Skeleton Canyon shootout
This event should not be confused with the Skeleton Canyon Massacres of 1879 and 1881. The Skeleton Canyon shootout was a gunfight on August 12, 1896, between members of the High Five Gang and a posse of American lawmen. Following a failed robbery on August 1 of the bank in Nogales, the High Fives headed east and split up; the gang's leader, Black Jack Christian, George Musgrave got away. Three others, including Bob Christian, were engaged by the posse at the entrance of Skeleton Canyon; this gorge in the Peloncillo Mountains had been used by smugglers and legitimate travelers between the United States and Mexico. The outlaws fought off their pursuers, killing Frank Robson, escaped into New Mexico Territory. Pursuit continued through the month, as Black Jack and Musgrave surfaced in other areas, as did the other three. Other men joined the posse, the United States Marshal of New Mexico Territory acquired aid from United States Army forces in the area for the Apache Campaign in the Peloncillos.
The pursuers did not catch up with the bandits for many months. Black Jack Christian and his older brother Bob were leaders of the outlaw High Five Gang, but at least six other men rode with them at times, including Bob Hayes, George West Musgrave, Van Musgrave, Code Young, Sid Moore, "Three Fingered" Jack Dunlop. After working as cowboys in Arizona, on July 20, 1896, the High Fives held up a general store in Separ, New Mexico, they made off with around $200 and some merchandise, trading some of their loot to local ranchers for food and lodging. By August 1, 1896, the High Fives were holed up on the Babocomari grant, in the San Pedro Valley north of Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Together with Ed Roberts, a wealthy rancher and associate of Musgrave, they planned to rob the International Bank of Nogales in Arizona, located near the international border. Roberts was to arrange to withdraw $10,000 in specie and bills, purportedly to pay the unpopular tariff for importing some Mexican cattle. But, Roberts intended to have the High Fives steal the money.
The bank was in a two-story building that held stores for groceries and hardware. On August 6, the clerks in the bank prepared the cash and coins for Robert's large withdrawal, scheduled to take place at 1:00 pm; the bank's president, John Dessart, had the money taken out of the vault and stacked on the counter in preparation. Sometime after 12:00 pm, the High Fives entered town, riding next to the railroad down Morley Avenue and toward the bank. At lunchtime, it was quiet. Black Jack, George Musgrave, Bob Hayes dismounted and went inside, while Bob Christian and Code Young remained outside to watch the horses. Another source says that Three Fingered Jack was the fifth man in the robbery, rather than Code Young. Inside the bank, the cashier, Major Fred Herrera, sat behind the counter while John Dessart stood at a desk working on balances. Hayes covered the cashier, Black Jack watched Dessart, Musgrave moved behind the counter with a sack for the loot. Herrera handed stacks of cash over the counter to Dessart.
Musgrave walked to the rear to check it out. Through a double door, he saw four men meeting in the bank's parlor. L. Campbell of Calabasas, Robert Ekey, a Santa Cruz County rancher. About Major A. O. Brummel entered the bank to join the meeting. Black Jack struck and wounded Dessart in the head with his rifle, but the president reached the exterior and calling to Herry Lewis on the street, to telephone the police. Black Jack prevented him from calling anyone. Distracted and Hayes lost control of the men in the parlor, the five escaped out the back door of the bank. Major Fred Herrera fired it at Hayes. Running through the front door, Hayes bumped into Black Jack. Herrera shot at Musgrave, hitting him in the knee as he ran out the back; the bandit passed through the hardware store to join his gang in front. As they mounted up, Frank King, a deputy customs inspector, opened fire from across the street, wounding both Musgrave's and Black Jack's horses. Black Jack pulled Musgrave up behind him, the High Fives took off on four horses, with Musgrave's riderless horse trailing closely.
As they passed the Montezuma Hotel, a Treasury Department inspector named Ben E. Hambleton grabbed a rifle and mounted a horse to pursue. Passing the Nogales Electric, Light and Water Company building, the gang was fired on by two employees. At the end of town, they were fired on by two other Nogales residents; the "bullet marks scarred much of downtown Nogales," but the only fatalities were animals: a horse hit by Black Jack and a mule by Major Herrera. Diego Ramirez of Nogales said that the High Fives made off with $40,000. According to the Tanners, the gang did not gain $40,000, or the $10,000, arranged; the newspapers of both Nogales and Nogales, Mexico reported that "not a cent was lost."Just outside town, the outlaws rode east up Beck Canyon, where they split up. Black Jack and Musgrave went to Ed Robert's ranch, located on the upper San Pedro River. Bob Christian, Bob Hayes and Code Young crossed the border into Sonora, near the San Antonio Pass in the Patagonia Mountains, they were pursued by a posse from Nogales, led by Customs Collector Samuel F. Webb, but the lawmen abandoned the pursuit several days on August 8.
From the border town of Lochiel, the posse had trave
Battle of Cimarron
The Battle of Cimarron was a famous gunfight that occurred on January 12, 1889, during the Gray County War, between the people of Cimarron, a group of lawmen led by Bill Tilghman. The gunfight, which lasted several hours and resulted in the death of at least one man and the wounding of seven others, began when Tilghman and his raiders attempted to take the county records from the Old Gray County Courthouse back to Ingalls. In the late 1880s, Cimarron and its neighbor to the west, were locked in a contest to decide which town would become the new county seat; because towns in the 19th century relied on their county seat status to survive, the county seat contests resulted in violence. After an election to decide the contest ended with accusations of fraud and protests from both sides, the matter was sent to the Kansas Supreme Court. Meanwhile, a man from Ingalls named Newt Watson became the new county clerk, he demanded that the county records in Cimarron be taken from the courthouse and brought to him.
When the citizens of Cimarron refused to turn over the records, the Ingalls faction organized a group of raiders to go into town and take them by force. The raiding party, led by Bill Tilghman included Jim Masterson, brother of the famous Bat Masterson, Ben Daniels, "Neal" Brown, Fred Singer, who were all former Dodge City peace officers, in addition to some "cowtown mercenaries," George Bolds, Ed Brooks, Billy Allensworth. To give them "semi-official status," all of the men in the group were deputized by Tilghman, appointed temporary Gray County Sheriff by Watson after the current sheriff, Joe Reynolds, was put in a hospital with a gunshot wound to the stomach; the raid was set to take place on January 12, 1889. That day and the others arrived in Cimarron with a wagon to carry the records. After pulling up to the courthouse, Masterson and Allensworth entered the building to begin loading the documents into the back of the wagon, while the rest of the men waited outside. In the meantime, some armed Cimarron men were moving into position to attack.
The Cimarron men opened fire on the raiders waiting by the wagon. Tilghman was hit in one of his legs, Brooks "doubled over" with a gunshot, Bolds was struck three times, once in the leg and twice in the abdomen; the wagon driver, a man by the name of Charlie Reicheldeffer, was hit, but somehow they all managed to climb back onto the wagon and drive it out of town without being killed. Masterson and the others were left inside the courthouse, so they took up positions on the second floor to return fire; the Cimarron men attempted to storm the building by rushing the front door, but were beaten back by "deadly shots" from the remaining raiders. After that failed, the Cimarron men attempted to breach the building by raising a ladder up to a window in the back of the building; this plan was thwarted when Masterson found out and kicked down the ladder. The townsfolk made it into the first floor of the building and from there they fired up through the ceiling and into the second floor; the raiders, climbed on top of the filing cabinets, a steel safe to protect themselves.
The battle lasted for about six hours and came to an end when the Cimarron faction received a telegraph from Bat Masterson in Dodge City warning that unless his brother and his friends were allowed to leave town, he would "hire a train and come in with enough men to blow Cimarron off the face of Kansas." After that, the raiders put down their guns and were taken prisoner. According to Richard M. Patterson's Historical Atlas of the Outlaw West, only one man - a Cimarron resident named J. W. English - was killed in the entire shootout, although other sources say that as many as three men died as result. Patterson says that in total one man was killed and three wounded on the Cimarron side, that four men were wounded on the Ingalls side; the raiders were tried for the killing of English, but they were acquitted. The dispute over the new county seat did not end either, it was settled in February 1893, when Cimarron became the permanent seat of Gray County. The Old Gray County Courthouse, replaced in 1927, is now open to the public and serves as a meeting hall.
It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 2009 for its association with the Kansas County Seat Wars. List of Old West gunfights County seat war
Paris is a city and county seat of Lamar County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 25,171, it is situated in Northeast Texas at the western edge of the Piney Woods, 98 miles northeast of the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex. Physiographically, these regions are part of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Following a tradition of American cities named "Paris", the city commissioned a 65-foot replica of the Eiffel Tower in 1993 and installed it on site of the Love Civic Center, southeast of the town square. In 1998 as a response to the 1993 construction of a 60-foot tower in Paris, the city placed a giant red cowboy hat atop its tower; the current Eiffel Tower replica is at least the second one. Present-day Lamar County was part of Red River County during the Republic of Texas. By 1840, population growth necessitated the organization of a new county. George Washington Wright, who had served in the Third Congress of the Republic of Texas as a representative from Red River County, was a major proponent of the new county.
The Fifth Congress established the new county on December 17, 1840, named it after Mirabeau B. Lamar, the first vice president and the second president of the Republic of Texas. Lamar County was one of the 18 Texas counties that voted against secession on February 23, 1861. In 1877, 1896, 1916, major fires in the city forced considerable rebuilding; the 1916 fire destroyed half the town and caused an estimated $11 million in property damage. The fire swept through a residential area; the burned structures included the Federal Building and Post Office, the Lamar County Courthouse and Jail, City Hall, most commercial buildings, several churches. In 1893, black teenager Henry Smith was accused of murder and burned to death on a scaffold in front of thousands of spectators in Paris. In 1920, two black brothers from the Arthur family were tied to a flagpole and burned to death at the Paris fairgrounds; the city has no acknowledgement of these killings. In 1943, the U. S. Supreme Court in Largent v. Texas struck down a Paris ordinance that prohibited a person from selling or distributing religious publications without first obtaining a city-issued permit.
The Court ruled that the ordinance abridged freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Paris has long been a railroad center; the Texas and Pacific reached town in 1876. Paris Union Station, built 1912, served Frisco, Santa Fe and Texas Midland passenger trains until 1956. Today, the station is used by the Lamar County Chamber of Commerce and serves as the research library for the Lamar County Genealogical Society; the city is home to several late 19th century to mid-20th century stately homes. Among these is the Rufus Fenner Scott Mansion, designed by German architect J. L. Wees and constructed in 1910; the structure is solid steel with four floors. Rufus Scott was a prominent businessman known for shipping and banking, he was well known by local farmers. The Scott Mansion narrowly survived the fire of 1916. After the fire, Scott brought the architect Wees back to Paris to redesign the historic downtown area. Camp Maxey is maintained by a Texas Army National Guard unit.
Paris was named the "Best Small Town in Texas" by Kevin Heubusch in his book The New Rating Guide to Life in America's Small Cities. Since 1869, The Paris News has served as the newspaper in the city of Paris, it circulates daily in the city and throughout Lamar County as well as in neighboring Delta County, Fannin County, Red River County and Choctaw County, Oklahoma. Five radio stations are licensed in the city of Paris: KZHN, KPLT, KOYN, KBUS, KITX and KPLT-FM. Paris is served by KXII. Paris is segregated and race relations in Paris have a bloody history and are polarized and sometimes explosive. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several lynchings were staged at the Paris Fairgrounds as public spectacles, with thousands of white spectators cheering as the victims were tortured and immolated, dismembered, or otherwise murdered. Among the victims were Henry Smith, a teenager lynched in 1893. 115 years in 2008, an African-American man, Brandon McClelland, was run over and dragged to death under a vehicle.
Two white men were arrested, but the prosecutor cited lack of evidence and declined to press charges, no serious subsequent attempt to find other perpetrators was made. This caused unrest in the Paris African-American community. Following this incident, an attempt by the United States Department of Justice Justice Community Relations Service to initiate a dialog between the races in the town ended in failure when African-American complaints were met by silent glares. A 2009 protest rally over the case led to Texas State Police intervention to prevent groups shouting "white power!" and "black power!" from coming to blows. In 2007, a 14-year-old African-American girl was sentenced by a local judge to up to 7 years in a youth prison for shoving a hall monitor at Paris High School. Three months earlier, the same judge had sentenced a 14-year-old white girl to probation for arson; this sentencing disparity occasioned nationwide controversy and the African-Am
Gunfight at the O.K. Corral
The Gunfight at the O. K. Corral was a 30-second shootout between lawmen and members of a loosely organized group of outlaws called the Cowboys that took place at about 3:00 p.m. on Wednesday, October 26, 1881, in Tombstone, Arizona Territory. It is regarded as the most famous shootout in the history of the American Wild West; the gunfight was the result of a long-simmering feud, with Cowboys Billy Claiborne and Billy Clanton, Tom and Frank McLaury on one side and town Marshal Virgil Earp, Special Policeman Morgan Earp, Special Policeman Wyatt Earp, temporary policeman Doc Holliday on the other side. Billy Clanton and both McLaury brothers were killed. Ike Clanton, Billy Claiborne, Wes Fuller ran from the fight. Virgil and Doc Holliday were wounded, but Wyatt Earp was unharmed. Wyatt is erroneously regarded as the central figure in the shootout, although his brother Virgil was Tombstone city marshal and deputy U. S. marshal that day and had far more experience as a sheriff, constable and soldier in combat.
The shootout has come to represent a period of the American Old West when the frontier was an open range for outlaws unopposed by law enforcement officers who were spread thin over vast territories. It was not well known to the American public until 1931, when Stuart Lake published the well-received biography Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal two years after Earp's death; the book was the basis for the 1946 film My Darling Clementine, directed by John Ford, the 1957 film Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, after which the shootout became known by that name. Since the conflict has been portrayed with varying degrees of accuracy in numerous Western films and books, has become an archetype for much of the popular imagery associated with the Old West. Despite its name, the gunfight did not take place within or next to the O. K. Corral, which fronted Allen Street and had a rear entrance lined with horse stalls on Fremont Street; the shootout took place in a narrow lot on the side of C. S. Fly's Photographic Studio on Fremont Street, six doors west of the O.
K. Corral's rear entrance; some members of the two opposing parties were only about 6 feet apart. About 30 shots were fired in 30 seconds. Ike Clanton subsequently filed murder charges against the Earps and Doc Holliday. After a 30-day preliminary hearing and a brief stint in jail, the lawmen were shown to have acted within the law; the gunfight was not the end of the conflict. On December 28, 1881, Virgil Earp was maimed in a murder attempt by the Cowboys. On March 18, 1882, a Cowboy fired from a dark alley through the glass door of a Campbell & Hatch's saloon and billiard parlor, killing Morgan Earp; the suspects in both incidents furnished alibis were not indicted. Wyatt Earp, newly appointed as Deputy U. S. Marshal in Cochise County took matters into his own hands in a personal vendetta, he was pursued by county sheriff Johnny Behan, who had received a warrant from Tucson for Wyatt's shooting of Frank Stilwell. Tombstone, near the Mexican border, was founded in March 1879. After silver was discovered in the area, Tombstone grew into a frontier mining boomtown.
At its founding, it had a population of just 100, only two years in late 1881, the population was more than 7,000, making it the largest boomtown in the Southwest. Silver mining and its attendant wealth attracted many professionals and merchants, who brought their wives and families. With them came churches and ministers, they became the town's elite. By 1881 there were fancy restaurants, a bowling alley, four churches, an ice house, a school, an opera house, two banks, three newspapers, an ice cream parlor, along with 110 saloons, 14 gambling halls, numerous brothels, all situated among a number of dirty, hardscrabble mines. Horse rustlers and bandits from the countryside came to town, shootings were frequent. In the 1880s, illegal smuggling and theft of cattle and tobacco across the Mexico–United States border, about 30 miles from Tombstone, were common; the Mexican government assessed heavy export taxes on these items, smugglers earned a handsome profit by stealing them in Mexico and selling them across the border.
James and Wyatt Earp arrived in Tombstone on December 1, 1879, when the small town was composed of tents as living quarters, a few saloons and other buildings, the mines. Virgil had been hired as Deputy U. S. Marshal for eastern Pima County, with his offices in Tombstone, only days before his arrival. In June 1881 he was appointed as Tombstone's town marshal. Though not universally liked by the townspeople, the Earps tended to protect the interests of the town's business owners and residents. In contrast, Cochise County Sheriff Johnny Behan was sympathetic to the interests of the rural ranchers and members of the loosely organized outlaw group called the Cochise County Cowboys, or the Cowboys. Many of the supporting facts about the events leading up to the gunfight and details of the gunfight itself are uncertain. Newspapers of the day were not above taking sides, news reporting editorialized on issues to reflect the publisher's interests. John Clum, publisher of The Tombstone Epitaph, had helped organize a "Committee of Safety" in Tombstone in late September 1881.
He was elected as the city's fi
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
The Thibodaux massacre was a racial attack mounted by white paramilitary groups in Thibodaux, Louisiana in November 1887. It followed a three-week strike during the critical harvest season by an estimated 10,000 workers against sugar cane plantations in four parishes: Lafourche, Terrebonne, St. Mary, Assumption parishes; the strike was the largest in the industry and the first conducted by a formal labor organization, the Knights of Labor. At planters' requests, the state sent in militia to protect strikebreakers, work resumed on some plantations. Black workers and their families were evicted from plantations in Lafourche and Terrebonne parishes and retreated to Thibodaux. Tensions broke out in violence on November 23, 1887, the local white paramilitary forces attacked black workers and their families in Thibodaux. Although the total number of casualties is unknown, at least 35 black people were killed in the next three days and as many as 300 overall killed, wounded or missing, making it one of the most violent labor disputes in U.
S. history. Victims included elders and children. All those killed were African American; the massacre, passage by white Democrats of discriminatory state legislation, including disenfranchisement of most blacks, ended the organizing of sugar workers for decades, until the 1940s. According to Eric Arnesen, "The defeated sugar workers returned to the plantations on their employers' terms." The sugar cane harvest and processing was a complex series of events that had to be coordinated among a large labor force pushed to work to physical extremes. Sugar plantations were described as "factories in the field" and had a high death rate during slavery times. Conditions were little improved after Reconstruction. A major issue for sugar workers since the early 1880s was being forced by plantation owners to accept scrip for pay, a change the planters had initiated in the early 1880s. At the time, they cut wages because of a declining international sugar market; these "pasteboard tickets" were redeemable only at company stores, which operated at high profit margins.
As the plantation kept the books illiterate workers were bound by debt and unable to get free. Required by law to pay off the debt, workers became bound to the plantation in a state similar to slavery. Most of the cane workers were black, but there were whites; the Knights of Labor used the scrip issue to organize workers, thousands joined the group. In October 1877, Duncan F. Kenner, a millionaire planter, founded the statewide Louisiana Sugar Producer's Association, consisting of 200 of the largest planters in the state, served as president; the powerful LPSA lobbied the federal government for sugar tariffs, funding to support levees to protect their lands, research to increase crop yields. For the next decade these members worked to gain control over their labor: they adopted a uniform pay scale and withheld 80 percent of the wages until the end of the harvest season, in order to keep workers on the plantations through the end of the season, they ended the "job" system. The largest planters, who maintained stores, required workers to accept pay in scrip, redeemable only at their stores.
The workers resisted. The state government supported the powerful planters, sending in state militia when the planters used convict lease labor from prisons to harvest and process the cane. In 1887 the Knights of Labor organized a major three-week sugar strike against cane plantations in Lafourche, Terrebonne, St. Mary, Assumption parishes. Most plantations were idle; the strike was organized by the national Knights of Labor organization, who had established Local Assembly 8404 in Schriever the preceding year. In October labor representatives delivered demands to the LPSA that included an increase in wages to $1.25 a day, biweekly payments, payment in currency instead of the "pasteboard tickets", or scrip, redeemable only at company stores. As the LPSA ignored the demands, the Knights of Labor called the strike for November 1, timed to coincide with the critical "rolling period" of the crop, when it had to be harvested and processed; the work stoppage threatened the entire sugar cane harvest for the year.
The 1887 strike was the largest labor action in the industry, involving an estimated 10,000 workers, a tenth of whom were white. It was the first time; the planters appealed to Louisiana Governor Samuel Douglas McEnery, a planter. McEnery, declaring, "God Almighty has himself drawn the color line," called out ten infantry companies and an artillery company of the state militia, sending the latter to Thibodaux, the parish seat and "heart of the strike." They were to suppress strikers. The militia suppressed strikers in St. Mary Parish, resulting in "as many as twenty people" killed or wounded on November 5 in the black village of Pattersonville; the militia protected some 800 contract workers brought in to Terrebone Parish, helped capture and arrest 50 strikers, most for union activities. The strike collapsed there, workers returned to the plantations. Many of the black workers in Lafourche Parish retreated after eviction to the crowded African-American section of Thibodaux, the state militia withdrew.
They left it up to local officials to manage from there. Parish District Judge Taylor Beattie, who owned Orange Grove Plantation and was a member of the LPSA, announced formation of a "Peace and Order Committee" in Thibodaux, he declared martial law, recruited 300 white men for his committee to serve as a paramilitary group. He ordered blacks wit
Luke L. Short was an American Old West gunfighter, cowboy, U. S. Army scout, dispatch rider, boxing promoter and saloon owner, he survived numerous gunfights, the most famous of which were against Charlie Storms in Tombstone, Arizona Territory and against Jim Courtright in Fort Worth, Texas. Short had business interests in three of the best known saloons in the Old West: the Oriental in Tombstone, the Long Branch Saloon in Dodge City, the White Elephant in Fort Worth. Short was born in Polk County, Arkansas in January 1854, he was the fifth child of his wife Hetty Brumley. Short had nine siblings; the family soon moved to Texas. In 1862, Luke Short witnessed first hand his father being ambushed and attacked by Comanches in their yard, his father was surrounded by the Indians who wounded him with lances. Inside the house, a little boy at that time, helped the elder Short by dragging a large rifle to his brother, who ran and handed it to his father. At the age of 13, Luke was said to have carved the face of a bully when he was still at school, a reason why he and his father moved to Forth Worth, Texas.
In 1869, at age 15, Short started work as a cowboy, which he continued through 1875 and during which he made several trips to the Kansas railheads. Short was reported by Bat Masterson to have killed six drunken Sioux Indians at various times. Writers have relied on Masterson's story as truthful and added to it, but no documentation of these killings has been found. Nonetheless, Short had been in over thirty engagements fighting Indians while working for the government, his first Indian fight was in 1869. Whilst working as a scout for General George Crook in 1876, he was stationed in the Black Hills during the Sioux insurrection. While conducting one of his usual scouting expeditions for the army a band of fifteen Indians ambushed and fired at him with rifles. Short fired back, killing three of them in quick succession; some of the Indians gave chase on horseback, Short killed two of them before reaching safety. From October 6 to 8, 1878, Short worked as a dispatch courier from Ogallala for Major Thomas Tipton Thornburgh.
He served as a civilian scout for Thornburgh until October 20. He enlisted at Sidney, Nebraska to be paid $100 a month but he only served for 12 days, for which he was paid $40; the Fort Worth Daily Gazette described him as "the bravest scout in the government employ." In an interview in his life, Short told researcher George H. Morrison that he moved to the Black Hills in 1876 and to Ogallala, Nebraska the next year. Accounts written in Short's years stated that he was an outlaw during his time in Nebraska, it was around this time that Short was said to have traded whiskey with Indians around Camp Robinson, Nebraska. According to his nephew Wayne Short, Luke was arrested by the army, they put him to a train destined for Omaha, but Luke managed to escape the army escort and went to the makeshift mining and cowtown of Denver, taking up gambling as a profession. He is said to have killed two men on separate occasions due to altercations during their card games. Short moved to Colorado in 1879 where he continued gambling.
Bat Masterson wrote that Short wounded a man during a gambling dispute in Leadville. He was accused of swindling Texan John Jones "out of $280 on Three Card Monte" and jailed on October 5 for six days in Kansas City. Short first met William H. Harris and Bat Masterson in Tombstone. Based on their previous friendship, Harris had no problem convincing his partners to engage Earp as a faro dealer at their Oriental Saloon in Tombstone. On Friday, February 25, 1881, Short was serving as the lookout, seated next to the dealer at a faro game in the Oriental, when he was involved in what became a well-known gunfight, his opponent was Charlie Storms. Bat Masterson, in Tombstone at the time, described what happened in a magazine article he wrote in 1907: Storms did not know Short and, like the bad man in Leadville, had sized him up as an insignificant-looking fellow, whom he could slap in the face without expecting a return. Both were about to pull their pistols when I jumped between them and grabbed Storms, at the same time requesting Luke not to shoot, a request I knew he would respect if it was possible without endangering his own life too much.
I had no trouble in getting Storms out of the house, as he knew me to be his friend... I was just explaining to Luke that Storms was a decent sort of man when, lo and behold! There he stood before us, without saying a word, he took hold of Luke's arm and pulled him off the sidewalk, where he had been standing, at the same time pulling his pistol, a Colt's cut-off, 45 calibre, single action. Luke pulled the trigger; the bullet tore the heart asunder and, as he was falling, Luke shot him again. Storms was dead. Storms' body was taken to the undertaker, where the coroner's jury was convened and testimony was heard; the jury reached a verdict that Storms died from three pistol wounds at the hands of Short, that Short's actions were justifiable. Short was free to go. Five days after Storms died, the Leadville Democrat wrote about the shooting, it said that Storms approached Short and "catching him by the ear", demanded an apology. According to the account, Storms grabbed Short's ear with his left hand and his rig