Tainter Lake is a small reservoir in north central Dunn County, Wisconsin, on the Red Cedar River at its confluence with the Hay River. The lake was created by a hydroelectric dam (about 3 miles downstream on the Red Cedar at Cedar Falls; the lake, a popular resort and fishing spot, has a surface area of 2 square miles. Before the installation of the dam at Cedar Falls, Tainter Lake did not exist; the decision to build the mill and dam came from Andrew Tainter, a wealthy lumber baron, a partner in Knapp and Company, the largest lumber mill in the country during the 1870s. It was employed 1,200 men. By that time the company had logging camps on nearly every stream leading to the Red Cedar and controlled all of the Red Cedar River and its tributaries; the company's largest mill operation was on the Menomonee River where the lumber settlement became known as the "mills of Menomonie" or "Menomonie Mills" and Menomonie, now the county seat of Dunn. The firm continued to log until 1899 when competition keen.
The mill at Cedar Falls closed in 1901. During those productive years of logging, acres of forest land near and next to the Red Cedar River were cleared. While the company owned a number of farms to provide food and meat for the loggers, pioneer farmers moved to the area, removed stumps and began farming. Most of the newly created farm land sloped, or had access, to the river as it had been so efficient for logging. Decades this same watershed, the farming industry, would mean trouble for Tainter Lake. Vegetation maps of the mid-1880s show that the area was 10 % native grasses. Maps of the early 1980s indicate that the basin area is less than 50% forest and 40% agricultural land; these are the historical issues that affect the area today, contributing to the excessive algae in Lake Tainter. Tainter Lake is located in northern Dunn Wisconsin. A small channel divides the lake into South regions; the channel creates some of the narrowest parts of the lake and contains the deepest part of the lake. The average depth of the lake is 20 feet.
A few small resorts are situated on the shores, although the lake is not known for its large fish populations. North Tainter is better known for its fishing than the southern part; this is because the north has multiple fish cribs that were planted over the last 20 years, is shallower than the southern part of the lake, has many species of fish that spawn in the shallow slow moving water. North Tainter Lake is fed by the Red Cedar River, but by the Hay River. Both rivers drain the farm fields north of Lake Tainter; the TMLIA has been diligently working on an algae problem for the last several years. With their increased participation; the Red Cedar River south of the Cedar Falls dam creates flows for about three miles until it reaches Lake Menomin, created by a dam on the Red Cedar. Because the Lake Menomin dam is the last one on the Red Cedar River before the Mississippi, it is legal to fish that part of the river out of season. Common species of fish in Tainter Lake include walleye, black crappie, bluegill.
Somewhat common species include yellow perch, northern pike, common carp, white bass, bowfin. Water quality is an issue for fishing in the summer months as large algae blooms decrease water visibility making it hard for fish to see bait fish. Walleye are pressured by fishermen year round and have an average length of less than 15 inches. Walleye from 20 inches to 24 inches cannot be kept. Xcel Energy operates the Cedar Falls Hydroelectric Project; the project consists of a 510 feet long 50 feet high dam located near Wisconsin. Its powerhouse contains three 2,000 kW electrical generators with a total capacity of 7.1 MW. The facility can produce over 33.6 million kilowatt hours of electricity each year. It is a modified run-of-the-river hydroelectricity project; the Cedar Falls dam was a timber dam and was replaced with a concrete dam in 1910. New generators were added in 1912 and 1915 and the project has changed little since that time. In 2005 the dam's gates were upgraded to include Obermeyer spillway gates with inflatable rubber bladders that allow more consistent water levels on the lake through the year.
Before the installation of the inflatable gates, the dam featured gates made of plywood that were designed to break as the ice melted. During the installation of the inflatable gates the water level of the lake dropped about 5 or 6 feet; this caused the water to erode some of the land. When the water level returned to normal residents living on the lake with docks had to shorten the length of their dock because the water had become deeper; the Tainter/Menomin Lake Improvement Association. DATE! <http://www.tmlia.org>. Http://www.rootsweb.com/~widunn/knapp-stout-founders.htm http://discover-net.net/~dchs/history/explaces.html#Red%20Cedar%20River http://www.usgennet.org/usa/wi/county/eauclaire/history/ourstory/vol2/knappstout.html Tainter Menomin Lake Improvement Association Wisconsin DNR 1960 Lake survey maps Obermeyer Hydro homepage
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Chippewa River (Wisconsin)
See Chippewa River for several other rivers of the same name. The Chippewa River in Wisconsin flows 183 miles through west-central and northwestern Wisconsin, it was once navigable for 50 miles of its length, from the Mississippi River, by Durand, northeast to Eau Claire. Its catchment defines a portion of the northern boundary of the Driftless Area; the river is accessible for bikers and pleasure seekers via the Chippewa River State Trail which follows the river from Eau Claire to Durand. The river is formed by the confluence of the West Fork Chippewa River, which rises at Chippewa Lake in southeastern Bayfield County, the East Fork Chippewa River, which rises in the swamps of the southern part of the Town of Knight in Iron County, Wisconsin; the rivers' confluence is at Lake Chippewa, a reservoir in central Sawyer County, the official "beginning" of the Chippewa River. The river flows from Sawyer County through Rusk, Eau Claire, Dunn and Buffalo Counties, in Wisconsin, before emptying out into the Mississippi River.
Sediment build-up at the river's mouth forms a delta that protrudes into the Mississippi, creating Lake Pepin in the process. Along the last 15 miles of its course, the main channel forms the county boundary between Pepin and Buffalo Counties. Major lakes along the river's route include the Radisson and Holcombe Flowages, Lake Wissota and Dell's Pond, all of which are reservoirs; the largest reservoir by far is the Chippewa Flowage, the 3rd largest lake in Wisconsin. The river's primary tributaries include the Couderay, Flambeau, Jump, Yellow, Eau Claire, Red Cedar and Eau Galle Rivers; the river's confluence with the Red Cedar is just north of the Driftless Zone, at which point its floodplain widens out and includes numerous riverine islands. The primary settlements along the river's course include Cornell, Chippewa Falls, Eau Claire, Durand; the Chippewa River was important as a floatway for lumbering and papermaking. The river has a deep wide canyon due to larger water discharges during Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat.
Chippewa River Bottoms is located along the river. The 1742 Carte de la Louisiane et du Cours du Mississipi as "Rivière de bon Secours ou Hahatonouadeba", in the 1757 edition of the Mitchell Map as "Hahatonadeba River", the maps show the transliteration of the Dakota language name for the river Ḣaḣatuŋatpa; the word "Chippewa" is a rendering of "Ojibwe." The Ojibwe people controlled most of the upper Chippewa Valley and its tributaries until the Treaty of St. Peters in 1837. Of the pine forests in Wisconsin in the 1800s, the Chippewa River system held more than the Wisconsin River, it is estimated that the Chippewa system drained 34% of Wisconsin's pineries, as compared to 21% for the Wisconsin, 14% for the St. Croix, 7% for the Black. Before logging, the Chippewa Valley held about 46,000,000,000 board feet of lumber. Frederick Weyerhaeuser described it as "a logger's paradise, a large part of its area being forested with the finest quality of white pine timber, while rivers and lakes offered an excellent network of transportation facilities."The first sawmill in the Chippewa Valley was functioning at what would become Menomonie around 1831.
By 1840 Jean Brunet and associates were sawing wood at Chippewa Falls. Floods destroyed these early mills, the lumbermen rebuilt them. In the late 1800s, Chippewa Falls was said to have the largest sawmill under one roof in the world. By the 1850s the loggers were binding the sawed pine lumber into rafts which were guided down the lower Chippewa to markets on the Mississippi. Above Chippewa Falls, the river was too rough and rocky for large rafts. Masses of individual logs were driven down by log drivers, sometimes called "river pigs." To make the drives more efficient and reliable, the loggers changed the river somewhat, dynamiting troublesome rocks, cutting trees that would snag logs, building up the banks in places, damming the river and its tributaries. Around 1876 a dam and log-sorting works was built between Chippewa Falls. In 1878 a large splash dam was built at Little Falls, with so much capacity that when opened it could raise the Chippewa three feet 100 miles downstream. Over the Chippewa and its tributaries the loggers built at least 148 logging dams, of various sizes and purposes.
The Chippewa River is a popular destination for recreational canoers. Paddlers experience a variety of conditions on the river, from calm, slow-moving water to small rapids and whitewater. Fishing is a popular activity: the river is known for musky, smallmouth bass and northern pike. List of Wisconsin rivers Diary of Chippewa River Trip in 1868, C. H. Cooke, published in Eau Claire Leader Telegram in 1917. Cooke describes his canoe trip up the river from Eau Claire during the spring log drive of 1868. "Early Lumbering on the Chippewa", Vinette and William W. Bartlett, Wisconsin Magazine of History, 1926, Wisconsin Historical Society. Contains an early first-person account of logging and rafting on the Chippewa, with old photos. "Our Story 1776-1976 - The Chippewa Valley and Beyond" was an insert published by the Eau Claire Leader Telegram in 1976, edited by Arnie Hoffman. It includes articles on various aspects of local history, with local information and photos that are hard to find elsewhere
Barron County, Wisconsin
Barron County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,870, its county seat is Barron. The county was created in 1859 and organized in 1874; the county was created in 1859 with the county seat located at Barron. It was renamed Barron County on March 4, 1869; the county took the name Barron in honor of Wisconsin lawyer and politician Henry D. Barron, who served as circuit judge of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit. Barron County was organized in 1874. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 890 square miles, of which 863 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 8 U. S. Highway 53 U. S. Highway 63 Highway 25 Highway 48 KRPD - Rice Lake Regional Airport serves Barron County. KUBE - Cumberland Municipal Airport is located three miles south of Cumberland. Y23 - Chetek Municipal–Southworth Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. 9Y7 - Barron Municipal Airport enhances county service. As of the census of 2000, there were 44,963 people, 17,851 households, 12,352 families residing in the county.
The population density was 52 people per square mile. There were 20,969 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.69% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.81% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.4 % were of 5.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 17,851 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.00 males. Barron Chetek Cumberland Rice Lake Almena Cameron Dallas Haugen New Auburn Prairie Farm Turtle Lake Barronett National Register of Historic Places listings in Barron County, Wisconsin Curtiss-Wedge, Franklin. History of Barron County Wisconsin. Minneapolis: H. C. Cooper Jr. 1922. Barron County website Barron County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Polk County, Wisconsin
Polk County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,205, its county seat is Balsam Lake. The county was created in 1853. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 956 square miles, of which 914 square miles is land and 42 square miles is water. Burnett County - north Barron County - east Dunn County - southeast St. Croix County - south Washington County, Minnesota - southwest Chisago County, Minnesota - west Amery Municipal Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. L. O. Simenstad Municipal Airport. Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway As of the 2000 census, there were 41,319 people, 16,254 households, 11,329 families residing in the county; the population density was 45 people per square mile. There were 21,129 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.64% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 1.06% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races.
0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31.4% were of German, 18.6% Norwegian, 11.3% Swedish, 5.5% Irish and 5.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 16,254 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.50 males. Amery St. Croix Falls Lewis Arnold Franz Brasz, a prominent painter and printmaker was born in Polk County on July 19, 1888 George A. Nelson — the 1936 candidate for Vice President of the United States of the Socialist Party of America was born in rural Polk County and was a dairy farmer there.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Wisconsin Prentice, Worthy A. Reminiscences of Early Pioneer Days in Polk County. Balsam Lake, Wis,: Polk County Ledger, n.d.. Polk County website Polk County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Polk County Economic Development Corporation Polk County Tourism
Red Cedar River (Wisconsin)
The Red Cedar River in northwestern Wisconsin is a tributary of the Chippewa River, flowing 85 miles from Red Cedar Lake in northeastern Barron County to its confluence with the Chippewa southeast of Dunnville in southern Dunn County. Important tributaries include the Hay River. Important settlements along the river's course include Rice Lake, Cameron and Menomonie; the majority of the river's course is through Dunn County, which it nearly bisects from north to south. The Red Cedar flows through three other important lakes, Rice Lake in Barron County, two reservoirs in central Dunn County, Tainter Lake and Lake Menomin. Below the dam from Lake Menomin the Red Cedar river is well known for its large walleye population. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Red Cedar River "Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources: Red Cedar River". Retrieved April 21, 2013."UW-Stout leads Red Cedar River Reinvestment"
Dunn County, Wisconsin
Dunn County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,857, its county seat is Menomonie. Dunn County comprises the Menomonie, WI Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Eau Claire-Menomonie, WI Combined Statistical Area; the county was founded in 1854 from Chippewa County and organized in 1857. It is named for first chief justice of the territory. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 864 square miles, of which 850 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Barron County - north Chippewa County - east Eau Claire County - southeast Pepin County - south Pierce County - southwest Polk County - northwest Saint Croix County - west Menomonie Municipal Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. Boyceville Municipal Airport enhances county service; as of the census of 2000, there were 39,858 people, 14,337 households, 9,261 families residing in the county. The population density was 47 people per square mile.
There were 15,277 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.08% White, 0.34% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 2.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 39.3% were of German, 22.6% Norwegian and 5.1% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.7 % spoke 1.6 % Spanish and 1.5 % Hmong as their first language. There were 14,337 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.10% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.40% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 19.80% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 19.80% from 45 to 64, 11.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 101.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. Menomonie Boyceville Colfax Downing Elk Mound Knapp Ridgeland Wheeler Downsville Tainter Lake Old Tyrone Welch Point National Register of Historic Places listings in Dunn County, Wisconsin Dunn County, Wisconsin website Dunn County Historical Society Dunn County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation