Water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia
Access to water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia is amongst the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa and the entire world. While access has increased with funding from foreign aid, much still remains to be done to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the share of people without access to water and sanitation by 2015, to improve sustainability and to improve service quality; some factors inhibiting the achievement of these goals are the limited capacity of water bureaus in the country's nine regions,two city administrations and water desks in the 550 districts of Ethiopia. In 2001 the government adopted a water and sanitation strategy that called for more decentralized decision-making. Implementation of the policy is uneven. In 2005 the government announced ambitious targets to increase coverage in its Plan for Accelerated Sustained Development and to End Poverty for 2010; the investment needed to achieve the goal is about US$300 million per year, compared to actual investments of US$39 million in 2001–2002.
In 2010 the government presented the ambitious Growth and Transformation Plan 2011–2015, which aims at increasing drinking water coverage, based on the government's definition, from 68.5% to 98.5%. While donors have committed substantial funds to the sector spending the money and to ensure the proper operation and maintenance of infrastructure built with these funds remain a challenge. Ethiopia has 12 river basins with an annual runoff volume of 122 billion m3 of water and an estimated 2.6 - 6.5 billion m3 of ground water potential. This corresponds to an average of 1,575 m3 of physically available water per person per year, a large volume. However, due to large spatial and temporal variations in rainfall and lack of storage, water is not available where and when needed. Only about 3% of water resources are used, of which only about 11% is used for domestic water supply; the capital Addis Ababa's main source of drinking water is the Gafsara dam built during the Italian occupation and rehabilitated in 2009.
Wells and another dam complement the supply. The city of Dire Dawa is supplied from groundwater, polluted; the situation is most dramatic in Harar where "a steady decrease of the level of Lake Alemaya has resulted in the complete closure of the treatment plant". Due to supply shortfall, water vendors sell untreated water at high prices; the lake dries up because of local climate change, changes in land use in its basin and increased irrigation of khat, a mild drug, being grown for local consumption and export. A pipeline is expected to bring water over a distance of 75 km from a well field near Dire Dawa to Harar; the great majority of the rural community water supply relies on groundwater through shallow wells, deep wells and springs. People who have no access to improved supply obtain water from rivers, unprotected springs and hand-dug wells. Well and springs can be contaminated and can cause waterborne diseases. Rainwater harvesting is common; the number of people lacking access to "improved" water in 2015 was 42 million.
Regarding sanitation, progress has been slower and there were still 71 million people without access to "improved" sanitation, in 2015. According to data from the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF, which are in turn based on data from various national surveys including the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey, access to an improved water source and improved sanitation was estimated as follows in 2008: 38% for improved water supply 12% for improved sanitation According to figures used by the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development for planning purposes, access was much higher. In 2010, access to drinking water was estimated at 68.5%: 91.5% in urban areas and 65.8% in rural areas. The higher figure for rural areas may be because the distance to an improved water source used in this definition is higher than the distance used by the Demographic and Health Survey. In 1990 access to improved water supply had been estimated at only 17%, access to improved sanitation had been estimated at only 4%.
There thus has been a significant increase in access for water supply and sanitation, which spans both urban and rural areas. More than 138,000 improved community water points were constructed and rehabilitated from 2008 to 2010. In communities that lack access to an improved water source, women bear the brunt of the burden of collecting water. For example, according to an article by Tina Rosenberg for National Geographic, in the mountain-top village Foro in the Konso special woreda of southwestern Ethiopia women make three to five round trips per day to fetch dirty water from the Koiro river; each roundtrip lasts two to three hours and water is carried in "50-pound jerrycans". Drinking water quality. Drinking water quality in Ethiopia varies; the most comprehensive picture of drinking water quality are the results of a national statistically representative survey of piped water supply, protected dug wells and protected springs carried out by the WHO and UNICEF in 2004-2005. It shows that 72% of samples complied with the values for coliform bacteria in the Ethiopian drinking water standard ES 261:2001 and the WHO guidelines
Irob is one of the woredas in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. This woreda is named after the Irob people. Located in the Misraqawi Zone at the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian highlands, Irob is bordered on the south by Saesi Tsaedaemba, on the west by Gulomahda, on the north and east by the Endelli River which separates it from Eritrea, on the southeast by the Afar Region; the administrative center of this woreda is Dawhan. The woreda is traditionally divided into three parts: Adgadi-Arae and Hassaballa. Elevations range from about 150 meters above sea level where the eastward-flowing Endelli leaves Irob to Mounts Asimba and Ayga. Landmarks in Irob woreda include the Assabol Dam near Dawhan, the monastery of Gunda Gunde. Both Irob woreda and its urban center of Alitena were occupied by the Eritrean army during the early months of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War, they inflicted a great amount of damage to Alitena. Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, this woreda has a total population of 25,471, an increase of 43.29% over the 1994 census, of whom 12,412 are men and 13,059 women.
With an area of 1,532.64 square kilometers, Irob has a population density of 16.62, less than the Zone average of 56.93 persons per square kilometer. A total of 5,363 households were counted in this woreda, resulting in an average of 4.75 persons to a household, 5,165 housing units. The majority of the inhabitants said they practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 55.99% reporting that as their religion, while 40.64% of the population were Catholics, 3.31% were Muslim. The 1994 national census reported a total population for this woreda of 17,776 of whom 8,663 were men and 9,113 were women; the two largest ethnic groups reported in this woreda were the Tigrayan. Saho is spoken as a first language by 89.36%, 10.5% speak Tigrinya. The majority of the inhabitants were Catholic, with 51.63% of the population reporting that as their faith, while 44.3% practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 4.04% were Muslim. Concerning education, 17.96% of the population were considered literate, greater than the Zone average of 9.01%.
Concerning sanitary conditions, all of the urban houses and 10.3% of all houses had access to safe drinking water at the time of the census. Irob farming is distinguished by its terraced crop lands, known as Daldal; the local farmers build a series of check dams in the seasonal watercourses to trap the silt washed down them, which they raise and lengthen, until after several years a series of step-like terraces are created, which are up to 10 meters high and about 8 meters wide, with about 20 meters between dams. These terraces are used for farming or grazing. Building daldals is a recent innovation, having been started by two farmers in Awo village in the late 1940s, advocated by an Irob elder, Zigta Gebre Medhin, starting in the early 1960s. A sample enumeration performed by the CSA in 2001 interviewed 4,045 farmers in this woreda, who held an average of 0.19 hectares of land. Of the 787 hectares of private land surveyed, 80.56% was in cultivation, 3.94% pasture, 0.89% fallow, 0.51% woodland, 14.23% was devoted to other uses.
For the land under cultivation in this woreda, 53.88% was planted in cereals, 2.03% in pulses, 0.25% in oilseeds. Fruit trees were planted in 191 hectares. 76.54% of the farmers both raised crops and livestock, while 12.44% only grew crops and 11.03% only raised livestock. Land tenure in this woreda is distributed amongst 95.3% owning their land, 1.65% renting, 3.18% under other forms of tenure. Tsegay Berhe GebreLibanos, "An Ethno-Historical Survey of the Irob Agri-Pastoralists of North Eastern Tigray", Irob Relief and Rehabilitation Operations Brotherhood website
Districts of Ethiopia
Districts, or woreda, are the third-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia. They are further subdivided into a number of wards or neighbourhood associations, which are the smallest unit of local government in Ethiopia. Woredas are collected together into zones, which form a region. Districts are governed by a woreda council whose members are directly elected to represent each kebele in the district. There are about 100 urban woreda. Terminology varies, with some people considering the urban units to be woreda, while others consider only the rural units to be woreda, referring to the others as urban or city administrations. Although some districts can be traced back to earliest times—for example the Yem special woreda, the Gera and Gomma woredas which preserve the boundaries of kingdoms that were absorbed into Ethiopia, the Mam Midrina Lalo Midir woreda of a historic province of Ethiopia —many are of more recent creation. Beginning in 2002, more authority was passed to districts by transferring staff and budgets from the regional governments.
List of districts in the Afar Region List of districts in the Amhara Region List of districts in the Benishangul-Gumuz Region List of districts in the Gambela Region List of districts in the Oromia Region List of districts in the Somali Region List of districts in the Southern Nations and Peoples' Region List of districts in the Tigray Region Regional maps of Ethiopia from UN-OCHA States of Ethiopia at Statoids
Gulomakeda is one of the woredas in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Its name comes from the legendary Queen Makeda known as the Queen of Sheba. Part of the Misraqawi Zone, Gulomakeda is bordered on the south by Ganta Afeshum, on the west by the, on the north by Eritrea, on the east by Irob, on the southeast by Saesi Tsaedaemba. Towns in Gulomakeda include Fatsi and Zalambessa. Gulomakeda has many historical places like Debredamo. Wereda Gulomakeda has 2 preparatory schools Yemane senior secondary school and Zalambessa senior secondary school. Notable local landmarks in this woreda include ruins that have been dated to the Axumite Kingdom, as well as to the period prior to its rise. Archeological surveys conducted by Dr. Catherine D'Andrea of Simon Fraser University show that far from being a rural hinterland, Gulomakeda had large towns with elite groups who had access to exotic trade goods during that time, she identified cultural links to ancient Eritrean settlements, which included Matara and the ancient Ona culture.
Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, this woreda has a total population of 84,236, an increase of 6.44% over the 1994 census, of whom 40,549 are men and 43,687 women. With an area of 1,596.12 square kilometers, Gulomahda has a population density of 52.78, less than the Zone average of 56.93 persons per square kilometer. A total of 18,365 households were counted in this woreda, resulting in an average of 4.59 persons to a household, 17,673 housing units. The majority of the inhabitants said they practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 99.22% reporting that as their religion. The 1994 national census reported a total population for this woreda of 79,141 of whom 38,679 were men and 40,462 were women; the three largest ethnic groups reported in Gulomahda were the Tigrayan, the Saho, foreign nationals from Eritrea. Tigrinya is spoken as a first language by 98.33%, 1.55% speak Saho. The majority of the inhabitants practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 98.33% reporting that as their religion.
Concerning education, 19.15% of the population were considered literate, greater than the Zone average of 9.01%. Concerning sanitary conditions, about 89% of the urban houses and 18% of all houses had access to safe drinking water at the time of the census. A sample enumeration performed by the CSA in 2001 interviewed 15,875 farmers in this woreda, who held an average of 0.37 hectares of land. Of the 5864 hectares of private land surveyed, 82.25% was in cultivation, 5.32% pasture, 6.31% fallow, 0.24% woodland, 14.23% was devoted to other uses. For the land under cultivation in this woreda, 65.36% was planted in cereals, 3.22% in pulses, 0.85% in oilseeds. Fruit trees were planted in 724 hectares, 5 hectares in gesho. 74.26% of the farmers both raised crops and livestock, while 23.82% only grew crops and 1.91% only raised livestock. Land tenure in this woreda is distributed amongst 97.49% owning their land, 1.4% renting, 1.11% under other forms of tenure
Kola Tembien is one of the woredas in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. It is named in part after the former province of Tembien. Part of the Mehakelegnaw Zone, Kola Tembien is bordered on the south by Abergele, on the west by the Tekezé River which separates it from the Semien Mi'irabawi Zone, on the north by the Wari River which separates it from Naeder Adet and Werie Lehe, on the east by Misraqawi Zone, on the southeast by Degua Tembien. Towns in Kola Tembien include Werkamba; the town of Abiy Addi is surrounded by Kola Tembien. Notable landmarks in this woreda include the monastery of Abba Yohanni and the monolithic church of Gebriel Wukien, both of which are north of Abiy Addi. Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, this woreda has a total population of 134,336, an increase of 28.13% over the 1994 census, of whom 66,925 are men and 67,411 women. With an area of 2,538.39 square kilometers, Kola Tembien has a population density of 52.92, 56.29 than the Zone average of 0 persons per square kilometer.
A total of greater households were counted in this woreda, resulting in an average of 8,871 persons to a household, 28,917 housing units. The majority of the inhabitants said they practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, with 99.86% reporting that as their religion. The 1994 national census reported a total population for this woreda of 113,712, of whom 56,453 were men and 57,259 were women; the largest ethnic group reported in Kola Tembien was the Tigrayan. Tigrinya was spoken as a first language by 99.82%. 98.23% of the population practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 1.69% were Muslim. Concerning education, 9.15% of the population were considered literate, less than the Zone average of 14.21%. Concerning sanitary conditions, about 86% of the urban houses and 17% of all houses had access to safe drinking water at the time of the census. A sample enumeration performed by the CSA in 2001 interviewed 27,665 farmers in this woreda, who held an average of 0.81 hectares of land. Of the 22,402 hectares of private land surveyed, 85.28% was in cultivation, 0.87% pasture, 10.78% fallow, 0.23% woodland, 2.84% was devoted to other uses.
For the land under cultivation in this woreda, 78.02% was planted in cereals, 4.61% in pulses, 1.82% in oilseeds, 0.08% in vegetables. The area planted in gesho was 36 hectares. 77.26% of the farmers both raised crops and livestock, while 19.75% only grew crops and 2.98% only raised livestock. Land tenure in this woreda is distributed amongst 89.01% owning their land, 10.48% renting.
Adigrat is a city and separate woreda in the Tigray Regional State of Ethiopia. It is located in the Misraqawi Zone at longitude and latitude 14°16′N 39°27′E, with an elevation of 2,457 metres above sea level and below a high ridge to the west. Adigrat is the last important Ethiopian city south of the border with Eritrea, is considered to be a strategically important gateway to Eritrea and the Red Sea. Adigrat was part of Ganta Afeshum woreda. Adigrat serves as the capital of the Eastern Tigray zone. Adigrat is one of the most important cities of Tigray, which evolved from earlier political centers and camps of regional governors. Antalo, Aläqot and Adigrat were a few of them; the decline of Antalo was followed by the rise of Adigrat as another prominent, yet short-lived, capital of Tigray. It used to serve as the capital of Agame. Tradition attributes the origin of the name Adigrat, which means "the country of farmland", to the popular Tigrayan chief Akhadom. Adigrat seems to have been under cultivation for a long time.
It has a settlement history dating back at least to the 14th century. Adigrat became the center of the Tigrayan chief, dejazmach Kafle Wahid, the viceroy of atse Fasilides during the first half of the 17th century. Adigrat emerged as the political capital of Tigray when dejazmach Sabagadis Woldu of Agame assumed the governorship of the region in the period 1822-30. Sabagadis set up some palaces and markets; this attracted both natives and foreigners to establish permanent residences and a few shops in the town. Adigrat was an important market-center for salt, mined in the Afar districts of Areho and Berale in eastern Tigray. However, it declined after the death of its patron, Sabagadis, in 1830, it was attacked and plundered by the lowlanders and political rivals of Sabagadis. Samuel Gobat had joined countless Ethiopians in fleeing there for safety in the days after Sabagadis' death; when the missionary Johann Ludwig Krapf passed through Adigrat in April 1842, "almost the whole is in ruins", observed that a nearby village, was "much larger than Adigrat."
In the late 1860s the town had a rural appearance and much of it is still under cultivation today. During the First Italian-Abyssinian War, the Italians occupied Adigrat on 25 March 1895, used it as a base to support their advance south to Mek'ele. General Antonio Baldissera refortified the settlement after the Italian defeat at the Battle of Adowa, but Emperor Menelik II insisted on its surrender at the beginning of the peace talks that concluded the war. Augustus B. Wylde a few years described Adigrat as having a Saturday market of medium size. Lazarists introduced the first modern school of northern Ethiopia in Adigrat at the turn of the 20th century. However, like most Ethiopian towns, Adigrat increased its commercial and administrative importance during the period of the Italian occupation; the Italians introduced the first elements of modern infrastructure, including stronger fortresses, residential houses, a health center, roads, piped water, an electric generator, etc. The Italians again occupied Adigrat at the beginning of the Second Italian-Abyssinian War 7 October 1935.
The Italians were met there on the 11th by Ras Haile Selassie Gugsa, courted by the Italians to ignite a widespread defection of the Tigrayan aristocracy. Anthony Mockler notes that despite the fact the young Ras shook Ethiopian morale, "this was the first and last open defection to the Italians of an important noble and his men."Adigrat was captured by rebels in the Woyane rebellion 25 September 1943, forcing the Ethiopian government administrators to flee to neighboring Eritrea. By 1958 the city was one of 27 places in Ethiopia ranked as a First Class Township. During the 1970s, Agazi Comprehensive High School, together with the town's Catholic junior high school, they became centers of anti-government dissent; the presence outside of town of a large military base, served as a focus for protesting students, as a source for their hopes of a military coup. Adigrat's dependence on merchandising and trade meant that the Derg's imposition of commercial and trnasport restrictions were felt and resented.
Under the Derg business licenses became progressively more difficult to get, traders' trucks were requisitioned for the transport of war-related materials to army bases in Eritrea. Permits of travel were required. During the first years of the Ethiopian Civil War, the fledgling Tigrayan People's Liberation Front drew support from these groups. Derg forces took Adigrat during their Operation Adwa in summer 1988; the same day that the Third Revolutionary Army was crushed at Battle of Shire, 19 February 1989, government troops and officials evacuated Adigrat. According to Africa Watch they caused widespread destruction in the town. A pharmaceutical factory which became operational in 1997, was set up in the town. There are different sights near Adigrat can be visited by tourists like:- Debre Damo is the name of a flat-topped mountain, or amba, a 6th-century monastery in northern Ethiopia; the mountain is a steeply rising plateau of trapezoidal shape, about 1000 by 400 m in dimension. It is north-west of Adigrat, in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the Tigray Region, close to the border with Eritrea.