In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Brickeys is an unincorporated community in Lee County, United States. Brickeys is located along U. S. Route 79, 11.5 miles east-northeast of Marianna. Brickeys has a post office with ZIP code 72320
Marianna is a city in and the county seat of Lee County, United States. Located along the L'Anguille River in the Arkansas Delta just north of the St. Francis National Forest, the community was known as Walnut Ridge until 1852 when it became known as Marianna; the city's economy has been based on agricultural cotton production. The city is located along Crowley's Ridge Parkway and the Great River Road, both National Scenic Byways showcasing Crowley's Ridge and the Mississippi River; the community was established by Col. Walter H. Otey in 1848, was known as Walnut Ridge until 1852. Marianna is located in the center of the county at the northwest tip of St. Francis National Forest; the city lies along the west side of the L'Anguille River two miles west of that stream's confluence with the St. Francis River within a break in elevation of Crowley's Ridge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.6 square miles, all land. The town's current mayor is Hon. Mayor Jimmy Williams who took office on January 1, 2011.
As of the census of 2010, there were 4,115 people, 1,664 households, 1,068 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,440.0 people per square mile. There were 2,196 housing units at an average density of 610.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 20.9% White, 76.6% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.0% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. 0.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,664 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.8% were married couples living together, 31.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.10. In the city, the population was spread out with 34.4% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 70.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $16,351, the median income for a family was $29,624. Males had a median income of $28,542 versus $19,045 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,253. About 32.8% of families and 37.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.2% of those under age 18 and 33.1% of those age 65 or over. As of 2011, there are five schools in Marianna; the public schools in Lee County School District are Lee High School, Anna Strong Middle School, Whitten Elementary School. One of the private schools is Lee Academy. On January 21, 2009, the director of the Arkansas Earthquake Center at the University of Arkansas announced the discovery of a major fault line near Marianna which could generate a 7.0 earthquake in the future. The fault appears to be separate from, the nearby New Madrid Seismic Zone; the Marianna Water and Sewer Commission directs the Marianna Water Department, which treats and distributes potable water to the residents and commercial users of the city.
The Department owns and operates a wastewater collection system, which collects wastewater from over 4,000 service connections and uses a series of laterals and five lift stations to gravity flow wastewater to the Marianna Wastewater Treatment Plant. At the WWTP, two lagoons are used to treats wastewater and discharge treated effluent to the L'Anguille River in accordance with the city's NPDES permit administered by the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality; the Lee County Water Association provides water to rural areas surrounding the city. Charlie Flowers - member of College Football Hall of Fame Carlos Hall - football player who played defensive end for the Kansas City Chiefs Oliver Lake - alto saxophone player and composer who received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1993 Robert McFerrin - opera singer, the first African-American man to sing at the Metropolitan Opera and father of the Grammy Award-winning conductor-vocalist Bobby McFerrin Oscar Polk - Broadway actor who played a slave in Gone With the Wind Rodney E. Slater - United States Secretary of Transportation from February 14, 1997 to January 20, 2001 Jean Yarbrough - film and television director and producer Chambers Brothers - notorious drug kingpins based in Detroit in the 1980s Mauricelm-Lei Millere - human rights activist, adviser to the New Black Panther Party, founder of African American Defense League
Moro is a town in Lee County, United States. The population was 216 at the 2010 census. Moro is located at 34°47′40″N 90°59′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.5 km², all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 216 people, 109 households, 75 families residing in the town; the population density was 97.9/km². There were 115 housing units at an average density of 46.7/km². The racial makeup of the town was 98.34% White and 1.66% Black or African American. There were 109 households out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.72. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,857, the median income for a family was $35,625. Males had a median income of $21,667 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,264. About 12.3% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 22.6% of those sixty five or over. Media related to Moro, Arkansas at Wikimedia Commons
Lee County, Arkansas
Lee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. With its eastern border formed by the Mississippi River, it is considered to be part of the Arkansas Delta; as of the 2010 census, the population was 10,424. The county seat is Marianna; the county was established on April 1873, during the Reconstruction era. It was named for General Robert E. Lee, who served as General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States in 1865; the area of the Delta was developed for cotton as a commodity crop before the Civil War, based on the labor of enslaved African Americans. It continued as an important crop into the 20th century, when it was worked by African-American sharecroppers and tenant farmers. In the post-Reconstruction era, whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters in this area and throughout the South. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that disenfranchised most blacks for decades; the Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 15 lynchings of African Americans from 1877-1950, most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century.
This was the third-highest of any county in the state. To escape the violence, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities after 1940. Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers; the rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 620 square miles, of which 603 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 79 Highway 1 Highway 78 Highway 121 Highway 131 AR HWY 261 St. Francis County Crittenden County Tunica County, Mississippi Phillips County Monroe County St. Francis National Forest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,424 people residing in the county. 55.3% were Black or African American, 42.0% White, 0.5% Native American, 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino, 0.4% Asian, 0.7% of some other race and 1.2% of two or more races.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,580 people, 4,182 households, 2,960 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 4,768 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.24% Black or African American, 41.41% White, 2.19% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.27% Asian, 0.16% Native American, 0.52% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races. There were 4,182 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.20% were married couples living together, 23.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 10.20% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 111.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,510, the median income for a family was $25,846. Males had a median income of $26,900 versus $19,505 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,983. About 24.70% of families and 29.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.80% of those under age 18 and 27.60% of those age 65 or over. The East Arkansas Regional Unit of the Arkansas Department of Correction is in Lee County; the Lee County Courthouse in located in the town of Marianna, the county seat. Since World War II, Lee County has voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in all but two elections: 1948, when it voted for third-party Strom Thurmond rather than for Harry Truman, in 1972, when Democratic voters crossed party lines and voted for Republican Richard Nixon; the latter was the last year. Following passage and enforcement of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, newly registered African Americans began to support Democratic Party candidates.
They have maintained this affiliation. Most whites have shifted into the Republican Party since the 1970s. Marianna Aubrey Haynes LaGrange Moro Rondo Kokomo, Arkansas Brickeys, Arkansas Midway, Arkansas Monroe, Arkansas Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Lee County are listed below. List of counties in Arkansas List of lakes in Lee County, Arkansas List of memorials to Robert E. Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Arkansas Official website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820