Correios De Timor-Leste
Correios De Timor-Leste is the government agency, responsible for providing postal services in East Timor. Correios De Timor-Leste became a member of the Universal Postal Union on 28 November 2003; the authority is a member of International Association of Portuguese-Speaking Communications from 2002. Postage stamps and postal history of East Timor Communications in East Timor
Postal services in Andorra
Postal services in Andorra are unique in that they are not operated by the country itself, but by its two larger neighbouring countries and France. This is a legacy of the centuries of de facto control exercised by those two countries over Andorra. Correos of Spain and La Poste of France operate side by side; however the postal code system, introduced in July 2004, has a different format from those of either Spain or France, consisting of the letters "AD", followed by three digits. Both postal administrations issue their own postage stamps for use in Andorra featuring unique designs, as those of Spain and France are not valid; these are used for international correspondence, as postal service within Andorra is free
Kazpost is the national postal service of Kazakhstan. Since 1992, Kazakhstan is a member of the Universal Postal Union. April 5, 1993 according to the Cabinet of Kazakhstan "On improving the management structure the communications industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan" were divided mail and telecommunications. In November 1995 the State -mail has become an independent economic entity, transforming itself into a Republican state enterprise Post services. In the summer of 1999 was a radical reform of mail began after the decision of the Government of Kazakhstan on May 27, 1999 "On measures to stabilize and financial health of the postal industry": On December 20, 1999 RGPPS was transformed into a Joint Stock Company Kazpost Wholly owned by the state, it was registered with a total capital of 903.66 million tenge initial registered capital of the company was formed only in the form of buildings and equipment. The situation was aggravated by a severe financial condition of the postal industry - RGPPS payable for the period from 1993 to 2000, before the pension funds and taxes was 140 million tenge, the amount of accumulated losses from previous years over the years amounted to more than 250.6 million tenge.
Development Programme of the postal industry and the formation of the postal savings system of 2000-2003, laid the foundation in Kazakhstan postal savings system based on the retail network of post offices. As a source of funding for its implementation has served the Islamic Development Bank loan in the amount of U. S. $9 million under the state guarantees, domestic bond issue in the amount of 1.4 billion tenge, as well as a steady increase in the government of the authorized capital of the company. Kazakhstan was the first country in the CIS developed postal savings system. Results of Operations KazPost to create a full postal savings system were found to be successful Regional Commonwealth of Communications. In October 2006, in Alma-Ata was established enterprise Elektronpost.kz for providing logistics information, including printing and mailing konvertovaniya Postage stamps and postal history of Kazakhstan Media of Kazakhstan Communications in Kazakhstan Official website
The Chunghwa Post Co. Ltd. is the official postal service of Taiwan. It provides a savings account service. Chunghwa Post was a government organization of Ministry of Transportation and Communications until 2003, when it was reorganized into a government-owned corporation, its affiliation with the Universal Postal Union began in 1914, but ended in 1972 when it was replaced by the China Post shortly after China's seat in the United Nations was handed over to the People's Republic of China. International Reply Coupons are not available to Taiwan, mail is not delivered to or sent directly from Taiwan, but rather routed through third-party countries, with Japan Post as a major route facility for incoming mail sent from the Americas region. Taiwan is a member of Inter-Asian Philatelic Federation. Chunghwa Post delivers standard letters, registered mail and express mail throughout Taiwan. There are twenty-three large offices throughout the country which supervises some 1,300 smaller post offices; the direct ancestor of Chunghwa Post is the Customs Post Office of the Qing Empire, established in 1878 by Li Hongzhang at the suggestion of the foreign powers, with branch offices in five major trading cities.
On 20 March 1896, the Customs Post Office became the Great Qing Post, which in 1911 became independent of the customs service. On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established; the Great Qing Post changed its name to the Chunghwa Post "Chunghwa" is a transliteration of one of the names of China, which connotes the multi-ethnic nation under a unified culture of "China". Alternatively spelled "Zhonghua", this term is part of the Chinese language name of both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. Chunghwa post had contracted with aviation groups such as China National Aviation Corporation and China Airways Federal to deliver airmail on the Shanghai-Hankow, Nanking-Peking, the Hankow-Canton routes in early 1929, it was on the Nanking-Peking route, where renown early-20th century poet Xu Zhimo caught a flight, but died as the airmail-carrier plane operated by China Airways Federal under contract, crashed in rough weather. In 1888, Liu Mingchuan, Qing Governor of Taiwan Province, established the Taiwan General Post Office of the Great Qing Postal service.
However, in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan following the first Sino-Japanese war. The Taiwan GPO was abolished, with postal service in Taiwan conducted by a variety of bodies such as the Field Command postal service, after 1924, the Letters Department of the Ministry of Transport. Taiwan was taken over by the Republic of China in 1945. In 1946, the Republic of China government incorporated the postal service in Taiwan with the Directorate General of Posts. In 1949, the Republic of China lost control of much of mainland China to the People's Republic of China. Soon after, postal service was restricted to Taiwan, several surrounding islands, a few islands off the coast of mainland China still under the control of the Republic of China government. In 2003, the Directorate General of Posts of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications was restructured from a government department to a government-owned corporation, renamed Chunghwa Post Co. Ltd. In February 2007, ROC President Chen Shui-bian announced that the name of the postal service would be changed to Taiwan Post, with sign changes occurring at branches in Taiwan on February 12.
Media reports noted that "Taiwan Post" was more consistent with the name Governor Liu Ming-chuan used when he founded the Taiwan Post Administration in 1888. Furthermore, Taiwan Post began printing "Taiwan" instead of "Republic of China" on postage stamps. On February 9, the board of directors resolved to change the name of the corporation to Taiwan Post Co. after a delay of several hours due to protests from unions. However, a bill to recognise the change of law was blocked by the KMT-dominated legislature; as a result, the law still mandated the postal monopoly for "Chunghwa Post" despite the name change. In 2008, the Kuomintang took power in Taiwan following a legislative election victory and the election of Ma Ying-jeou to the presidency. Following his election, Ma Ying-jeou publicly stated that he did not wish his inauguration commemoration stamps to be marked "Taiwan Post", because the name change was "illegal"; the postal service marked the inauguration stamps with Chinese characters for the "Republic of China", as well as "Republic of China" in English.
On 1 August 2008, the company resolved to reverse the name change and restored the name "Chunghwa Post". The Board of Directors, as well as resolving to restore the name of the corporation resolved to re-hire the chief executive dismissed in 2007, to withdraw defamation proceedings against him. Chunghwa Postal Museum List of postal services abroad Official website
Pakistan Post, is a state enterprise which functions as Pakistan's primary and largest postal operator. 44,000 employees through a vehicle fleet of 5000 operate traditional "to the door" service from more than 13,000 post offices across the country, servicing over 50 million people. Pakistan Post operates under the autonomous "Postal Services Management Board" to deliver a full range of delivery and fulfillment services to customers. In addition to its traditional role, Pakistan Post offers services such as Postal Life Insurance and Pakistan Post Savings Bank, it operates services on behalf of the federal and provincial governments, by acting as a collection point for tax and utility bills. During the Mughul Empire and Samma dynasty, an early postal system developed along the banks of the Indus River in Sind beginning in the 13th century; the system consisted of runners or "dak" who would carry letters from one point to another and hand it off to the next runner who would do the same. Runners were paid according to distance weight of the letters.
The system extended from Thatta in the south, through Kotri and Hyderabad and as far north as Sukkur. The system expanded into lower Punjab. Letters could be exchanged by over two dozen runners. In February 1843, following the Battle of Miani, Sind fell to the British followed by Punjab in 1845. Sir Bartle Frere became the Chief Commissioner of Sindh in 1850 and improved upon the postal system by introducing a cheap and standard rate for postage, independent of distance traveled. In 1851, runners were replaced with horses and camels which proved to be beneficial as it and efficiently transported mail, connecting government offices and post offices. In 1855, the Scinde Railway began taking over most mail routes however camels and horses were still used in regions where the railway had not yet reached. By 1886, the North Western State Railway was responsible for transporting most mail up and down the country; the postal system by now had been expanded from Karachi in the south to as far north as Gilgit.
Pakistan Post was established following its independence from Britain under the modified Post Office Act VI, 1898 and became operation on 14 August 1947. Pakistan Post fell under the Department of Telegraph in the Ministry of Communications; the Office of the Postmaster General was established in Lahore. In November 1947, Pakistan joined the Universal Postal Union as its 89th member. In 1948, Pakistan Post issued its first postage stamps, a set of four stamps commemorating the country's independence. In 1959, an "All-up-Airmail" scheme was introduced by which all letters were airlifted between stations on an air network. Sikorsky helicopters of Pakistan International Airlines were used to deliver mail within East Pakistan. In July 1962, the government bifurcated the old department and independently placed Pakistan Post under the Ministry of Communications. In January 1987, "Urgent Mail Service" was introduced in the country and in April 1987, "Local Packet & Parcel Service" was introduced. On 1 January 1988, five-digit postal codes were introduced nationwide.
Between 1 August 1992 to 6 July 1996, the post office was separated from the Ministry of Communications and was made an independent corporation. From 1 December 1992, a new "Overseas Postal Circle" with its headquarters in Islamabad was launched, to streamline foreign mail. Prior to the Islamabad facility, all international mail was sent through Karachi. Between 2006 and 2007, mail was sent using 19 domestic airports including Chitral, Lahore, Moenjodaro and Skardu. During the same period, four international airports were used: Islamabad, Karachi and Peshawar. In 2007, the Pakistan Post embarked on a new vision. On 3 November 2008, the department was placed under the postal division of the newly created Ministry of Postal Services. Senator Israr Ullah Zehri was appointed its first minister. Pakistan Post is not confined to a number of postal services, its areas of activities span on larger scale. The national character, strong brand recognition and a wide network of post offices bestows a unique position to the Pakistan Post in playing a vital role in the economic and social development of Pakistan.
It serves as the principal agency for the government in implementing key policies. Pakistan Post is providing a variety of services on behalf of many federal and provincial government departments. In December 2018, Federal Minister for Communication and Postal Services Murad Saeed launched the Pakistan Post Mobile Application; the following are postal services offered within the country. Letter Mail Parcel Post Certificate of Posting Post BoxesSpecial ServicesThe following are special services with their date of commencement given in brackets. Not all services are provided in every post office. Air Express Fax Mail Service Fax Money Order International Speed Post Local Express Delivery Postal Draft Service Postal Giro Service Saving Bank Mobile Account Urgent Mail Service Urgent Money Order Service 15 April 1988 EMO. Pakistan Post starts collecting utility bills from home Payment to Benazir Income Support Programme Beneficiaries Collection of taxes: income and withholding Collection of Customs Duty and Sales Tax Delivery of Computerised National Identity Cards Disbursement of welfare/financial assistance Food Support Programme Payment to Pakistan Arm
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by Armenians. It is the official language of Armenia. Being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, Armenian is spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots. Armenian is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, it is of interest to linguists for its distinctive phonological developments within that family. Armenian exhibits more satemization than centumization, although it is not classified as belonging to either of these subgroups; some linguists tentatively conclude that Armenian and Indo-Iranian were dialectally close to each other. Armenia was a monolingual country by the 2nd century BC at the latest, its language has a long literary history, with a 5th-century Bible translation as its oldest surviving text. Its vocabulary has been influenced by Western Middle Iranian languages Parthian, to a lesser extent by Greek and Syriac.
There are two standardized modern literary forms, Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian, with which most contemporary dialects are mutually intelligible. Although Armenians were known to history much earlier, the oldest surviving Armenian-language text is the 5th century AD Bible translation of Mesrop Mashtots, who created the Armenian alphabet in 405, at which time it had 36 letters, he is credited by some with the creation of the Caucasian Albanian alphabet. In The Anabasis, Xenophon describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the Armenian people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. W. M. Austin concluded that there was an early contact between Armenian and Anatolian languages, based on what he considered common archaisms, such as the lack of a feminine gender and the absence of inherited long vowels. However, unlike shared innovations, the common retention of archaisms is not considered conclusive evidence of a period of common isolated development.
In 1985, Soviet linguist Igor M. Diakonoff noted the presence in Classical Armenian of what he calls a "Caucasian substratum" identified by earlier scholars, consisting of loans from the Kartvelian and Northeast Caucasian languages. Noting that Hurro-Urartian-speaking peoples inhabited the Armenian homeland in the second millennium BC, Diakonov identifies in Armenian a Hurro-Urartian substratum of social and animal and plant terms such as ałaxin "slave girl", cov "sea", ułt "camel", xnjor "apple"; some of the terms he gives admittedly have an Akkadian or Sumerian provenance, but he suggests they were borrowed through Hurrian or Urartian. Given that these borrowings do not undergo sound changes characteristic of the development of Armenian from Proto-Indo-European, he dates their borrowing to a time before the written record but after the Proto-Armenian language stage. Loan words from Iranian languages, along with the other ancient accounts such as that of Xenophon above led linguists to erroneously classify Armenian as an Iranian language.
Scholars such as Paul de Lagarde and F. Müller believed that the similarities between the two languages meant that Iranian and Armenian were the same language; the distinctness of Armenian was recognized when philologist Heinrich Hübschmann used the comparative method to distinguish two layers of Iranian words from the older Armenian vocabulary. He showed that Armenian had 2 morphemes for the one concept, the non-Iranian components yielded a consistent PIE pattern distinct from Iranian, demonstrated that the inflectional morphology was different from that in Iranian languages; the hypothesis that Greek is Armenian's closest living relative originates with Holger Pedersen, who noted that the number of Greek-Armenian lexical cognates is greater than that of agreements between Armenian and any other Indo-European language. Antoine Meillet further investigated morphological and phonological agreement, postulating that the parent languages of Greek and Armenian were dialects in immediate geographical proximity in the Proto-Indo-European period.
Meillet's hypothesis became popular in the wake of his Esquisse. Georg Renatus Solta does not go as far as postulating a Proto-Graeco-Armenian stage, but he concludes that considering both the lexicon and morphology, Greek is the dialect most related to Armenian. Eric P. Hamp supports the Graeco-Armenian thesis, anticipating a time "when we should speak of Helleno-Armenian". Armenian shares the augment, a negator derived from the set phrase Proto-Indo-European language *ne h₂oyu kʷid, the representation of word-initial laryngeals by prothetic vowels, other phonological and morphological peculiarities with Greek; as Fortson comments, "by the time we reach our earliest Armenian records in the 5th century AD, the evidence of any such early kinship has been reduced to a few tantalizing pieces". Modern studies show that assertions about the proximity of Greek and Phrygian with Armenian are not confirmed in the language material. Graeco--Aryan is a hypoth