Government Center, Boston
Government Center is an area in downtown Boston, centered on City Hall Plaza. Formerly the site of Scollay Square, it is now the location of Boston City Hall, courthouses and federal buildings. While considered by some to have merit, the building is not universally admired. Furthermore, it is resented for having replaced the Victorian architecture of Bostons Scollay Square, john Fitzgerald Kennedy Federal Building is a United States government office building. It is located across City Hall Plaza from Boston City Hall, the two towers stand at a height of 118 metres. City Hall Plaza is not a space, either. As Bill Wasik wrote in 2006, It is as if the space were calibrated to render futile any gathering, large or small, all the nearby buildings seem to be facing away, making the plazas 11 acres of concrete and brick feel like the worlds largest back alley. Another very large Brutalist building at Government Center, less prominently located and thus well known than City Hall, is the Government Service Center.
The building is unfinished as the central tower in the original plan was never built. In the mid-1990s, the adjacent space was filled with the Edward W. Brooke Courthouse and this irregularly shaped, sloping lot was the last parcel to be developed of the Government Center urban renewal plan, in the interim the space was used as surface parking. In a 2014 article, architectural historian Timothy M and this 2, 300-space privately owned garage was built as part of the Government Center urban renewal project. This 720,000 square foot office and retail structure, built by developer Norman B, leventhal, is across Cambridge Street from City Hall Plaza. In 2014, the property was sold by the Blackstone Group to Shorenstein, Shorenstein has proposed a $25 million renovation designed to add some new buzz to the building. The renovation was approved by the Boston Redevelopment Authority in 2016, several state and federal government buildings near Government Center were not built as part of the urban renewal project.
These include the Massachusetts State House, the McCormack Building, the Saltonstall Building, the Suffolk County Courthouse, some of these buildings are considered, in Wikipedia listings and other sources, to be located in Government Center. Government Center is located between the North End and Beacon Hill neighborhoods, Government Center does not have official boundaries. The Boston Redevelopment Authority map of Boston neighborhoods shows most of the Government Center area as part of the Downtown neighborhood, other maps and documents show a variety of different boundaries for Government Center. The Boston Zoning Code has a map called 1H Government Center/Markets District, the map shows the Government Center portion of the district extending as far west as the Massachusetts State House and including all of the major structures listed in this article
Boston City Hospital
The Boston City Hospital in Boston, was a public hospital, located in Bostons South End. In 1996 it merged with the Boston University Medical Center Hospital to form the Boston Medical Center, in the mid-19th century the hospital was suggested. By Elisha Goodnow, who, by his will, dated July 12,1849, gave property to the city valued at $25,000, architect Gridley James Fox Bryant designed the first hospital, built 1861–1864 on Harrison Avenue in the South End. It was renovated in 1875, and again in 1891–1892, the Thorndike had 17 beds for clinical research and became one of the nation’s most distinguished research facilities. Seminal studies in hematology and related discliplies were conducted in this facility by Harvard Medical School faculty, in 1968, the Finland Laboratory for Infectious Diseases was established at Boston City Hospital in honor of Dr. Maxwell Finland, a leading clinical investigator in infectious diseases. As of 2008 the buildings at 818 Harrison Avenue are partially extant, Boston Medical Center Boston City Hospital
North End, Boston
The North End is a neighborhood of Boston, United States. It has the distinction of being the citys oldest residential community, though small, only 0.36 square miles, the neighborhood has nearly one hundred establishments and a variety of tourist attractions. It is known for its Italian American population and fine Italian restaurants, the district is a pending Boston Landmark. The North End as a community of Boston was evident as early as 1646. Three years later, the area had a large population to support its own church. The construction of the building led to the development of the area now known as North Square. Increase Mather, the minister of the North Meeting House, was an influential and his home, the meeting house, and surrounding buildings were destroyed by a fire in 1676. The meeting house was soon afterwards. The Paul Revere House was constructed on the site of the Mather House, part of Copps Hill was converted to a cemetery, called the North Burying Ground. The earliest grave markers located in the date back to 1661.
The North End became a place to live in the 18th century. Wealthy families shared the neighborhood with artisans, laborers, two brick townhouses from this period still stand, the Pierce-Hichborn House and the Ebenezer Clough House on Unity Street. The Christ Church, now known as the Old North Church, was constructed during this time and it is the oldest surviving church building in Boston. In 1770, 11-year-old Christopher Seider was part of a crowd that attacked the home of a Customs Office employee. The employee, Ebenezer Richardson, fired a gun into the crowd, during the Siege of Boston, the North Meeting House was dismantled by the British for use as firewood. In the first half of the 19th century, the North End experienced a significant amount of commercial development and this activity was concentrated on Commercial and Lewis Streets. During this time the neighborhood developed a red-light district, known as the Black Sea, by the late 1840s, living conditions in the crowded North End were among the worst in the city.
Successive waves of immigrants came to Boston and settled in the neighborhood, beginning with the Irish and continuing with Eastern European Jews and Italians
Green Line (MBTA)
The Green Line is a light rail system run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority in the Boston, metropolitan area. It is the oldest Boston subway line, with tunnel sections dating from 1897 and it runs underground through downtown Boston, and on the surface on several radial boulevards and into inner suburbs. With a daily ridership of over 232,000 in 2015. The line was assigned the color in 1967 during a systemwide rebranding because several branches pass through sections of the Emerald Necklace of Boston. The four branches are the remnants of a streetcar system. The streetcar system peaked in size around 1930 and was replaced with trackless trolleys and buses. A new branch opened on a commuter rail line in 1959. The line has its terminus at Lechmere in East Cambridge with connections to numerous bus routes serving Cambridge. From there it runs south over the Lechmere Viaduct and into an extension of the Tremont Street Subway under downtown Boston to the Boston Common and it continues west in the Boylston Street Subway to Kenmore Square.
The Green Line tunnels through Downtown Boston and the Back Bay are collectively referred to as the Central Subway. The E Branch serves Lechmere and splits just west of Copley, running southwest through the Huntington Avenue Subway and it continues along Huntington Avenue, and terminating at Heath Street near V. A. Until 1985, the line continued though Jamaica Plain to Arborway, the B, C, and D Branches diverge west of Kenmore Square. From south to north, they are as follows, The D Branch surfaces onto the grade-separated Highland Branch, the C Branch surfaces onto Beacon Street, running to Cleveland Circle at the Chestnut Hill Reservoir. The B Branch surfaces onto Commonwealth Avenue and it runs past Boston University, passes within a quarter mile of Cleveland Circle, where a connection to the latter runs down Chestnut Hill Ave. and continues to Boston College. The A Branch diverged from Commonwealth Ave. west of Boston University and ran to Watertown, across the Charles River from Watertown Square, although the route-letter scheme had been introduced two years prior to its closure, the A designation was never signed on streetcars to Watertown.
It was, included in the signs on the Boeing-Vertol LRVs ordered in the mid-1970s. The A line tracks remained in service to access maintenance facilities at Watertown until 1994. Not only was there community opposition to restoration, but the tracks would have required a complete rehabilitation, the Lechmere Viaduct originally connected to the Central Subway via the Causeway Street Elevated, a half-mile-long structure running in front of North Station and the Boston Garden sports complex
Haymarket Theatre (Boston, Massachusetts)
The Haymarket Theatre or Hay-Market Theatre was a theatre in late-18th century Boston, Massachusetts. Organized by Charles Stuart Powell, it occupied a large, wooden building opposite the Mall on Common Street, in addition to dramatic plays, the theatre presented some 62 musical entertainments during its first 5 years. The Haymarket was seldom used after 1800, and on March 3,1803, polar Star and Boston Daily Advertiser, 12-30-1796 William Warland Clapp. A Record of the Boston Stage, Boston, J. Munroe & Co.1853 Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library. Early American playbills, includes playbills from the Hay-Market Theatre
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
The Central Artery is a section of freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, it is designated as Interstate 93, U. S. Route 1 and Massachusetts Route 3. The original Artery, constructed in the 1950s, was named after John F. Fitzgerald and the mother of John F. Kennedy. S. Along with the tunnels and the Turnpike from Route 128 to East Boston. The highway itself was planned as early as the 1920s, the above-ground Artery was built in two sections. First was the north of High Street and Broad Street. Immediately, residents began to hate the new highway and the way it towered over, due to this opposition, the southern end of the Central Artery through the South Station area was built underground, through what became known as the Dewey Square Tunnel. Eventually, the highway was moved underground as part of the Big Dig Project. The Dewey Square Tunnel was the one part of the original Artery not torn down, the idea of building the entire Artery underground was first floated in the 1970s emanating from the central artery depression concept developed by the Boston Transportation Planning Review.
The final section through the Dewey Square Tunnel and on to the Southeast Expressway at Massachusetts Avenue opened in 1959, the highway gradually became more and more congested as other highway projects meant to complement the Artery were canceled. These included the Inner Belt project, which would have taken through traffic off the Artery, the Southwest Expressway would have been the route of Interstate 95 from Canton into Boston, and would have tied into the Inner Belt of I-695. The original Central Artery did not have any exit numbers and these were added after I-93 was placed onto the roadway in 1974. Many of these exits either do not exist or no longer resemble their original forms, exits 19,21, and 25 were completely eliminated. 22 continued to exist as an offramp to Chinatown from the southbound Dewey Square tunnel until the ramp was closed off in 2004,23 exists both northbound and southbound and leads to the Scollay Square area. 24 now exits to Haymarket Square and MA-1A, much of the reconfiguration of on and offramps was done to move exiting traffic off the mainline of the road, reducing stress on the mainline.
The entire route was in Boston, Suffolk County, the entire route is in Boston, Suffolk County. Currently, the Artery is numbered I-93 and US1 on the whole route, the Artery has had many different route numbers through its history. When first built, the section between the Sumner Tunnel and Storrow Drive received the numbers C1 and C9, which were rerouted off local streets, the rest of the highway was unnumbered, despite being closely paralleled by C37 south from the Sumner Tunnel. By 1969, I-95 was assigned to the whole Artery as part of its route through Boston
West End, Boston
Beacon Hill is to the south, and the North End is to the east. A late 1950s urban renewal project razed a large Italian and Jewish enclave in order to redevelop the area, the West End occupies the northwest portion of the Shawmut Peninsula. Much of the land on which the neighborhood lies is the product of land reclamation, beginning in 1807, parts of Beacon Hill were used to fill in a small bay and mill pond that separated Beacon Hill and the West End from the North End. Today the neighborhood consists primarily of superblocks containing high rise residential towers, the West End borders the Charles River between the Longfellow Bridge and the Charles River Dam Bridge. The Charlesbank Playground runs along the bank of the river, but is separated from the rest of the neighborhood by Storrow Drive, at that time, the area was separated from the older neighborhoods by a small bay. The architect Charles Bulfinch was responsible for much of Bostons architectural character at the time, Bulfinch spent much of his early career in the 1790s designing mansions, many of them in the West End and other Boston neighborhoods.
One of the most famous examples of these was the first Harrison Gray Otis House and this historic building was the first of three that Bulfinch designed for the affluent lawyer Harrison Gray Otis, and is one of the few buildings that survived Urban Renewal in the West End. Other West End landmarks designed by Bulfinch were the Massachusetts General Hospitals domed granite building, built 1816–1825, constructed in 1810, this historic market did not survive the areas redevelopment in the 1950s. Bulfinchs architecture of large brick buildings with gardens attracted many of Bostons wealthier citizens. By 1810, the West End was inhabited by business men, merchants. Many would soon move to the nearby Beacon Hill, turning the West End into an African American community, another early West End building is the Charles Street Jail, designed by Gridley James Fox Bryant, which was renovated into the Liberty Hotel. In the early 19th century the West End, along with Beacon Hills north slope, the mostly affluent and white inhabitants of Beacon Hills south slope were strongly supportive of abolitionism.
This encouraged middle and working class free African Americans to move into the nearby North slope, after the Civil War, the West End continued to be an important center of African American culture. It was one of the few locations in the United States at the time where African Americans had a political voice, at least one black resident from the West End sat on Bostons community council during every year between 1876 and 1895. From the second half of the 19th century to the mid-20th century, the wealthy and middle class business men were almost entirely gone, but many African Americans remained in the neighborhood, making it one of Bostons most diverse. Protestant churches moved away or shut down, to be replaced by Catholic churches and synagogues, for example, the old West Church, built in 1806 closed in 1892 due to lack of congregation. It reopened two years as a library to serve the new community. One of the first new immigrant groups to settle the West End was the Irish, after briefly passing through the North End, many Irish families moved on to the West and South ends
North Union Station
North Union Station or North Station in Boston, was a train station consisting of three adjoined buildings. It was located on Causeway Street in the West End, and included Lowell Station, a building designed by the architecture firm of Shepley and Coolidge. The station was demolished in 1927, when North Station and the Boston Garden were built, in 1907, a travel guidebook described, North Union Station, on Causeway Street, between Nashua and Haverhill streets, is used by the several divisions of the Boston and Maine System. Some idea of the capacity of the North Union Station is gained by the statement that six hundred trains depart from this every day in the year. North Station, Causeway St. Boston Architectural record, July 1896, google books New York Public Library