The Inland Empire is a metropolitan area and region in Southern California. The term may be used to refer to the cities of western Riverside County and southwestern San Bernardino County, sometimes including the desert communities of Palm Springs and the rest of the Coachella Valley; the U. S. Census Bureau-defined Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan area, which comprises Riverside County and San Bernardino County, covers more than 27,000 sq mi and has a population of 4 million. Most of the area's population is located in southwestern San Bernardino County and northwestern Riverside County. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Inland Empire was a major center of agriculture, including citrus and winemaking. However, agriculture declined through the twentieth century, since the 1970s a growing population, fed by families migrating in search of affordable housing, has led to more residential and commercial development; the term "Inland Empire" is documented to have been used by the Riverside Enterprise newspaper as early as April 1914.
Developers in the area introduced the term to promote the region and to highlight the area's unique features. The "Inland" part of the name is derived from the region's location, about 60 miles inland from Los Angeles and the Pacific Ocean; this area was called the Orange Empire due to the acres of citrus groves that once extended from Pasadena to Redlands during the first half of the twentieth century. The Inland Empire is a nebulous region, but is defined as the cities of western Riverside County and the cities of southwestern San Bernardino County. A broader definition will include the desert community of Palm Springs and its surrounding area, a much larger definition will include all of San Bernardino and Riverside counties. What is now known as the Inland Empire was inhabited for thousands of years, prior to the late eighteenth century, by the Tongva and Cahuilla Native Americans. With Spanish colonization and the subsequent Mexican era the area was sparsely populated at the land grant Ranchos, considering it unsuitable for missions.
The first American settlers, a group of Mormon pioneers, arrived over the Cajon Pass in 1851. Although the Mormons left a scant six years recalled to Salt Lake City by Brigham Young during the church's Utah War with the US government, other settlers soon followed; the entire landmass of Southern California was subdivided according to the San Bernardino Meridian, first plotted as part of the Public Land Survey System in November 1852, by Col. Henry Washington. Base Line road, a major thoroughfare, today runs from Highland to San Dimas, intermittently along the absolute baseline coordinates plotted by Col. Washington. San Bernardino County was first formed out of parts of Los Angeles County on April 26, 1853. While the partition once included what is today most of Riverside County, the region is not as monolithic as it may sound. Rivalries between Colton, Redlands and San Bernardino over the location of the county seat in the 1890s caused each of them to form their own civic communities, each with their own newspapers.
On August 14, 1893, the state Senate allowed Riverside County to form out of land in San Bernardino and San Diego counties, after rejecting a bill for Pomona to split from L. A. County and become the seat of; the arrival of rail and the importation of navel and Valencia orange trees in the 1870s touched off explosive growth, with the area becoming a major center for citrus production. This agricultural boom continued with the arrival of water from the Colorado River and the rapid growth of Los Angeles in the early twentieth century, with dairy farming becoming another staple industry. In 1926, Route 66 came through the northern parts of the area, bringing a stream of tourists and migrants to the region. Still, the region endured as the key part of the Southern California "citrus belt" until the end of World War II, when a new generation of real-estate developers bulldozed acres of agricultural land to build suburbs; the precursor to the San Bernardino Freeway, the Ramona Expressway, was built in 1944, further development of the freeway system in the area facilitated the expansion of suburbs and human migration throughout the Inland Empire and Southern California.
The region experienced significant economic and population growth through most of the latter half of the twentieth century. In the early 1990s, the loss of the region's military bases and reduction of nearby defense industries due to the end of the Cold War led to a local economic downturn; the region as a whole had recovered from this downturn by the start of the twenty-first century through the development of warehousing, shipping and retail industries centered around Ontario. However, these industries have been affected by the Great Recession. Physical boundaries between Los Angeles and the Inland Empire from west to east are the San Jose Hills splitting the San Gabriel Valley from the Pomona Valley, leading to the urban populations centered in the San Bernardino Valley. From the south to north, the Santa Ana Mountains physically divide Orange County from San Bernardino and Riverside Counties; the Santa Rosa Mountains, as well as the Southern California portion of the Sonoran Desert, physically divide Riverside County from San Diego County.
Some definitions for the IE consist of the Chino Valley, Coachella Valley, Cucamonga Valley, Menifee Valley, Murrieta Valley, Perris V
Tesla, Inc. is an American automotive and energy company based in Palo Alto, California. The company specializes in electric car manufacturing and, through its SolarCity subsidiary, solar panel manufacturing, it operates multiple production and assembly plants, notably Gigafactory 1 near Reno and its main vehicle manufacturing facility at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. As of March 2019, Tesla sells the Model S, Model 3, Model X, Model Y, Roadster and Semi vehicles and Powerpack batteries, solar panels, solar roof tiles, some related products. Tesla was founded in July 2003, by engineers Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning, under the name Tesla Motors; the company's name was derived from engineer Nikola Tesla. In early Series A funding, Tesla Motors was joined by Elon Musk, J. B. Straubel and Ian Wright, all of whom are retroactively allowed to call themselves co-founders of the company. Musk, who served as chairman and is the current chief executive officer, said that he envisioned Tesla Motors as a technology company and independent automaker, aimed at offering electric cars at prices affordable to the average consumer.
Tesla Motors shortened its name to Tesla in February 2017. After 10 years in the market, Tesla ranked as the world's best selling plug-in passenger car manufacturer in 2018, both as a brand and by automotive group, with 245,240 units delivered and a market share of 12% of the plug-in segment sales. Tesla vehicle sales in the U. S. increased by 280% from 48,000 in 2017 to 182,400 in 2018, globally were up by 138% from 2017. Tesla Motors was incorporated in July 2003 by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning who financed the company until the Series A round of funding; the founders were influenced to start the company after GM recalled all its EV1 electric cars in 2003 and destroyed them. Elon Musk led the Series A round of investment in February 2004, joining Tesla's board of directors as its chairman. Tesla's primary goal was to commercialize electric vehicles, starting with a premium sports car aimed at early adopters and moving into more mainstream vehicles, including sedans and affordable compacts.
Musk oversaw Roadster product design at a detailed level. In addition to his daily operational roles, Musk was the controlling investor in Tesla from the first financing round, funding $6.5M the Series A capital investment round of US$7.5 million with personal funds. Musk led Tesla Motors' Series B, $9M of US$13 million, co-led the third, $12M of US$40 million round in May 2006. Tesla's third round included investment from prominent entrepreneurs including Google co-founders Sergey Brin & Larry Page, former eBay President Jeff Skoll, Hyatt heir Nick Pritzker and added the VC firms Draper Fisher Jurvetson, Capricorn Management and The Bay Area Equity Fund managed by JPMorgan Chase; the fourth round in May 2007 added another US$45 million and brought the total investments to over US$105 million through private financing. Tesla aims to change the automotive industry by creating many innovative pieces, its marketing, production and technology strategies all are notably different from its competitors.
Tesla's automotive strategy is to emulate typical technological-product life cycles and target affluent buyers. It moved into larger markets at lower price points; the battery and electric drivetrain technology for each model would be developed and paid for through the sales of earlier models. The Roadster was low-volume and priced at US$109,000. Model S and Model X targeted the broader luxury market. Model 3 is aimed at a higher-volume segment; this business strategy is common in the technology industry. According to a Musk blog post, "New technology in any field takes a few versions to optimize before reaching the mass market, in this case it is competing with 150 years and trillions of dollars spent on gasoline cars."Tesla's production strategy includes a high degree of vertical integration, which includes component production and proprietary charging infrastructure. The company operates enormous factories to capture economies of scale. Tesla builds electric powertrain components for vehicles from other automakers, including the Smart ED2 ForTwo electric drive, the Toyota RAV4 EV, Freightliner's Custom Chassis Electric Van.
Vertical integration is rare in the automotive industry, where companies outsource 80% of components to suppliers, focus on engine manufacturing and final assembly. Tesla's sales strategy is to sell its vehicles online and in company-owned showrooms rather than through a conventional dealer network. Moving towards an e-commerce strategy, customers are able to customize and order their vehicles online. Tesla's technology strategy focuses on pure-electric propulsion technology, transferring other approaches from the technology industry to transportation, such as online software updates. Tesla allows its technology patents to be used by anyone in good faith. Licensing agreements include provisions whereby the recipient agrees not to file patent suits against Tesla, or to copy its designs directly. Tesla retained control of its other intellectual property, such as trademarks and trade secrets to prevent direct copying of its technology. Tesla Human Resources VP Arnnon Geshuri committed to bringing manufacturing jobs "back to California".
In 2015, Geshuri led a hiring surge about which he said: "In the last 14 months we've had 1.5 million applications from around the world. People want to work here." Geshuri emphasizes hiring veterans, saying "Veterans are a great source of talent for Tesla, we're going after it."
Northrop F-89 Scorpion
The Northrop F-89 Scorpion was an American all-weather interceptor built during the 1950s, the first jet-powered aircraft designed for that role from the outset to enter service. Though its straight wings limited its performance, it was among the first United States Air Force jet fighters equipped with guided missiles and notably the first combat aircraft armed with air-to-air nuclear weapons; the Scorpion stemmed from a United States Army Air Forces Air Technical Service Command specification for a night fighter to replace the P-61 Black Widow. The preliminary specification, sent to aircraft manufacturers on 28 August 1945, required two engines and an armament of six guns, either.60-caliber machine guns or 20-millimeter autocannon. The revised specification was issued on 23 November; the aircraft was to be armed with aerial rockets stored internally and six guns split between two flexible mounts, four guns forward and two in the rear. Each mount had to be capable of 15° of movement from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.
Each mount's guns were to be automatically controlled by radar. For ground attack, it had to be capable of carrying 1,000-pound bombs and to be able to carry a minimum of eight rockets externally. Bell Aircraft, Consolidated-Vultee, Douglas Aircraft, Goodyear and Curtiss-Wright all submitted proposals. In March 1946, the USAAF selected the Curtiss-Wright XP-87, adapted from their proposed XA-43 attack aircraft, Northrop's N-24 design, one of four submitted by the company; the N-24, designed by Jack Northrop, was a slim-bodied swept-wing aircraft with a two-man pressurized cockpit and conventional landing gear. To reduce drag, the two Allison J35 turbojet engines were buried in the lower fuselage, directly behind their air intakes, they exhausted underneath the rear fuselage; the horizontal stabilizer was mounted just above the junction of the vertical stabilizer with the fuselage and had some dihedral. A contract for two aircraft, now designated the XP-89, a full-scale mock-up was approved on 13 June, although construction of the mock-up had begun after the USAAF announced that the N-24 had been selected.
It was inspected on 25 September, the USAAF was not impressed. The inspectors believed that the radar operator needed to be moved forward, closer to the pilot, with both crewmen under a single canopy, the magnesium components of the wing replaced by aluminum, the fuel stowage directly above the engines moved. Other changes had to be made as wind tunnel and other aerodynamic tests were conducted; the swept wings proved to be less satisfactory at low speeds, a thin straight wing was selected instead. Delivery of the first prototype was scheduled for November 14 months after the inspection; the position of the horizontal stabilizer proved to be unsatisfactory, as it was affected by the engine exhaust, it would be "blanked-out" by airflow from the wing at high angles of attack. It was moved halfway up the tail, but its position flush with the leading edge of the vertical stabilizer proved to cause extra drag through turbulence and reduced the effectiveness of the elevators and rudder. Moving the horizontal stabilizer forward solved the problem.
Another major change occurred when USAAF revised its specification to delete the rear gun installation on 8 October. Another inspection of the mock-up was held on 17 December, the inspectors only suggested minor changes though the fuselage fuel tanks were still above the engines. Northrop's efforts to protect the fuel tanks were considered sufficient, as the only alternative was to redesign the entire aircraft; the XP-89 had a thin, mid-mounted wing and a crew of two, seated in tandem. The slim rear fuselage and the high-mounted horizontal stabilizer led Northrop employees calling it the Scorpion—a name formally adopted by the Air Force; the intended armament of four 20 mm M-24 cannon in a small nose turret was not ready when the XP-89 was completed in 1948. Pending the availability of either of the two turrets under development, an interim six-gun fixed installation, with 200 rounds per gun, was designed for the underside of the nose; the thin wing had an aspect ratio of 5.88, a thickness-to-chord ratio of 9% and used a NACA 0009-64 section, selected for its low drag at high speed and stability at low speeds.
A further advantage of the straight wing was that it could accommodate heavy weights at the wingtips. The wing could not fit the circular-type ailerons used in the P-61, so Northrop used the "decelerons" designed for the unsuccessful XP-79 prototype; these were clamshell-style split ailerons, which could be used as conventional ailerons, as dive brakes, or function as flaps as needed. All flying surfaces, the flaps and the landing gear were hydraulically powered; the thin wing dictated tall, high-pressure mainwheel tires, while the low height of the fuselage required the use of dual wheels for the nose gear. The terms of the initial contract were revised and formalized on 21 May 1947 with the price increased to $5,571,111; the delivery date of the first aircraft was scheduled 14 months from signing and the second 2 months after that. A month before the prototype made its first flight on 16 August 1948 at Muroc Army Air Field, the USAF changed its designation for fighter aircraft from "P" to "F".
The XF-89 was fitted with 4,000 lbf J-35-A-9 turbojets and proved to be underpowered. Initial flights were made with conventional ailerons, decelerons not being installed until Dece
Air Force Historical Research Agency
The Air Force Historical Research Agency is the repository for United States Air Force historical documents. The Agency's collection, begun during World War II in Washington, D. C. and moved in 1949 to Maxwell Air Force Base, the site of Air University, to provide research facilities for professional military education students, the faculty, visiting scholars, the general public. The U. S Air Force History Office in Bolling Air Force Base Building 5681 in Washington, D. C. houses microfilm copies of archival materials in the United States Air Force Historical Research Center at Maxwell Air Force Base. Published guides of the collection include the Air Force Historical Archives Document Classification Guide, Personal Papers in the USAF Historical Research Center compiled.by Richard E. Morse and Thomas C. Lobenstein, U. S. Air Force Oral History Catalog, the United States Air Force History: A Guide to Documentary Sources. Holdings include published and unpublished reports and oral histories on topics including: Col. Bernt Balchen correspondence and articles on polar regions BRIG.
GEN. William N. Best Air Force oral history program interview No. 717. GEOPHYSICS IN CONNECTION WITH THE "INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE QUIET SUN" 1964-65 GERMAN METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE, WORLD WAR II report on its organization and responsibilities to the Luftwaffe. 1944. 400TH AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS GROUP. History, 1963-73. AIR WEATHER SERVICE history, 1945-46. AIR WEATHER SERVICE history, 1966-67. ARMY AIR FORCES TRAINING COMMAND history of the weather training program, 1939-1945. CLIMATE AND WEATHER MODIFICATION Air Force History Narrative. EASTERN TECHNICAL TRAINING COMMAND contract meteorology schools report on the experiment ato train Air Force Weather Officers, 1944 FIFTH AIR FORCE, history of participation in Project Grayback 1955 METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE PROGRAM, STUDY OF METEOROLOGY AFFECTING ALMOST EVERY PHASE OF AIR FORCE OPERATIONS, 1961. THIRTEENTH AIR FORCE, history of participation in Project 119-L, which provided for a worldwide meteorological survey between 1 Nov. 1955 and 1 April 1956 GEN Curtis Lemay correspondence on meteorology.
METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS DURING MILITARY OPERATIONS. 1942–present. METEOROLOGICAL EQUIPMENT FOR POLAR ICE PACK STATION. METEOROLOGICAL SOUNDING SYSTEM, AF Global Weather Central. METEOROLOGICAL SURVEY, an aerial photography of Western Europe, etc. 1945. METEOROLOGISTS TO THE BALLOON CORPS, National Association of American Balloon Corps Veterans. Air University Maxwell Air Force Base History of the United States Air Force Fairchild Memorial Hall Air Force History and Museums Program Air Force Historical Research Agency Army Air Forces Research Help Air Force History Support Office U. S. Air Force Museum
Los Angeles Unified School District
The Los Angeles Unified School District is the largest public school system in the U. S. state of California and the 2nd largest public school district in the United States. Only the New York City Department of Education has a larger student population. During the 2016–2017 school year, LAUSD served around 734,641 students, including 107,142 students at independent charter schools and 69,867 adult students. During the same school year, it had 33,635 other employees, it is the second largest employer in Los Angeles County, after the county government. The total school district operating budget for 2016–2017 is $7.59 billion. The school district consists of Los Angeles and all or portions of several adjoining Southern California cities. LAUSD has its own police force, the Los Angeles School Police Department, established in 1948 to provide police services for LAUSD schools; the LAUSD enrolls a third of the preschoolers in Los Angeles County, operates as many buses as the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
The LAUSD school construction program rivals the Big Dig in terms of expenditures, LAUSD cafeterias serve about 500,000 meals a day, rivaling the output of local McDonald's restaurants. The LAUSD has been criticized in the past for crowded schools with large class sizes, high drop-out and expulsion rates, low academic performance in many schools, poor maintenance and incompetent administration. In 2007, LAUSD's dropout rate was 26 percent for grades 9 through 12, but more there are signs that the district is showing improvement, both in terms of dropout and graduation rates. An ambitious renovation program intended to help ease the overcrowded conditions has been completed; as part of its school-construction project, LAUSD opened two high schools in 2005 and four high schools in 2006. Los Angeles Unified School District is governed by a seven-member Board of Education, which appoints a superintendent, who runs the daily operations of the district. Members of the board are elected directly by voters from separate districts that encompass communities that the LAUSD serves.
The district's current superintendent is Austin Beutner. The district's former superintendents are Ramon Cortines; the Board of Education selected King for superintendent in January 2016. Vivian Ekchian became acting superintendent until the Board election of Beutner in May 2018. Cortines was appointed acting superintendent after the school board decided to buy out the contract of David L. Brewer III, a former Navy Vice-Admiral who served as head of the Navy's Education and Training Division and was in charge of the SeaLift Command. From 2001 until his retirement in October 2006, the district was led by former Governor of Colorado and Democratic Party chairman Roy Romer; the six current members of Board of Education include George McKenna, Board President Monica Garcia, Scott Schmerelson, Board Vice President Nick Melvoin, Kelly Fitzpatrick-Gonez, Richard Vladovic. District 5 is vacant following the resignation of Dr. Ref Rodriguez in July 2018. In the March 2015 Los Angeles City Council and School Board elections, voters approved Charter Amendment 2, which allows the Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education to change their election dates to even-numbered years.
It will take effect with the March 2020 Primary election and the runoff in November 2020. Every LAUSD household or residential area is zoned to an elementary school, a middle school and a high school, in one of the eight local school districts; each local school district is run by an area superintendent and is headquartered within the district. The Los Angeles Unified School District was once composed of two separate districts: the Los Angeles City School District, formed on September 19, 1853, the Los Angeles City High School District, formed in 1890; the latter provided 9–12 educational services, while the former did so for K-8. On July 1, 1961 the Los Angeles City School District and the Los Angeles City High School District merged, forming the Los Angeles Unified School District. On January 31, 1957, a DC7B crashed into the schoolyard of Pacoima Junior High School in Pacoima in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California following a midair collision with a US military plane, resulting in the deaths of the four crew members aboard the DC-7B, the pilot of the Scorpion jet, two students on the ground, a third died three days later.
Additionally seventy-eight students suffered injuries which ranged from minor to life-threatening. The annexation left the Topanga School District and the Las Virgenes Union School District as separate remnants of the high school district; the high school district changed its name to the West County Union High School District. LAUSD annexed the Topanga district on July 1, 1962. Since the Las Virgenes Union School District had the same boundary as the remaining West County Union High School District, on July 1, 1962 West County ceased to exist. In 1963, a lawsuit, Crawford v. Board of Ed. of Los Angeles was filed to end segregation in the district. The California Supreme Court required the district to come up with a plan in 1977; the board returned to court with what the court of appeal years would describe as "one of if not the most drastic plan of mandatory student reassignment in the nation." A desegregation busing plan was developed to be implemented in the 1978 school year. Two lawsuits to stop the enforced busing plan, both title
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
John Wayne Airport
John Wayne Airport is an international airport in Orange County, United States, with its mailing address in the city of Santa Ana, hence the IATA airport code. The entrance to the airport is off MacArthur Blvd in Irvine, the city that borders the airport on the north and east. Newport Beach and Costa Mesa form the southern and western boundaries along with a small unincorporated area along the Corona del Mar Freeway. Santa Ana is just north, not touching the airport. Named Orange County Airport, the county Board of Supervisors renamed it in 1979 to honor actor John Wayne, who lived in neighboring Newport Beach and died that year; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a primary commercial service airport since it has over 10,000 passenger boardings per year. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 4,584,147 enplanements in calendar year 2014, an increase from 4,450,628 in 2013. John Wayne International Airport is the sole commercial airport in Orange County.
General aviation operations outnumber commercial operations and several facilities at the airport serve the general aviation and corporate aviation community. The other general aviation airport in the county is Fullerton Municipal Airport. Other commercial airports nearby are Hollywood Burbank Airport, Long Beach Airport, Los Angeles International Airport and Ontario International Airport. In 2014, John Wayne Airport was the second busiest airport in the Greater Los Angeles area with over 9 million total passengers; as of 2015, the largest airlines at John Wayne Airport were Southwest Airlines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Delta Air Lines. The main runway, at 5,701 feet, is one of the shortest of any major airport in the United States, passenger airliners at the airport have never been larger than the Boeing 757; some gates are built to handle planes up to the size of a Boeing 767, which could operate with payload/fuel load restrictions. No wide-body passenger airliners have been scheduled at SNA.
John Wayne Airport is 14 miles from Orange County's main attraction – the Disneyland Resort. A statue of John Wayne, the airport's eponym, welcomes passengers in the arrivals area on the lower level; the first airstrip on the grounds was constructed in 1923, when Eddie Martin signed a five-year lease with James Irvine to operate a flying school on land owned by the Irvine Company. It was purchased through a land swap by the County of Orange in 1939 and remains under the county's ownership and management. Martin added the first hangar in 1926. In 1935 Howard Hughes staged his world speed record-setting flight from the Eddie Martin Airport. With the opening of the Santa Ana Army Air Base in 1942, the adjacent Martin Field was temporarily closed. After serving as a military base during World War II, the Santa Ana Army Airfield was returned by the federal government to the County with the stipulation that it remain open to all kinds of aviation uses. In addition to continuing to serve aviation, the field became an important drag racing center.
From 1950 to 1959, C. J. "Pappy" Hart and Creighton Hunter operated the Santa Ana Drag Strip, credited for being the world's first commercial drag strip, on the airport runway every Sunday, when it was closed to air traffic. The original single runway was 4,800 feet long, on a magnetic heading of 30 degrees. In 1964 the airport was rebuilt, with its present two parallel runway configuration, oriented 190/10 degrees magnetic; the longer runway, 19R, at 5,701 feet, is only 901 feet longer than the old Runway 21 but long enough to accommodate jet airliners. A full instrument landing system was installed. In the 1950s the only airline flights were Bonanza's few flights between Los Angeles and Phoenix, via San Diego. In 1963 Bonanza started nonstop F27s to Phoenix, to Las Vegas in 1965; the first scheduled jet flights were Bonanza DC-9s in 1967. In 1967 the 22,000-square-foot Eddie Martin Terminal was built to accommodate 400,000 annual passengers. Remodeling added two passenger holding areas in 1974, a new baggage claim area in 1980 and a terminal annex building in 1982, bringing the facility to 29,000 square feet.
Nonstop flights reached Salt Lake City in 1976–77, Denver in 1982, Dallas/Fort Worth in 1983, Chicago in 1986, New York Kennedy in 1991. After the Orange County Airport was renamed John Wayne Airport in 1979, the John Wayne Associates commissioned sculptor Robert Summers to create a bronze statue of "the Duke." The 9-foot statue, created at Hoka Hey Foundry in Dublin, was dedicated to the County on November 4, 1982. Today, the bronze statue is in the Thomas F. Riley Terminal on the Arrival Level. In 1990, the Thomas F. Riley Terminal opened; the aging 29,000-square-foot Eddie Martin Terminal was replaced with a modern 337,900-square-foot facility. The new facility included 14 loading bridges, four baggage carousels, wide open spaces and distinct roadside arrival and departure levels. In 1994, the then-unused Eddie Martin Terminal was demolished. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a new, larger airport was proposed for the nearby site of the recently closed El Toro Marine Corps Air Station. However, after a series of political battles, combined with significant opposition from residents in the vicinity of El Toro