New Madrid Seismic Zone
The New Madrid Seismic Zone, sometimes called the New Madrid Fault Line, is a major seismic zone and a prolific source of intraplate earthquakes in the southern and midwestern United States, stretching to the southwest from New Madrid, Missouri. The New Madrid fault system was responsible for the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes and has the potential to produce large earthquakes in the future. Since 1812, frequent smaller earthquakes have been recorded in the area. Earthquakes that occur in the New Madrid Seismic Zone threaten parts of eight American states: Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi; the 150-mile -long seismic zone, which extends into five states, stretches southward from Cairo, Illinois. It covers a part of West Tennessee, near Reelfoot Lake, extending southeast into Dyersburg, it is southwest of the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone. Most of the seismicity originates between 15 miles beneath the Earth's surface; the zone had four of the largest North American earthquakes in recorded history, with moment magnitudes estimated to be as large as 7.0 or greater, all occurring within a three-month period between December 1811 and February 1812.
Many of the published accounts describe the cumulative effects of all the earthquakes. Magnitude estimates and epicenters may vary; because uplift rates associated with large New Madrid earthquakes could not have occurred continuously over geological timescales without altering the local topography, studies have concluded that the seismic activity there cannot have gone on for longer than 64,000 years, making the New Madrid Seismic Zone a young feature, or that earthquakes and the associated uplift migrate around the area over time, or that the NMSZ has short periods of activity interspersed with long periods of quiescence. Archaeological studies have found from studies of sand blows and soil horizons that previous series of large earthquakes have occurred in the NMSZ in recent prehistory. Based on artifacts found buried by sand blow deposits and from carbon-14 studies, previous large earthquakes like those of 1811–1812 appear to have happened around AD 1450 and around AD 900, as well as AD 300.
Evidence has been found for an apparent series of large earthquakes around 2350 BC. About 80 km southwest of the presently-defined NMSZ but close enough to be associated with the Reelfoot Rift, near Marianna, two sets of liquefaction features indicative of large earthquakes have been tentatively identified and dated to 3500 BC and 4800 BC; these features were interpreted to have been caused by groups of large earthquakes timed together. Dendrochronology studies conducted on the oldest bald cypress trees growing in Reelfoot Lake found evidence of the 1811–1812 series in the form of fractures followed by rapid growth after their inundation, whereas cores taken from old bald cypress trees in the St. Francis sunklands showed slowed growth in the half century that followed 1812; these were interpreted as clear signals of the 1811–1812 earthquake series in tree rings. Because the tree ring record in Reelfoot Lake and the St. Francis sunk lands extend back to AD 1682 and AD 1321 Van Arsdale et al. interpreted the lack of similar signals elsewhere in the chronology as evidence against large New Madrid earthquakes between those years and 1811.
The first known written record of an earthquake felt in the NMSZ was from a French missionary traveling up the Mississippi with a party of explorers. At 1 pm on Christmas Day 1699, at a site near the present-day location of Memphis, the party was startled by a short period of ground shaking. December 16, 1811, 0815 UTC; the future location of Memphis, Tennessee was shaken at Mercalli level nine intensity. A seismic seiche propagated upriver and Little Prairie was destroyed by liquefaction. Local uplifts of the ground and the sight of water waves moving upstream gave observers the impression that the Mississippi River was flowing backwards. At New Madrid, trees were knocked down and riverbanks collapsed; this event shook windows and furniture in Washington, D. C. rang bells in Richmond, sloshed well water and shook houses in Charleston, South Carolina, knocked plaster off of houses in Columbia, South Carolina. In Jefferson, furniture moved and in Lebanon, residents fled their homes. Observers in Herculaneum, called it "severe" and said it had a duration of 10–12 minutes.
Aftershocks were felt every 6-10 minutes, a total of 27, in New Madrid until what was called the Daylight Shock, of the same intensity as the first. Many of these were felt throughout the eastern US, though with less intensity than the initial earthquake. December 16, 1811, sometimes termed the "Dawn Shock" or "Daylight Shock", 1315 UTC. January 23, 1812, 1515 UTC; this was the smallest of the three main shocks, but resulted in widespread ground deformation, landslides and stream bank caving in the meizoseismal area. Johnston and Schweig attributed this earthquake to a rupture on the New Madrid North Fault. A minority viewpoint holds that this earthquake's epicenter was in so
Hardeman County, Tennessee
Hardeman County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,253, its county seat is Bolivar. Hardeman County was created by the Tennessee General Assembly in 1823 from parts of Hardin County and "Indian lands." It is named for Thomas J. Hardeman, a veteran of the Creek War and War of 1812 and a prominent figure in the fight for Texas independence, he served as a congressman in the Republic of Texas. The county is the location of two of Tennessee's four private prisons, the Whiteville Correctional Facility and the Hardeman County Correctional Center. Both are medium-security facilities for men, operated by the Corrections Corporation of America. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 670 square miles, of which 668 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. It is the fifth-largest county in Tennessee by area. Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Chickasaw State Park As of the census of 2010 the racial makeup of the county was 56.1% White or European American, 41.01% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races.
0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 28,105 people, 9,412 households, 6,767 families residing in the county; the population density was 42 people per square mile. There were 10,694 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.34% White or European American, 40.97% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. 0.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,412 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 17.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 116.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 121.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,111, the median income for a family was $34,746. Males had a median income of $27,828 versus $20,759 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,349. About 16.90% of families and 19.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.40% of those under age 18 and 20.80% of those age 65 or over. Bolivar Grand Junction Forty Five Pocahontas Van Buren National Register of Historic Places listings in Hardeman County, Tennessee John Chisum Bailey Hardeman, brother of Thomas J. Hardeman Hardeman County, Texas Chamber of Commerce site Hardeman County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Hardeman County at Curlie Hardeman County at Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture Thomas Jones Hardeman at Handbook of Texas Thomas Jones Hardeman at Find a Grave
Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge
Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge is an area of swampy bottomland consisting of a portion of the floodplain of the Hatchie River in West Tennessee, covering 11,556 acres in southern Haywood County and central Hardeman County. It is a rich environment for aquatic waterfowl; the refuge is bisected by both Interstate 40 and U. S. Route 70 and hence passed through by all motor vehicle traffic between Nashville and Memphis. Wildlife includes Fish and Mammals. Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Media related to Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey, its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination." National NAACP initiatives include political lobbying, publicity efforts and litigation strategies developed by its legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of black foreign refugees and questions of economic development, its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people, referring to those with some African ancestry. The NAACP bestows annual awards to African Americans in two categories: Image Awards are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, Spingarn Medals are for outstanding achievement of any kind.
Its headquarters is in Maryland. The NAACP is headquartered in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in New York, Georgia, Texas and California; each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region. Local and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U. S. the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization. Julian Bond, Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock. For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was led by its executive secretary, who acted as chief operating officer. James Weldon Johnson and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were much more known as NAACP leaders than were presidents during those years. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action.
Local chapters are supported by the'Branch and Field Services' department and the'Youth and College' department. The'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education; the Washington, D. C. bureau is responsible for lobbying the U. S. government, the Education Department works to improve public education at the local and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education; as of 2007, the NAACP had 425,000 paying and non-paying members. The NAACP's non-current records are housed at the Library of Congress, which has served as the organization's official repository since 1964; the records held there comprise five million items spanning the NAACP's history from the time of its founding until 2003. In 2011, the NAACP teamed with the digital repository ProQuest to digitize and host online the earlier portion of its archives, through 1972 – nearly two million pages of documents, from the national and branch offices throughout the country, which offer first-hand insight into the organization's work related to such crucial issues as lynching, school desegregation, discrimination in all its aspects.
The Pan-American Exposition of 1901 in Buffalo, New York featured many American innovations and achievements, but included a disparaging caricature of slave life in the South as well as a depiction of life in Africa, called "Old Plantation" and "Darkest Africa," respectively. A local African American women, Mary Talbert of Ohio was appalled by the exhibit, as a similar one in Paris highlighted black achievements, she informed W. E. B. DuBois of the situation, a coalition began to form. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing African Americans and possible strategies and solutions, they were concerned by the Southern states' disenfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through 1908, southern legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this caused the exclusion of most blacks and many poor whites from the political system in southern states, crippling the Republican Party in most of the South.
Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation. Men, voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. White-dominated legislatures passed segregation and Jim Crow laws; because hotels in the US were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year three non-African-Americans joined the group: journalist William English Walling, a wealthy socialist. Moskowitz, Jewish, was also Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture, they met in 1906 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, in 1907 in Boston, Massachusetts. The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict, disbanded in 1910. Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909. Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organiz