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1. Lake – A lake is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams, natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers, in some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in, de, Moorlake, de, Wolfslake, de, Butterlake, German Lache, and Icelandic lækur. Also related are the English words leak and leach, none of these definitions completely excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds. One definition of lake is a body of water of 2 hectares or more in area, however, others have defined lakes as waterbodies of 5 hectares and above, or 8 hectares and above. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more. The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre. In common usage, many bear names ending with the word pond. One textbook illustrates this point with the following, In Newfoundland, for example, almost every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin, the majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes. Finland has 187,888 lakes 500 square metres or larger, most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lakes average level by allowing the drainage of excess water. Some lakes do not have an outflow and lose water solely by evaporation or underground seepage or both. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use. Globally, lakes are greatly outnumbered by ponds, of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in areaLake – Oeschinen Lake in the Swiss Alps
2. Grand County, Colorado – Grand County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,843, the county seat is Hot Sulphur Springs. It was named after Grand Lake and the Grand River, an old name for the upper Colorado River, on January 29,1877 Routt County was created and Grand County shrunk down to its current western boundary. When valuable minerals were found in North Park, Grand County claimed the area as part of its county and it took a decision by the Colorado Supreme Court in 1886 to declare North Park part of Larimer County, setting Grand Countys northern boundary. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,870 square miles. The population density was 7 people per square mile, there were 10,894 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95. 15% White,0. 48% Black or African American,0. 43% Native American,0. 68% Asian,0. 10% Pacific Islander,2. 00% from other races, and 1. 15% from two or more races. 4. 36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,23. 8% were of German,12. 6% Irish,10. 0% English and 7. 3% American ancestry. 24. 80% of all households were made up of individuals and 4. 80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was out with 21. 80% under the age of 18,9. 00% from 18 to 24,34. 70% from 25 to 44,26. 80% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 112.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.70 males, the median income for a household in the county was $47,759, and the median income for a family was $55,217. Males had an income of $34,861 versus $26,445 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,198, about 5. 40% of families and 7. 30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7. 90% of those under age 18 and 6. 10% of those age 65 or overGrand County, Colorado – Scenic vehicle entrance to Grand Lake Lodge (established 1919), included on the National Register of Historic Places
3. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotationGeographic coordinate system – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.
4. Rocky Mountain National Park – The park is situated between the towns of Estes Park to the east and Grand Lake to the west. The eastern and westerns slopes of the Continental Divide run directly through the center of the park with the headwaters of the Colorado River located in the northwestern region. The main features of the park include mountains, alpine lakes, the Rocky Mountain National Park Act was signed by then–President Woodrow Wilson on January 26,1915, establishing the park boundaries and protecting the area for future generations. The Civilian Conservation Corps built the main route, named Trail Ridge Road. In 1976, UNESCO designated the park as one of the first World Biosphere Reserves, in 2016, more than four and a half million recreational visitors entered the park, which is an increase of about nine percent from the prior year. The history of Rocky Mountain National Park began when Paleo-Indians traveled along what is now Trail Ridge Road to hunt, Ute and Arapaho people subsequently hunted and camped in the area. In 1820, the Long Expedition, led by Stephen H. Long for whom Longs Peak was named, approached the Rockies via the Platte River. Settlers began arriving in the mid-1800s, displacing the Native Americans who mostly left the area voluntarily by 1860, lulu City, Dutchtown, and Gaskill in the Never Summer Mountains were established in the 1870s when prospectors came in search of gold and silver. The boom ended by 1883 with miners deserting their claims, the railroad reached Lyons, Colorado in 1881 and the Big Thompson Canyon Road—a section of U. S. Route 34 from Loveland to Estes Park—was completed in 1904. The 1920s saw a boom in building lodges and roads in the park, prominent individuals in the effort to create a national park included Enos Mills from the Estes Park area, James Grafton Rogers from Denver, and J. Horace McFarland of Pennsylvania. The national park was established on January 26,1915, Precambrian metamorphic rock formed the core of the North American continent during the Precambrian eon 4. 5–1 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic era, western North America was submerged beneath a sea, with a seabed composed of limestone. Concurrently, in the period from 500–300 million years ago, the region began to sink while lime, eroded granite produced sand particles that formed strata—layers of sediment—in the sinking basin. About 300 million years ago, the land was uplifted creating the ancestral Rocky Mountains, fountain Formation was deposited during the Pennsylvanian period of the Paleozoic era, 290–296 million years ago. Over the next 150 million years, the uplifted, continued to erode. Wind, gravity, rainwater, snow, and glacial ice eroded the mountains over geologic time scales. The Ancestral Rockies were eventually buried under subsequent strata, the Pierre Shale formation was deposited during the Paleogene and Cretaceous periods about 70 million years ago. The region was covered by a deep sea—the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway—which deposited massive amounts of shale on the seabedRocky Mountain National Park – View from Bear Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park
5. Alpine Visitor Center – It is the highest visitor center in the National Park System. The Alpine Visitor Center includes restrooms, exhibits on the tundra ecosystem, and a gift shop operated by the parks non-profit partner organization. The visitor center opens around Memorial Day and closes around mid-October due to snow, in mid-summer, the visitor center is also usually accessible by Old Fall River Road, a 9-mile dirt road open to one-way, uphill vehicle traffic. Views from the Alpine Visitor Center include the Mummy Range, the Fall River Valley, and Trail Ridge to the east, hiking opportunities include the 1/4-mile round-trip Alpine Ridge Trail, commonly referred to as Huffers Hill, and the 8-mile round-trip Ute Trail to Milner Pass. Park Rangers provide park orientation and interpretive programs on the alpine tundra, additional gift and food services at Fall River Pass are provided at the concession-operated Trail Ridge Store and CafeAlpine Visitor Center – The visitor center in late May
6. Beatrice Willard Alpine Tundra Research Plots – The Beatrice Willard Alpine Tundra Research Plots were established in 1959 along Trail Ridge Road in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, above the treeline in an alpine tundra habitat. The plots were used by Beatrice Willard of the Institute of Arctic, willards dissertation and updates, as well as her book Land Above the Trees, A Guide to American Alpine Tundra were highly influential in studies of alpine and tundra ecology. Her recommendations were used by the National Park Service in its management of the alpine areas of the park. Willards work continued after she moved on to work. The Rock Cut Plot is at an elevation of 12,110 feet near the Rock Cut parking area, the research plot is 5 feet by 20 feet, within a 50-foot by 40-foot enclosure. A3 feet fence keeps park visitors from disturbing the plot, an old footpath runs through the plot, and was monitored to establish rates of regrowth on the tundra. The Forest Canyon Plot is at an elevation of 11,716 feet, measuring only 10 feet square and it is close to the Forest Canyon Overlook. The plots were placed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 25,2007Beatrice Willard Alpine Tundra Research Plots – Willard, Beatrice, Alpine Tundra Research Plots
7. Agnes Vaille Shelter – The Agnes Vaille Shelter is a beehive-shaped stone shelter near the summit of Longs Peak in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. The shelter was built in 1927 by the National Park Service after a number of climbers died ascending Longs Peak, the shelter was named for Agnes Vaille, who made the first winter ascent of the east face of Longs Peak by a woman. On January 12,1925, Vaille fell 100 ft while descending the North Face, Vaille survived the fall with minor injuries, but was unable to walk. Her climbing partner, professional mountaineering guide Walter Kiener, went for help, one of the rescuers, Herbert Sortland, froze to death after breaking his hip while trying to rescue her. The stone for the shelter came from this area, the shelter consists of a single circular room with a conical ceiling formed by the walls and roof of the shelter, entered by a single door opening whose door has been removed. As a result, the interior may be filled with snow for much of summer. There are two glazed windows and one opening, and the floor is paved with stone. Recent scholarship asserts that the present shelter was built by Vailles family in 1935 to replace the 1927 Park Service shelter, the Agnes Vaille Shelter was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 24,1992Agnes Vaille Shelter – Agnes Vaille Shelter
8. Fall River Pass – Fall River Pass is a mountain pass in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado in the United States. It is located in the Front Range, within Rocky Mountain National Park, the pass is traversed by U. S. Highway 34 on Trail Ridge Road between Granby and Estes Park. On the other hand, the old, largely unpaved, and one-way-uphill Fall River Road does have its summit at Fall River Pass, the Alpine Visitor Center, one of five visitor centers for Rocky Mountain National Park, is located at Fall River Pass. The highway has a moderately steep 6% grade on either side of this point, USGS TopoZone listing Tours of Fall River Pass National Geographic Article Official SiteFall River Pass – Trail Ridge Store at Fall River Pass
9. Kawuneeche Valley – Kawuneeche Valley, also known as Kawuneeche or Coyote Valley, is a marshy valley of the Colorado River near its beginning. It is located on the west side of Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado, the axis of the valley runs almost directly north to south. Kawuneeche means valley of the coyote in Arapaho language and there is a Coyote Valley Trail head by US Route 34 in the half of the park. Coyotes still live here, as do wapiti, mule deer, moose, along the main part of valley runs the lower section of the Trail Ridge Road - the highest continuous paved road in the United States. The construction of the a water diversion canal called Grand Ditch between the 1890s and 1930s reduced the water table and limited the frequency and magnitude of the floods in the Kawuneeche Valley. In addition, Grand Ditch breached its bank on May 30,2003, the Grand Ditch owner - the Water Supply and Storage Company was ordered to pay $9 million settlement to the Rocky Mountain National Park. It was the largest natural resource damages payment in the history of the Park System Resource Protection Act, Grand Ditch exerts also negative aesthetic impact on the Kawuneeche. Elk was reintroduced to its old stomping grounds in the Colorado River Valley in the mid-1910s and this solitary species wanders alone moving south from Wyoming or east from Utah. And such moose probably account for sightings and kills in Colorado between the 1860s and 1960s and this is an ecological innovation driven largely by state game officials to attract sportsmen and tourists. However, moose are known to undergo dramatic population cycles, which, in combination with European settlement, populations were known in southern Wyomings Medicine Bow Mountains. In 1978 and 1979,4 bulls,13 cows,4 yearlings, all radio collared,12 each year. And today Kawuneeche Valley is a prime habitat, although sightings frequently occur even further, east of the Continental Divide. Large herbivores have become so numerous in the Kawuneeche Valley, that cause significant harm to the willow thickets and other plants. Elk is overpopulated, but rarer moose more specialized -91. 3% of its summer diets consist of six willow species and this is accompanied by drought and the proliferation of a native fungus spread by a bird called the sapsucker. The primary fungus species is Grosmannia clavigera, but Ophiostoma is also present, the fungi kill the stems above the wells drilled by sapsuckers. All these factors weaken the ability of the valley’s willows to generate new growth, their communities have declined, the most important bark beetle species in the Kawuneeche Valley are mountain pine beetle and spruce beetle. In recent years, these species have devastated forests on the side of Rocky Mountain National Park. They were abandoned after a few years of the mining boomKawuneeche Valley – Kawuneeche Valley from U.S. Highway 34.
10. Lulu City, Colorado – Lulu City was a transient mining town in eastern Grand County, Colorado, in the Kawuneeche Valley in what is now Rocky Mountain National Park. The town appeared after silver was discovered in the area in 1879 by prospector Joe Shipler, the company was backed by Benjamin F. Burnett of Fort Collins and Fort Collins rancher William Baker. The town was named after Burnetts daughter, by 1881 there were forty cabins and a number of business establishments. By this time it was apparent that the ore was of low grade, and that high transportation costs made mining in the area marginal. It was abandoned by 1885, except by Shipler, who lived there for thirty years, the settlement of Dutchtown was established in the Never Summer Mountains to the west of town by outcasts from Lulu City. The land was purchased from the estate of Hugh J. Harrison by the National Park Service in 1949, three cabin ruins remain, along with remnants of other structures. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 14,1977, National Register of Historic Places listings in Grand County, ColoradoLulu City, Colorado – Lulu City Site
11. Middle Park (Colorado basin) – Middle Park is a high basin in the Rocky Mountains of north-central Colorado in the United States. It is located in Grand County, on the southwest slope of Rocky Mountain National Park, the basin surrounds the headwaters of the Colorado River on the west side of the Front Range. It extends southwestward from the source of the Colorado at Grand Lake, downstream past Granby, Hot Sulphur Springs, Parshall and it terminates on the western end roughly where the Colorado passes Gore Canyon at the southern end of the Gore Range. The valley also extends into the valleys of side tributaries on the upper Colorado such as the Fraser River, Williams Fork. The valley of the Fraser contains the towns of Fraser and Winter Park, the valley receives its name from being the middle of the three large mountain valleys in Colorado on the western side of the Front Range. The other two are North Park and South Park, U. S. Highway 34 traverses the valley from the northeast to the southwest, and connects to U. S. Highway 40 at Granby. North Park, to the north, is drained by the North Platte River and separated from the valley by low passes, Muddy Pass. The passes on the east and south, connect to the basin of the South Platte River and they are both in the Front Range proper and thus are higher and more likely to be snow covered. Milner Pass is near the point on Trail Ridge Road and is open only during summer months. Berthoud Pass, at the headwaters of the Fraser south of Winter Park and this latter route is the most direct route between the valley and Denver. The valley contains several reservoirs on the Colorado and its tributaries, including Lake Granby, the main industry in the valley is tourism, including alpine skiing at Winter Park Ski Resort. Much traffic between Denver and the resort of Steamboat Springs passes through the valley as well, allowing for secondary tourism industries to proliferate in the smaller townsMiddle Park (Colorado basin) – View of Middle Park near Granby, Colorado
12. Milner Pass – Milner Pass, elevation 10,759 ft is a mountain pass in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado in the United States. It is located on the divide in the Front Range, within Rocky Mountain National Park. The pass provides the passage over the continental divide for US34, the pass is not, however, the high point on Trail Ridge Road, which crests at 12,183 ft east of the pass within Rocky Mountain National Park. Along with the rest of Trail Ridge Road, the pass is closed in winter from the first heavy snow fall until the opening of the road around Memorial Day. The gentle pass divides the headwaters of the Cache la Poudre River, the road near the pass provides a panoramic view of the Never Summer Mountains to the westMilner Pass – Milner Pass
13. Moraine Park Museum and Amphitheater – The two structures were built to serve visitors to the park, and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The museum was built in 1923 by Imogene Green MacPherson as the center of her private tourist development, the National Park Service purchased the property in 1931 and demolished the surrounding cabins in following years. The amphitheater was designed and built in 1935, with the design by the NPS Branch of Plans and Designs, the lodge was reworked in 1934-35. Both structures adhere to the National Park Service Rustic design ethic of the time, with stone, Imogene Green MacPherson first homesteaded the site in Moraine Park in 1903, naming the land Hillcrest. In 1905, newly married, she expanded with a lodge, dining hall, stable, paying guest began to arrive in 1910. Mrs. MacPherson continued to operate the resort after the death of her husband in 1919, after her death in 1928, her family continued to run the lodge until its purchase by the Park Service. The amphitheater is built one hundred feet from the lodge. A projection booth and screen once existed, but were removed, an elaborate arrangement of stone gutters and culverts provides drainage. The Moraine Park Lodge adjoins the William Allen White Cabins historic district, the museum features interactive natural history exhibits, with themes including geologic processes, glaciation, weather and climate, ecosystems, and human impact. The park offers environmental education programs based on similar themes, the lodge building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 8,1976. The listing was expanded to include the amphitheater on June 15,2005, the valley of Moraine Park was formed when an ancient glacial lake silted up and drained, forming a flat meadow. The soil is too moist to support most trees but supports grasses, willows, the Big Thompson River flows through this valley after coming down glacier-carved Forest Canyon. This habitat area is characterized by pine, aspen, and douglas-fir forests, as well as a few large. Moraine Park is also a place to watch elk, because many elk congregate here for the fall rut. CO-78, Moraine Lodge, Bear Lake Road, Estes Park vicinity, Larimer County, CO,8 photos,12 data pages,1 photo caption pageMoraine Park Museum and Amphitheater – Moraine Park Museum and Amphitheater
14. Wild Basin, Rocky Mountain National Park – Wild Basin is a scenic trail and the southeastern entrance station of Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado, United States. It is located north of Allenspark off State Highway 7, a dirt road leads to a ranger station, parking and horseback or hiking trails. The trail to Bluebird Lake and Ouzel Lake follows the North St. Vrain Creek passing Calypso Cascades and Ouzel Falls along the way, leading to Ouzel Lake and Bluebird Lake. Both Ouzel Falls and Ouzel Lake are named after a North American species of bird, Cinclus mexicanus, other trails lead to Thunder Lake, Finch Lake, and Pear LakeWild Basin, Rocky Mountain National Park – View of Ouzel Falls
15. Hallett Peak – Hallett Peak is a mountain summit in the northern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. Hallett Peak is on the Continental Divide, flanked by Flattop Mountain to the north, just to its east lie Emerald Lake, Dream Lake, and Nymph Lake, which are usually accessed from the Bear Lake Comfort Station. The Northcutt-Carter Route of Hallett Peak is recognized in the historic climbing text Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. Non-technical climbers may reach the summit of Hallett Peak by hiking up the Flattop Mountain Trail to its highpoint, then walking south along the ridgeline and ascending the peak over talus pilesHallett Peak – Looking west over Dream Lake. Hallett Peak is on the left with the dramatic cliff band and prominent point.
16. Longs Peak – Longs Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the northern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 14, 259-foot fourteener is located in the Rocky Mountain National Park Wilderness,9.6 miles southwest by south of the Town of Estes Park, Colorado, United States. Longs Peak is the northernmost fourteener in the Rocky Mountains and the highest point in Boulder County, the mountain was named in honor of explorer Stephen Harriman Long and is featured on the Colorado state quarter. Longs Peak can be seen from Longmont, Colorado, as well as from most of the northern Front Range Urban Corridor. Longs Peak is one of the most prominent mountains in Colorado, the peak is named for Major Stephen Long, who is said to be the first to spot the great mountains on behalf of the U. S. Government on June 30,1820. Together with the nearby Mount Meeker, the two are referred to as the Twin Peaks. As the only fourteener in Rocky Mountain National Park, the peak has long been of interest to climbers, the easiest route is not technical during the summer season. It was probably first used by indigenous people collecting eagle feathers. The first recorded ascent was in August 23,1868 by the party of John Wesley Powell via the south side. The East Face of the mountain is 1,675 feet steep and is surmounted by a 1,000 feet steep sheer cliff known as The Diamond. Another famous profile belongs to Longs Peak, to the southeast of the summit is a series of rises which, the photo shows the beaver climbing the south of the mountain. In 1954 the first proposal made to the National Park Service to climb The Diamond was met with an official closure, the Diamond was first ascended by Dave Rearick and Bob Kamps that year, by a route that would come to be known simply as D1. This route would later be listed in Allen Steck and Steve Ropers influential book Fifty Classic Climbs of North America, the easiest route on the face is the Casual Route, first climbed in 1977. It has since become the most popular route up the wall, the oldest person to summit Longs Peak was Rev. William Col. Billy Butler, who climbed it on September 2,1926, his 85th birthday. In 1932, Clerin “Zumie” Zumwalt summited Longs Peak 53 times, on June 6,2016, a group of US Special Forces were rescued after members of the team suffered from altitude sickness. Longs Peak has one remaining glacier named Mills Glacier, the glacier is located around 12,800 feet at the base of the Eastern Face, just above Chasm Lake. A permanent snowfield, called The Dove, is located north of Longs Peak, Longs Peak is one of fewer than 50 mountains in Colorado that have a glacier. Trails that ascend Longs Peak include the East Longs Peak Trail, the Longs Peak Trail, the Keyhole Route, Clarks Arrow, only some technical climbing is required to reach the summit of Longs Peak during the summer season, which typically runs from mid July through early SeptemberLongs Peak – Longs Peak seen from Dream Lake
17. Mount Meeker – Mount Meeker is a high mountain summit of the Twin Peaks Massif in the northern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13, 916-foot thirteener is located in the Rocky Mountain National Park Wilderness,4.8 miles west by north of the community of Allenspark in Boulder County, Colorado, United States. Mount Meeker is the second highest summit in Rocky Mountain National Park after its neighbor Longs Peak,0.7 miles to the northwest, due to its location southeast of Longs Peak, Mount Meeker is more visually prominent along much of the northern Front Range Urban Corridor. The peak is considered difficult to climb, technically, than Longs Peak on certain routes. A couple of French trappers called Longs Peak and Mount Meeker Les Deux Oreilles in 1799, the name Mount Meeker was first suggested in 1873 when the Hayden Survey was performed. Present were William Byers, Anna Dickinson, and Ralph Meeker and it was officially named Mount Meeker in 1911Mount Meeker – Mount Meeker seen from State Highway 7.
18. Mummy Range – The Mummy Range is a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado in the United States. The range is a subrange of the Front Range located in southwestern Larimer County northwest of the town of Estes Park. It is located largely within Rocky Mountain National Park, extending north from Trail Ridge Road approximately 15 miles, prominent peaks in the range include Hagues Peak, Ypsilon Mountain, Mummy Mountain, and Mount Chiquita. Some offer reasonably challenging technical routes but all can be ascended by steep hiking, Colorado mountain ranges U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Mummy Range Hiking info and photos of Ypsilon Lake, which sits at the base of Ypsilon MountainMummy Range – Mummy Range seen from Lake Estes
19. Never Summer Mountains – The Never Summer Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in north central Colorado in the United States consisting of seventeen named peaks. The range is small and tall, covering only 25 sq mi with a length of 10 mi while rising to over 12,000 ft at over ten distinct peaks. The range straddles the Jackson-Grand county line for most of its length, a panoramic view of the range is available from sections of Trail Ridge Road in Rocky Mountain National Park. One of the northernmost peaks, Nokhu Crags, is visible from the west side of Cameron Pass. The rocks of Never Summer Mountains are younger than most of the mountain ranges. Most of the highest peaks in the range are granodiorite that was uplifted during the Miocene epoch, the ranges highest summit, Mount Richthofen, is the remnant of an andesite volcanic plug. The Nokhu Crags in the north are mostly Pierre Shale dating from Cretaceous times, a large thrust fault underneath the Kawuneeche Valley thrust older Precambrian rocks on top of the younger Cretaceous rocks on the east side of the range. The southern peaks are Miocene-aged granite, and finally Precambrian-aged biotite gneiss, beginning two-million years ago glaciers began carving the jagged peaks of the Never Summer Mountains. Successive waves of glaciation continued to reshape the mountains until the Pinedale Glaciation ended twelve-thousand years ago, the peaks are enormous weathered masses of granitic rock heavily covered with green and orange lichens surrounded on all sides by large fields of talus shed from the original peaks. Many alpine lakes are nestled amongst the peaks, most vegetation is low-growing and stunted. Few trees grow at the altitudes and Krummholz abounds. In 1879 prospectors discovered silver on Mount Shipler, starting a small mining rush, a mining town was platted and given the name Lulu City 40°26′44″N 105°50′53″W. Other small settlements were founded in the area, including Dutchtown, the population swelled as high as 5,000 miners and business owners catering to those miners. However, low grade ore, combined with difficult transportation and lack of a smelter to process the ore conspired against the boom. By late 1883 the mining ended and the miners moved on. The last miners in Dutchtown left by 1884, today remnants of the towns and mines are accessible by hiking trails. In 1890 a project called the Grand Ditch began, the ditch is a 16.2 mi water diversion project. Streams and creeks flow from the highest peaks are diverted into the ditchNever Summer Mountains – Nokhu Crags, at the northern end of the Never Summer Mountains
20. Bear Lake (Colorado) – Bear Lake is a scenic trailhead and destination in Rocky Mountain National Park. Sitting at an elevation of 9,450 feet, the lake rests beneath the sheer flanks of Hallett Peak. Several trails, from easy strolls to strenuous hikes, start from the lake, the Bear Lake Road is open year-round, though it may temporarily close due to adverse weather conditions. An ample parking lot is provided close to the lake, the Bear Lake Road is approximately 10 miles long and starts close to the Beaver Meadows Entrance station of the Rocky Mountains National Park. The lake was formed during the ice age by a glacier, several moraines can be found downhill of Bear Lake. Alpine Visitor Center Scenic drives in Rocky Mountain National Park Hiking info and pictures for Bear Lake, Lake Helene and Odessa LakeBear Lake (Colorado) – Rocky Mountain National Park, Bear Lake, Spring 2007
21. Continental Divide Trail – The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail is a United States National Scenic Trail running 3,100 miles between Mexico and Canada. It follows the Continental Divide of the Americas along the Rocky Mountains and traverses five U. S. states — Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, in Montana it crosses Triple Divide Peak which separates the Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean drainages. The trail is a combination of dedicated trails and small roads, portions designated as uncompleted must be traveled by roadwalking on dirt or paved roads. The Continental Divide Trail along with the Appalachian Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail form what thru-hiker enthusiasts have termed the Triple Crown of long-distance hiking in the United States. Only about two hundred people a year attempt to hike the trail, taking about six months to complete it. Dave Odell thru-hiked in 1977 and in the same year Dan Torpey hiked from the NM/CO border to Mt Robson, german long-distance rider Günter Wamser, and Austrian Sonja Endlweber managed to complete the tour with four Bureau of Land Management mustangs in three summers 2007–09. This seven-month journey spanned over 5,600 miles, tapon took the most circuitous, scenic, high, difficult route north and while returning south, took the more expedient route. Andrew Skurka completed the trail as part of the 6, 875-mile Great Western Loop in 2007. The youngest person to hike the trail is Reed Gjonnes, who hiked the trail with her father Eric Gjonnes from April 15 to September 6,2013, the CDT in New Mexico is about 700 miles long and some portions have very limited water. Local volunteer groups place water caches at strategic points along the trail, all three are located within New Mexicos boot heel. The terminus near Columbus is not on the Continental Divide but rather in the vicinity of Columbus, Columbus is listed as a National Historic Landmark due to the invasion in 1916 by Pancho Villa and his Villistas. From the Crazy Cook Monument, the trail begins as a desire path. From Columbus, the route is a roadwalk to Lordsburg, in most areas the trail is well marked. It is concurrent with the Colorado Trail for approximately 200 miles, the CDT itself meanders in Colorado some 650 miles at higher altitudes. Depending on any given year’s snow-pack and an individual schedule. The Creede Cut-off in the San Juan Mountains to avoid persistent snow or unfavorable weather is such an example and this should be balanced with Colorados monsoon season with afternoon thunderstorms that usually occur in late July and August. The routes location makes short trips to many of Colorados 14. A few stretches of the CDT in Colorado have no marked or named trailContinental Divide Trail – Glacier National Park
22. East Inlet Trail – The East Inlet Trail in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, was established in 1913 to provide access from Grand Lake to a series of lakes 6 miles to the east of Grand Lake. The trail originates at the east stream inlet to Grand lake, confusingly, adams Tunnel which conveys water from the west side of the Continental Divide under the park to the east slope of the Rocky Mountains. The trail was developed further in the 1920s, but was considered to be in poor condition. In the 1930s further improvements were made, and in 1934 workers from the Public Works Administration rebuilt the section between Lone Pine Lake and Lake Verna, in 1940 workers from the Civilian Conservation Corps improved three miles of trail beyond Adam Falls, building causeway sections through swampy areas. The trail was rebuilt again in 1970, and was improved between 2000 and 2003 with stone steps and handrails at Adam Falls, the trail was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 28,2005. National Register of Historic Places listings in Rocky Mountain National Park National Register of Historic Places listings in Grand County, Colorado Architects of the National Park ServiceEast Inlet Trail – East Inlet Trail