oldest rivers in the world. And one of the oldest rivers in North America; the New River flows in a south-to-north course, at times cutting across the southwest-to-northeast-trending ridges and geological texture of the Appalachian Mountains, flows directly across the Appalachian Plateau, contrasting with the west-to-east flow of most other major rivers to the east and northeast in Virginia and North Carolina, on the west side of the Appalachians on the Plateau.
It may have been in its present course for at least 65 million years. In the geologic past, the New River was a much longer stream. Geologists have named it the Teays; the last advance of Pleistocene continental glacial ice buried most of this river. At that time, the waters of the New were diverted into rivers created by the glaciers. On its journey through the New River Gorge, the New River passes through an extensive geological formation. Emergent rocks, rock outcrops and coal mines are found to provide diverse habitat producing rich and abundant flora and fauna species. In the gorge, there is a 1000 feet difference in elevation between the river bottom and the adjacent plateau; the New River dissects all physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Mountains, therefore is believed to be a corridor facilitating the movement of southern plant and animal species into West Virginia. In addition to serving as a refuge for some species, New River Gorge provides a geographical barrier that limits the east-west distribution of other species.
Because the New River is so old, its habitats and wildlife have been able to achieve a form of stability. Millions of years of available passage have allowed many species
Fayette County, West Virginia
Fayette County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,039, its county seat is Fayetteville. It is part of WV Metropolitan Statistical Area in Southern West Virginia. Fayette County—originally Fayette County, Virginia—was created by the Virginia General Assembly in February 1831, from parts of Greenbrier, Kanawha and Logan counties, it was named in honor of the Marquis de la Fayette, who had played a key role assisting the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. The second Virginia county so named, it was among the 50 counties which Virginia lost when West Virginia was admitted to the Union as the 35th state in 1863, during the American Civil War; the earlier Fayette County, Virginia existed from 1780 to 1792, was lost when Kentucky was admitted to the Union. Accordingly, in the government records of Virginia, there will be listings for Fayette County from 1780–1792 and Fayette County from 1831–1863. A substantial portion was subdivided from Fayette County to form Raleigh County in 1850.
In 1871, an Act of the West Virginia Legislature severed a small portion to form part of Summers County. Fayette County was home to a disastrous mine explosion at Red Ash in March 1900, in which 46 miners were killed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 668 square miles, of which 662 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. Plum Orchard Lake, a reservoir southwest of Oak Hill, is the second largest lake in West Virginia. Nicholas County Greenbrier County Summers County Raleigh County Kanawha County Gauley River National Recreation Area New River Gorge National River As of the census of 2000, there were 47,579 people, 18,945 households, 13,128 families residing in the county; the population density was 72 people per square mile. There were 21,616 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.74% White, 5.57% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races.
0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,945 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.70% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,788, the median income for a family was $30,243. Males had a median income of $28,554 versus $18,317 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,809.
About 18.20% of families and 21.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.90% of those under age 18 and 13.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,039 people, 18,813 households, 12,459 families residing in the county; the population density was 69.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,618 housing units at an average density of 32.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.5% white, 4.6% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.9% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 10.8% were English, 9.5% were American. Of the 18,813 households, 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 43.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $31,912 and the median income for a family was $42,077. Males had a median income of $39,301 versus $24,874 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,082. About 16.4% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.9% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. Fayette County’s political history is typical of West Virginia as a whole; the county leaned Democratic during the Third Party System before the power of industrial and mining political systems turned it towards the Republican Party between 1880 and 1932. Unionization of its predominant coal mining workforce during the New Deal made the county powerfully Democratic between 1932 and 2008: no Republican in this period except Richard Nixon against the leftist George McGovern won forty percent of the county’s vote, Lyndon Johnson in 1964 exceeded eighty percent against the conservative Barry Goldwater.
However, the decline of mining unions and the out-migration of historical black mining families, has produced a rapid swing to the Republican Party – so that over the past three presidential elections swings to the Republican Party have averaged thirty percentage points and Democratic vote percentages plummeted to levels more typical of Unionist, traditionally Republican counties like Morgan or Upshur. The county has a tradition of coal mining, which still serves as a primary source of employment i