West Cornwall Railway
The West Cornwall Railway was a railway company in Cornwall, Great Britain, formed in 1846 to construct a railway between Penzance and Truro. It purchased the existing Hayle Railway, improved its main line, built new sections between Penzance and Hayle, between Redruth and Truro, opened throughout in 1852; when the Cornwall Railway reached Truro in 1859, rail travel between Penzance and London was possible, by changing trains. However, the West Cornwall company was called on to carry out certain mandatory improvements; the main line of the West Cornwall Railway is still in operation at the present day, forming the western end of the Cornish Main Line railway. The Hayle Railway had been opened as a mineral railway in 1837 between copper and tin mining districts near Redruth, sea ports at Hayle and Portreath; the line was lightly engineered, with light T-section rails on stone blocks. There were four rope-worked inclined planes on the system, standard gauge. Passenger traffic began to be carried on the main line between Redruth and Hayle, but the physical limitations of the system were significant.
Local interests promoted a scheme to extend the Hayle Railway at each end of its main line so as to link Penzance and Truro. They formed the West Cornwall Railway company, their proposal was to lease the extensions to the Hayle Railway and to arrange for that company to work the whole line; the atmospheric system was proposed for the Truro to Redruth section. (In this system, stationary engines create a partial vacuum in a pipe between the rails, vehicle at the head of the train carries a piston, entered into the pipe, to achieve traction. The scheme was estimated at £160,000; however a parliamentary bill in 1845 was defeated, chiefly because of concern about the delays and inconvenience due to two rope worked inclines on the main line, at Angarrack and Penponds. A second bill was promoted, receiving the Royal Assent on 3 August 1846, giving powers to purchase the Hayle Railway and construct deviations to eliminate the inclined planes, to complete the route between Penzance and Truro; the company's capital was to be £500,000 with borrowing powers of £165,000, a head office in London.
The line was to be broad gauge, "subject to the liability to lay additional rails of the gauge of any railway which might thereafter be constructed through Cornwall to Truro". The main line was to be from Carvedras in Truro, with branches to the Truro River and to Falmouth, to Penryn and to St Ives. Possession of the Hayle Railway was taken on 3 November 1846, the purchase price being paid in 4,000 West Cornwall shares, by taking over the Hayle company's debts, amounting to £47,960. Money was scarce at this time due to the collapse in investor confidence after the railway mania, for some time, the new company was unable to undertake the new construction, only continuing to operate the original Hayle Railway network; when finance became available, it was decided to build the new route sections in standard gauge, so as to avoid the expense of converting and relaying the existing Hayle Railway sections, which were in that gauge. However the powers granted were conditional upon the West Cornwall laying broad gauge rails on six months' notice from any connecting broad gauge line.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel was the company's engineer, he proposed the use of Barlow rails, a rail section with a wide base, laid directly in the ballast without sleepers or other support, with a considerable saving in first cost. This is said to be Brunel's first experiment with this rail section; as stated, the Hayle Railway's own T-section rail and stone block track was retained where appropriate but in the event "Much reconstruction had been necessary, much of the old line between Hayle and Redruth had been relaid. Several new viaducts were required, including Angarrack and Penponds, in each case on account of the deviation to by-pass the inclines. By February 1852 the route was ready between Redruth and Penzance, on 16 February 1852 the former Hayle Railway section was closed to enable the final connections to be made. On 25 February a locomotive was seen in Penzance for the first time, on 27 February the Chairman and Directors made a trial inspection run from Redruth to Penzance. Formalities were completed and the line was ready for opening.
On 11 March 1852, the West Cornwall main line was opened between Penzance and the new Redruth station, without ceremony. The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser newspaper, which had reported the directors' inspection run in detail, did not record the opening, although an accident at Hayle on 17 March was reported; the opening was announced in the Royal Cornwall Gazette on 12 March 1852 but only by publication of the timetable, rather than a description of the opening ceremony. Three passenger trains a day ran, with two on Sundays; the first class return from Redruth to Penzance was 4s 6d. Good progress was being made with the construction of the eastern end of the route, on 25 August 1852 there was a grand ceremonial opening of that part of the line, as far as Higher Town, on the western margin of Truro; the main line was in new construction from Penzance to a point near Trenowin Farm, east of Angarrack using the Hayle Railway route to near the Redrut
St Erth railway station
St Erth railway station is a Grade II listed station situated at Rose-an-Grouse in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It serves the nearby village of St Erth, about 0.75 miles away, is the junction for the St Ives Bay Line to St Ives. The station is 321 miles measured from London Paddington via Bristol Temple Meads. On an average weekday St Erth sees up to 69 trains, 26 trains to St Ives, 22 towards Penzance and 21 towards Plymouth; this makes it the busiest station in Cornwall in terms of services. The station was opened by the West Cornwall Railway on 11 March 1852. At this time it was known as St Ives Road and was the railhead for that town, which lies about 4 miles to the north; this was an important harbour with tin and copper mines. The station was a simple single platform situated on the north side of the lineOn 1 June 1877 a branch line was opened from here to St Ives, when the station was renamed'St Erth'; this was rectified in about 1894 when a loop line with its own platform was opened, but the line was only doubled eastwards to Hayle on 10 September 1899, westwards to Marazion on 16 June 1929.
Beyond the St Ives branch platform was the station goods yard and sidings which served a china clay dry for a few years. It served milk trains from the Primrose Dairy creamery operated by United Dairies, although these were taken out of use in 1982; the station buildings are constructed of granite in an'L' shape west and north of the St Ives bay platform. The booking office is staffed for part of the day and is located in the west-facing section which faces the station car park; the northern range incorporates staff accommodation as well as refreshment facilities which appeared in a list of the ten best station cafes published in The Guardian in 2009. Alongside this is a short siding with a loading platform, the terminal track of the St Erth/St Ives branch line; the opposite side of this is platform 2. Used by trains towards Plymouth and beyond, it is used by through trains for Penzance moving on or off the St Ives branch; because the main line is on a falling gradient towards Hayle, at the buffer stop end a few steps are needed to connect platforms 2 and 3 but at the east end they are nearly level.
Standing at this end of the station the line to St Ives curves away to the left over Western Growers Crossing towards the covered way beneath the A30 road. The Cornish Main Line towards Hayle drops to the right with the signal box situated between the two; the Down Sidings on the right of the main line are level and so are higher than the main line at the far end. Platforms 2 and 3 have a long canopy above them to protect passengers waiting for their train. At the west end of this is a covered footbridge which links with the main westbound platform for trains to Penzance, a large wooden shelter is provided here. A small granite building further up the platform is for staff use; as with several other stations in Cornwall, small palm trees grow on the main platforms, both of which can accommodate seven-coach trains. In 2017, a new concourse and ticket office was opened in St Erth, replacing the old ticket office, smaller; the new building now includes toilet facilities and a waiting lounge, including a medium-sized ticket office with two windows.
This process included upgraded step-free access to the concourse and to platforms 2 & 3. A new entrance to platforms 2 & 3 near to the station cafe was built, next to an new private building for staff only. An improved transport interchange is under construction in 2018; the signal box is situated at the east end of the station between the main line and the St Ives branch. It was opened on 10 September 1899 when the main line was doubled to Hayle and replaced an earlier box that dated from around the time of the opening of the St Ives branch. Semaphore signals still control movements around the station; the signal box controls trains on the St Ives branch. St Erth sees more passengers change train than any other station in Cornwall; the statistics cover twelve month periods. St Erth is served by most Great Western Railway trains on the Cornish Main Line between Penzance and Plymouth with one train per hour in each direction; some trains run through to or from London Paddington station, including the Night Riviera overnight sleeping car service and the Golden Hind which offers an early morning service to London and an evening return.
Other fast trains are the afternoon Royal Duchy. There are a limited number of CrossCountry trains providing a service to Scotland in the morning and returning in the evening. On the St Ives Bay Line all services are operated by Great Western Railway. A small number of branch line trains are extended to Penzance. Panoramic photograph of platforms at night Panoramic photograph of platforms in day Nick Stanton's Flickr Images of St Erth Station 2007
Royal National Lifeboat Institution
The Royal National Lifeboat Institution is the largest charity that saves lives at sea around the coasts of the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, as well as on some inland waterways. There are numerous other lifeboat services operating in the same area. Founded in 1824 as the National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck, the RNLI was granted a Royal Charter in 1860, it is a charity in the Republic of Ireland. Queen Elizabeth II is Patron; the RNLI is principally funded by legacies and donations, most of the members of its lifeboat crews are unpaid volunteers. The RNLI operates 444 lifeboats. Crews rescued on average 22 people a day in 2015. RNLI Lifeguards operate on more than 200 beaches, they are paid by local authorities, while the RNLI provides training. The Institution operates Flood Rescue Teams nationally and internationally, the latter prepared to travel to emergencies overseas at short notice. Considerable effort is put into training and education by the Institution for young people.
The Institution has saved some 140,000 lives since its foundation, at a cost of more than 600 lives lost in service. Sir William Hillary moved to the Isle of Man in 1808. Being aware of the treacherous nature of the Irish Sea, with many ships being wrecked around the Manx coast, he drew up plans for a national lifeboat service manned by trained crews, he received little response from the Admiralty. However, on appealing to the more philanthropic members of London society, the plans were adopted and, with the help of Member of Parliament Thomas Wilson and former MP and merchant George Hibbert, the National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck was founded in 1824. At the age of 60, Sir William took part in the 1830 rescue of the packet St George, which had foundered on Conister Rock at the entrance to Douglas Harbour, he commanded the lifeboat and was washed overboard with others of the lifeboat crew, yet everyone aboard the St George was rescued with no loss of life. It was this incident which prompted Sir William to set up a scheme to build The Tower of Refuge on Conister Rock – a project completed in 1832 which stands to this day at the entrance to Douglas Harbour.
In 1854 the institution's name changed to the Royal National Lifeboat Institution and the first of the new lifeboats to be built was stationed at Douglas in recognition of the work of Sir William. In its first year the RNLI raised £10,000, however by 1849, income had dropped to £354. Finding itself in financial difficulties, the RNLI accepted a government subsidy of £2,000, which rose in subsequent years; this lasted until 1869, when the RNLI ceased accepting subsidies – it had found that voluntary donations had fallen by more than the subsidies. It was the loss of 27 lifeboat crew of Southport and St Annes in 1886 that gave new impetus to fundraising and an 1889 appeal raised £10,000; the first Lifeboat Saturday was held in that year. During World War I, lifeboat crews launched 1,808 times. With many younger men on active service, the average age of a lifeboatman was over 50. Many launches were to ships, torpedoed or struck mines, including naval or merchant vessels on war duty. World War II placed considerable extra demands on the RNLI in south and east England where the threat of invasion and enemy activity was ever-present, rescuing downed aircrew a frequent occurrence, the constant danger of mines.
During the war 6,376 lives were saved. Nineteen RNLI lifeboats sailed to Dunkirk between 27 May and 4 June 1940 to assist with the Dunkirk evacuation. Lifeboats from Ramsgate and Margate went directly to France with their own crews; the crew of Ramsgate's Prudential collected 2,800 troops. Margate's Coxswain, Edward Parker, was awarded a Distinguished Service Medal for his work taking the RNLB Lord Southborough to the beaches. Of the other lifeboats and crews summoned to Dover by the Admiralty, the first arrivals questioned – reasonably in their view – the details of the service, in particular the impracticality of running heavy lifeboats on to the beach, loading them with soldiers floating them off; the dispute resulted in the first three crews being sent home. Subsequent lifeboats arriving were commandeered without discussion, much to the disappointment of many lifeboatmen. A RNLI investigation resulted in the dismissal of two Hythe crew members, who were vindicated in one aspect of their criticism, as Hythe's Viscountess Wakefield was run on to the beach and unable to be refloated.
Some RNLI crew members stayed in Dover for the emergency to provide repair and refuelling facilities, after the end of the evacuation most lifeboats returned to their stations with varying levels of damage and continued their lifesaving services. The RNLI's lifeboat crews and lifeguards have saved more than 140,000 lives since 1824; the RNLI makes a distinction between people aided and lives saved. There were 8,462 lifeboat launches in 2014, rescuing 8,727 people, including saving 460 lives. Lifeguards rescued 19,353 people. Flood rescuers deployed seven times. In 2015 crews rescued on average 22 people a day; the bi
Hale railway station
Hale railway station serves the area of Hale in the south of Altrincham, Greater Manchester, England. It is used by people living in the surrounding areas of Bowdon and Hale Barns; the station is located on Ashley Road. It is on the Mid-Cheshire Line, from Chester to Manchester Piccadilly, 8 miles south west of Manchester Piccadilly; the station was opened as Peel Causeway by the Cheshire Midland Railway on 12 May 1862 when the railway opened from Altrincham to Knutsford. The CMR was amalgamated into the Cheshire Lines Committee on 15 August 1867; the station became Peel Causeway for Hale on 1 January 1899, on 1 January 1902 it was renamed Hale. The station was served by passenger trains from Manchester Central to Northwich and Chester Northgate; the CLC remained as an independent entity until the creation of British Railways on 1 January 1948, when BR took over operation of the station and the line. Monday to Saturday there is an hourly service from Hale via Stockport to Manchester Piccadilly eastbound, to Chester westbound.
There is an additional hourly service in peak hours only. All services are operated by Northern, who operate Class 142, Class 150 and Class 156 trains on the route; the current ageing rolling stock is expected to be modernised following the removal of all Pacer trains in the country by 2020. This will allow for less crowded and cleaner services for passengers using the station. Typical Monday to Saturday service pattern as of May 2018:xx:13 service to Chester. Xx:56 service to Manchester Piccadilly. Sundays see a two-hourly service both ways; the station has a ticket office at Platform 1, open on weekday mornings. Digital station information boards are in operation on both platforms, there are station announcements. There is a station car park on either side of the level crossing; the station has a Victorian feel to it with the station footbridge. Much of the station building on Platform 1 is now a vet surgery, the station building on Platform 2 is now a health clinic; the signal box is not in use any more.
Located in the heart of Hale, the station is close to many restaurants. Listed buildings in Hale, Greater Manchester Griffiths, R. Prys; the Cheshire Lines Railway. The Oakwood Press. Mitchell, Vic. Chester Northgate to Manchester. Middleton Press. Figs. 69-73. ISBN 9781908174512. OCLC 892704846. Train times and station information for Hale railway station from National Rail Mid-Cheshire Community Rail Partnership
Great Western Railway (train operating company)
First Greater Western Limited, trading as Great Western Railway, is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup that operates the Greater Western railway franchise. It manages 197 stations and its trains call at over 270. GWR operates long-distance inter-city services along the Great Western Main Line to and from South West England and South Wales, as well as the Night Riviera sleeper service between London and Penzance, it provides commuter/outer-suburban services from its London terminus at Paddington to West London, the Thames Valley region including parts of Berkshire, parts of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. GWR was due to begin operating the Heathrow Express service under a management contract on behalf of Heathrow Airport Holdings from August 2018; the company began operating in February 1996 as Great Western Trains, as part of the privatisation of British Rail. In December 1998 it became First Great Western after FirstGroup bought out its partners' shares in Great Western Holdings.
In April 2006, First Great Western, First Great Western Link and Wessex Trains were combined into the new Greater Western franchise and brought under the First Great Western brand. The company adopted its current name and a new livery in September 2015 to coincide with the start of an extended franchise, due to run until April 2020; as part of the privatisation of British Rail, the Great Western InterCity franchise was awarded by the Director of Passenger Rail Franchising to Great Western Holdings in December 1995 and began operations on 4 February 1996. Great Western Holdings was owned by some former British Rail FirstBus and 3i. In March 1998, FirstGroup bought out its partners' stakes to give it 100% ownership. In December 1998, the franchise was rebranded as First Great Western. On 1 April 2004, First Great Western Link commenced operating the Thames Trains franchise, it operated local train services from Paddington to Slough, Henley-on-Thames, Didcot, Newbury, Worcester, Hereford and Stratford upon Avon.
It operated services from Reading to Gatwick Airport, from Reading to Basingstoke. On 1 April 2006, the Great Western, Great Western Link and Wessex Trains franchises were combined into a new Greater Western franchise. FirstGroup, National Express and Stagecoach were shortlisted to bid for this new franchise. On 13 December 2005, it was announced. First planned to subdivide its services into three categories based on routes. Following feedback from staff and stakeholders, the decision was taken to re-brand and re-livery all services as'First Great Western'. In May 2011, FirstGroup announced that it had decided not to take up the option to extend its franchise beyond the end of March 2013. FirstGroup stated that, in the light of the £1bn plan to electrify the Great Western route from London via Bristol to Cardiff, it wanted to try to negotiate a longer-term deal. CEO Tim O'Toole said: "We believe we are best placed to manage these projects and capture the benefits through a longer-term franchise."By not taking up the option to extend its original franchise contract for a further three years, FirstGroup avoided having to pay £826.6m to the government.
In March 2012 Arriva, FirstGroup, National Express and Stagecoach were shortlisted to bid for the new franchise. The winner was expected to be announced in December 2012, with the new franchisee taking over in April 2013; the ITT ran from the end of July until October 2012. The winner would have been announced in March 2013, taken on the franchise from 21 July 2013 until the end of July 2028; the new franchise would include the introduction of new Intercity Express Trains, capacity enhancements and smart ticketing. The award of the franchise was again delayed in October 2012, while the Department for Transport reviewed the way rail franchises are awarded. In January 2013, the government announced that the current competition for the franchise had been terminated, that FirstGroup's contract had been extended until October 2013. A two-year franchise extension until September 2015 was agreed in October 2013, subsequently extended until March 2019. A further extension to April 2019 was granted in March 2015.
The refurbishment of first class carriages in 2014 included interiors that featured a new GWR logo and no First branding. The whole company was rebranded as Great Western Railway on 20 September 2015 and introduced a green livery in recognition of the former Great Western Railway; the new livery was introduced when HST interiors were refurbished, on sleeper carriages and Class 57/6 locomotives. Great Western Railway is the primary train operator in Devon, Somerset, Berkshire, Wiltshire and Oxfordshire. Great Western Railway operates commuter services between London and destinations such as Slough, Reading, Oxford, Bedwyn, Hereford and Banbury. There are services between Reading and Basingstoke. Trains run on various north-south routes from Cardiff and Worcester to Taunton, Salisbury, Southampton and Brighton. Many of these run via Bristol; the company runs trains on local routes including branch lines in Devon and Cornwall, such as the Looe, Newq
Disused railway stations on the Cornish Main Line
There are seventeen disused railway stations on the Cornish Main Line between Plymouth in Devon and Penzance in Cornwall, England. The remains of nine of these can be seen from passing trains. While a number of these were closed following the so-called "Beeching Axe" in the 1960s, many of them had been closed much earlier, the traffic for which they had been built failing to materialise; the railway from Plymouth to Truro was opened by the Cornwall Railway on 4 May 1859, where it joined up with the West Cornwall Railway, completed from there to Penzance on 16 April 1855. The section from Carn Brea to Angarrack dates back to the Hayle Railway, opened on 23 December 1837, it now forms Network Rail's Cornish Main Line. The trains of the South Devon Railway reached the town of Plymouth on 2 April 1849. Docks were opened adjacent to the station and a new headquarters office was built next door; the station was expanded ready for the opening of the Cornwall Railway on 4 May 1859 and the South Devon and Tavistock Railway on 22 June 1859.
It became known as Plymouth Millbay after other stations were opened in the town in 1876-7 at Mutley and North Road. The station was closed to passengers on 23 April 1941. All traffic ceased from 14 December 1969 except for goods trains running through to the docks which continued until 30 June 1971; the site is now occupied by the Plymouth Pavilions leisure complex. Two granite gate posts outside the Millbay Road entrance are all, left of the station, although a goods shed on what used to be Washington Place is still extant nearby This suburban halt near Devonport Junction in Plymouth was opened by the Great Western Railway on 1 June 1904, it was served by the Plympton to Saltash railmotor service introduced at that time to compete with the electric tramways in the town. It was closed in June 1921. Ford was one of the halts opened by the Great Western Railway for its railmotor services on 1 June 1904, it was located to serve the northern district of Devonport which had grown around the naval dockyard.
The denuded remains of the southbound platform still remain, just west of an underbridge into the Royal Navy Dockyard and at the commencement of the cutting before Keyham. It was closed on 6 November 1941, during the World War II blitz of Devonport. Defiance Platform was opened by the Great Western Railway on 1 March 1905 and served naval personnel travelling to the nearby torpedo training school on HMS Defiance, moored nearby. Most trains were the railmotors and auto trains from Plympton which were run for an extra 3⁄4 mile beyond Saltash where they otherwise terminated; the line was doubled and moved on 4 February 1906 and Wearde became the junction for a deviation line to St Germans that allowed the removal of the remaining timber viaducts on the Cornish Main Line. As a result of the deviation the platform was moved in 1907, where access to the platform was by steps from a bridge that carried a road across the railway to Wearde Quay; the signal box, at the original location was relocated and was situated at one end of the platform.
The station closed on 27 October 1930 but the platforms are still in existence and alterations to the road bridge to accommodate the new alignment of 1906 can be seen. The old line was retained as carriage sidings for Saltash until 2 December 1964 and another siding behind the platform was kept in use until 1972. Doublebois station was situated at the west end of a cutting and is the summit of the Cornwall Railway. A siding was provided here when it opened on 4 May 1859 to enable trains to be split into smaller parts to enable them to be worked over the steep inclines up from Liskeard and Bodmin Road. In January 1860 the railway company was asked to provide a facility here for goods traffic, which they acceded to after local people subscribed £130 towards it and offered the necessary land; because of this the company offered to build an accompanying passenger station. The station opened on 1 June 1860, providing a service to people and mines in the St Neot area, providing a passing loop until the line was doubled in 1894.
A signal box was provided part way with sidings at both ends on the down side. During World War 2 the eastern sidings were used by the military for ammunition; the station was since been closed on 5 October 1964,and the sidings were taken out of use in January 1968. There are extant earthworks still visible from passing trains. Due to delays in securing the site for Bodmin Road, the Cornwall Railway provided a temporary station a little further west for the opening of the line on 4 May 1859 until the permanent station was ready on 27 June 1859. Once it was open, the Cornwall Railway found there was a demand for facilities to transport china clay from the St Stephens district to Par harbour. To satisfy this they opened a station consisting of a single platform at Burngullow on 1 February 1863; the construction costs were met by Mr Robartes, who had interests in the extraction of the china clay. A branch line to Nanpean was opened for goods traffic by the Newquay and Cornwall Junction Railway on 1 July 1869.
A small engine shed was buil
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were