Hazaragi culture refers to the culture of the Hazara people, who live in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan, elsewhere around the world where the Hazara diaspora is settled as part of the wider Afghan diaspora. The culture of the Hazara people is rich in heritage, with many unique customs and traditions, shares influences with Persian and various Central Asian cultures; the Hazarajat region has an ancient history and was, at different periods, home to the Greco-Buddhist, Timurid civilisations, the Ghorid and Ghaznavid dynasties. In the early 13th century, the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, settled in the region; each of these civilisations left visible imprints on the region's local culture. The Hazara people are descendants of the Mongol peoples who settled in the region in the thirteenth century, which attributes their Mongloid physical features. According to genetic evidence, the ethnic group has "patrimonial relations" to Turkic peoples and Mongols, at the same time is related to neighboring Persianate peoples thus making them a distinct ethnic group.
The Hazara native Hazaragi language is a variation of the Dari dialect of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan. The Hazara were traditionally pastoral farmers active in herding in the central and southeastern highlands of Afghanistan, they belong to the Shi'a denomination of Islam, following either the Twelver or Ismaili sects, with a small minority of Sunnis. There has been frequent discrimination against them due to ethnic reasons. During the 1940s, the Pashtun dominated government in Kabul implemented a variety of initiatives which sought to Pashtunize the ethnic group and suppress Hazara culture. Shighai Bazi buz kashi, horse riding sangirak stick dance daikundi qatar, jodo palkhamo ghulail running race thirkamani Hazara people Hazaragi dialect Hazara tribes Buzkashi
Balochistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It is the largest province in terms of land area, forming the southwestern region of the country, its provincial capital and largest city is Quetta. Balochistan shares borders with Punjab and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the northeast, Sindh to the east and southeast, the Arabian Sea to the south, Iran to the west and Afghanistan to the north and northwest; the main ethnic groups in the province are the Baloch people and the Pashtuns, who constitute 52% and 36% of the population respectively. The remaining 12% comprises smaller communities of Brahuis, Hazaras along with other settlers such as Sindhis, Punjabis and Turkmens; the name "Balochistan" means "the land of the Baloch". Underdeveloped, its provincial economy is dominated by natural resources its natural gas fields, estimated to have sufficient capacity to supply Pakistan's demands over the medium to long term. Aside from Quetta, the second-largest city of the province is Turbat in the south, while another area of major economic importance is Gwadar Port on the Arabian Sea.
Balochistan is noted for its unique culture and dry desert climate. Balochistan occupies the southeastern-most portion of the Iranian Plateau, the setting for the earliest known farming settlements in the pre-Indus Valley Civilisation era, the earliest of, Mehrgarh, dated at 7000 BC, within the province. Balochistan marked the westernmost extent of the Civilisation. Centuries before the arrival of Islam in the 7th Century, parts of Balochistan was ruled by the Paratarajas, an Indo-Scythian dynasty. At certain times, the Kushans held political sway in parts of Balochistan. A theory of the origin of the Baloch people, the largest ethnic group in the region, is that they are of Median descent. In 654, Abdulrehman ibn Samrah, governor of Sistan and the newly emerged Rashidun caliphate at the expense of Sassanid Persia and the Byzantine Empire, sent an Islamic army to crush a revolt in Zaranj, now in southern Afghanistan. After conquering Zaranj, a column of the army pushed north, conquering Kabul and Ghazni, in the Hindu Kush mountain range, while another column moved through Quetta District in north-western Balochistan and conquered the area up to the ancient cities of Dawar and Qandabil.
It is documented that the major settlements, falling within today's province, became in 654 controlled by the Rashidun caliphate, except for the well-defended mountain town of QaiQan, now Kalat. During the caliphate of Ali, revolt broke out in southern Balochistan's Makran region. In 663, during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I his Muslim rule lost control of north-eastern Balochistan and Kalat when Haris ibn Marah and a large part of his army died in battle against a revolt in Kalat. In the 15th century, Mir Chakar Khan Rind became the first Sirdar of Afghan and Pakistani Balochistan, he was a close aide of the Timurid ruler Humayun, was succeeded by the Khanate of Kalat, which owed allegiance to the Mughal Empire. Nader Shah won the allegiance of the rulers of eastern Balochistan, he ceded one of the Sindh territories of Sibi-Kachi, to the Khanate of Kalat. Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Empire won the allegiance of that area's rulers, many Baloch fought under him during the Third Battle of Panipat.
Most of the area would revert to local Baloch control after Afghan rule. During the period of the British Raj from the fall of the Durrani Empire in 1823, four princely states were recognised and reinforced in Balochistan: Makran, Las Bela and Kalat. In 1876, Robert Sandeman negotiated the Treaty of Kalat, which brought the Khan's territories, including Kharan and Las Bela, under British protection though they remained independent princely states. After the Second Afghan War was ended by the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879, the Afghan Emir ceded the districts of Quetta, Harnai and Thal Chotiali to British control. On 1 April 1883, the British took control of the Bolan Pass, south-east of Quetta, from the Khan of Kalat. In 1887, small additional areas of Balochistan were declared British territory. In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand negotiated an agreement with the Amir of Afghanistan, Abdur Rahman Khan, to fix the Durand Line running from Chitral to Balochistan as the boundary between the Emirate of Afghanistan and British-controlled areas.
Two devastating earthquakes occurred in Balochistan during British colonial rule: the 1935 Quetta earthquake, which devastated Quetta, the 1945 Balochistan earthquake with its epicentre in the Makran region. Balochistan contained a Chief Commissioner's province and four princely states under the British Raj; the province's Shahi Jirga and the non-official members of the Quetta Municipality opted for Pakistan unanimously on 29 June 1947. Three of the princely states, Las Bela and Kharan, acceded to Pakistan in 1947 after independence, but the ruler of the fourth princely state, the Khan of Kalat, Ahmad Yar Khan, who used to call Jinnah his'father', declared Kalat's independence as this was one of the options given to all of the 565 princely states by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee. Kalat acceded to Pakistan on March 27, 1948 after the'strange help' of All India Radio and a period of negotiations and bureaucratic tactics used by Pakistan; the signing of the Instrument of Accession by Ahmad Yar Khan, led his brother, Prince Abdul Karim, to revolt against his brother's decision in July 1948.
Princes Agha Abdul Karim Baloch and Muhammad Rahim, refused to lay down arms, leading the Dosht-e Jhalawan in unconventional attacks on the army until 1950. The Princes fought a lone battle without support from the rest of Balochistan. Jinnah and his succes
Akram Yari was a Maoist political organizer in Afghanistan. He was the leader and founder of the Progressive Youth Organization, a Maoist organization, formed on October 6, 1965. Akram Yari was born on 1940 in Ghazni Province of Afghanistan, he belonged to a family of aristocrat Hazaras. He received his early education in his hometown, he moved to Kabul where he received higher education. He was a teacher at Khushal Khan High School and at Mehmood Tarzi High School. Akram Yari was the founder and leader of Progressive Youth Organization, a Maoist organization, founded on October 6, 1965. PYO published a magazine called Shola-e-Jawid, circulated among students and youth. Akram Yari opposed the monarchy of King Zahir Shah, the Islamic fundamentalists, the pro-Soviet People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. PYO adhered to Marxism–Leninism-Mao Tse-tung Thought, rallied for the overthrow of the then-current order by means of civil war. Under Akram Yari's leadership, PYO had strong support among the masses of workers and students in the cities of Afghanistan.
Among the people of Afghanistan, the movement that PYO led is famous by the name of Shola-e-Jawid and its members were known as the Sholais, after the name of their journal. Akram Yari was a teacher and propagator of Marxism and introduced Marxism to a large number of intellectuals and political activists in Afghanistan, among them Dr. Faiz Ahmad, founder of Afghanistan Liberation Organization. In 1978 the pro-Soviet PDPA came into power through a military coup; the PDPA government began a crack-down on PYO cadres. Akram Yari was arrested at his home in Jaghori, transferred to Kabul and killed by the PDPA government; the exact conditions surrounding his death is not known. Progressive Youth Organization Shalleh-ye Javiyd List of Hazara people Akram Yari on bureaucratic capitalism Has Akram Yari founded the dialectical materialist approach of psychology
Sima Samar, is a well known woman’s and human rights advocate, activist and a social worker within national and international forums, who served as Minister of Women's Affairs of Afghanistan from December 2001 to 2003. She is the Chairperson of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission and, from 2005 to 2009, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Sudan. In 2011, she was part of the newly founded Truth and Justice party. Samar was born on 3 February 1957 in Ghazni Province of Afghanistan, she belongs to the ethnic Hazara. She obtained her degree in medicine in February 1982 Kabul University, she practiced medicine at a government hospital in Kabul, but after a few months was forced to flee for her safety to her native Jaghori, where she provided medical treatment to patients throughout the remote areas of central Afghanistan. She is the head of human rights commission in Afghanistan. In 1984, the communist regime arrested her husband, Samar and her young son fled to neighboring Pakistan.
She worked as a doctor at the refugee branch of the Mission Hospital. Distressed by the total lack of health care facilities for Afghan refugee women, she established in 1989 the Shuhada Organization and Shuhada Clinic in Quetta, Pakistan; the Shuhada Organization was dedicated to the provision of health care to Afghan women and girls, training of medical staff and to education. In the following years further branches of the clinic/hospital were opened throughout Afghanistan. After living as refugee for over a decade, Samar returned to Afghanistan in 2002 to assume a cabinet post in the Afghan Transitional Administration led by Hamid Karzai. In the interim government, she served as Deputy President and as Minister for Women's Affairs, she was forced into resignation from her post after she was threatened with death and harassed for questioning conservative Islamic laws sharia law, during an interview in Canada with a Persian-language newspaper. During the 2003 Loya Jirga, several religious conservatives took out an advertisement in a local newspaper calling Samar the Salman Rushdie of Afghanistan.
She is the head of Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission. She established Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in 2010, which has attracted more than 1200 students in a short amount of its activities, she is one of the 4 main subjects in Sally Armstrong's 2004 documentary Daughters of Afghanistan. In the documentary, Sima Samar's work as the Minister of Women's Affairs and her subsequent fall from power is shown. Dr. Samar publicly refuses to accept that women must be kept in purdah and speaks out against the practice of wearing the burqa, enforced first by the fundamentalist mujahideen and by the Taliban, she has drawn attention to the fact that many women in Afghanistan suffer from osteomalacia, a softening of the bones, due to an inadequate diet. Wearing the burqa reduces exposure to sunlight and aggravates the situation for women suffering from osteomalacia, she became a member of the Truth and Justice party, formed in 2011. Dr. Sima Samar has received numerous international awards for her work on human rights and democracy, including: 1994 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership.
Honorary Doctorate from Salem State University in May 2013 2013 Allard Prize for International Integrity, Finalist award of CDN$25,000 Ms. magazine "A Voice for the Voiceless" Winter 2007 conversation with Sima Samar and Ms. executive editor Katherine Spillar. The New England Journal of Medicine "Despite the Odds -- Providing Health Care to Afghan Women" Vol. 351, No. 11. Other Afghan Human Rights Activists Qadria Yazdanparast Afghan Human Rights Activist and Law Professor Yazdanparast on Wiki
Faiz Mohammad Katib Hazara
Faiz Mohammad Kātib Hazāra most known as Kātib was son of Saeed Mohammad b. Khudydad was born in 1862 or'63, in Zard Sang village of Qarabagh District, Ghazni Province of Afghanistan, he spent a part of his life in Nahoor another district of Ghazni, died in Kabul in March 3, 1931, he was of Muhammad Khwaja Hazara clan. He was Afghan court chronicler, a skilled calligrapher and secretary to Emir Habib Ullah Khan from 1901 to 1919, he was a well known historian and intellectual, among the renowned group of Afghans seeking social and political changes in the country at the beginning of the 20th century, which shaped early regional politics from Afghanistan to Morocco therefore many of the Afghan people say the government should have named him as the Father of Afghanistan History. He was a member of what became known as The Constitutionalist Movement. Faiz Mohammad spent his youth in Qarabagh District, tutored in Arabic and the Koran by local mullahs, in 1880 he and his family moved first to Nawur and because of sectarian strife, to Qandahar in the same year.
In 1887 he left Qandahar for a year's travel that took him to Lahore and Peshawar where he spent some time studying English and Urdu. He landed in Jalalabad and was invited in 1888 to join the administration of the Afghan amir Abdur Rahman Khan, he was soon attached to the entourage of the amir's eldest son, Habib Ullah Khan, at the recommendation of one of his teachers, Mullah Sarwar Ishaq'zai. Faiz Mohammad accompanied the prince from Kabul to Jalalabad in 1311/1893-94. There is a manuscript attributed to him, dated 29 Rajab 1311/5 February 1894, which places him in Jalalabad at this time. In 1314/1896, when Habib Ullah's younger brother Nasr Ullah Khan toured England on a state visit, Habib Ullah assigned Faiz Mohammad to copy and post in the Charsuq, Kabul's main market-place, the detailed letters sent back by Nasr Ullah recounting his activities, so that “noble and commoner alike would be apprised of the honor and respect that the English were according him”. During Habib Ullah's reign, Faiz Mohammad was involved, if only peripherally, with the Young Afghan movement led by Mahmud Baig Tarzi.
He is said to have been associated with the publication of Tarzi's reformist journal, Siraj al-Akbar, three other journals, Anis, Ḥayy alal-falah, Aina-ye Irfan. After the assassination of his patron in 1337/1919, Faiz Mohammad worked for a time at the Ministry of Education on textbook revision. Sometime he was appointed to a teaching position at the Habibiya Laycee in Kabul. During the reign of Aman Ullah Khan, the Iranian minister in Kabul Sayyed Mahdi Farrokh compiled a “who’s who” of contemporary Afghan leaders, his sketch of Faiz Mohammad characterizes him as a devout Shia Muslim regarded by the Qizilbash community of Kabul, as well as a leader among his own people, the Hazaras, an important source of information for the Persian mission about what was going on in the capital. In 1929, the Tajik outlaw Habib Ullah Kalakani, known to history as Bacha ye Saqqao, ousted Aman Ullah Khan and took control of Kabul for nine months. During this uprising Faiz Mohammad, who spent the entire period inside the city, kept a journal, the basis for an unfinished monograph entitled Kitab-e Tadakoor-e Enqilab which he began shortly after the fall of Bacha ye Saqqao.
During the occupation, Faiz Mohammad was forced to take part in a delegation sent by Kalakani to negotiate with Hazara groups opposing the Tajik leader. According to his account, he caused the mission to fail. However, he and the mission's leader, Noor al-Din Agha, a Qizilbash Shiʿite from Kabul, paid a heavy price for this: both were sentenced to death by beating. Faiz Mohammad alone was saved by a colleague; the Persian mission in Kabul, under a directive from Reza Shah to do what it could to aid the Shiʿites of Kabul, sent medicines to his house. He recovered enough to travel the following year to Tehran for more medical care. After less than a year there, he returned to Kabul, where he died on 6 Shawal 1349/3 March 1931, at the age of sixty-eight or sixty-nine. Faiz Mohammad is best known for his books on Afghan history. During Habib Ullah's reign, he accepted two commissions to write a comprehensive history of Afghanistan covering events from the time of Ahmad Shah down through the reign of Habib Ullah Khan.
The first was a history of Afghanistan entitled Tohfat ul-Habib in honor of the amir, but Habib Ullah Khan deemed the finished work unacceptable and ordered Faiz Mohammad to start over. The revised version is the three-volume history of Afghanistan entitled Siraj al-Tawarikh, an allusion to the amir's honorific “Lamp of the Nation and Religion”. There were problems in publishing it, the third volume never being printed, it is thought that the process of publishing the third volume lasted several years and only ended after Habib Ullah Khan's death. Some say. Habib Ullah Khan's successor, Aman Ullah Khan, was interested in the work and typesetting resumed in the mid-1920s, but when the amir reviewed the material in it on Anglo-Afghan relations, he changed his mind, ordered all published but still incomplete copies of the third volume taken from the press and burned. Despite this reaction, Faiz Mohammad continued work on his chronicle; the manuscript of the remainder of the third volume is believed to have been finished, the autograph was tur
Sayed Ismael Balkhi was one of the most prominent reformist leaders in 20th-century Afghanistan. An innovative poet and well-known mystic, charismatic political leader and untiring reformist. Sayed Ismael Balkhi was born on 1918 into a Sayed family of Hazara people in Balkhab district of Sar-e Pol province in Northern Afghanistan, he received early education in Afghanistan after which he traveled to Iraq for further studies in Islamic theology and jurisprudence. At the time when Balkhi left the country, the Afghan government did not provide enough opportunities to the Hazara people in order to get appropriate education in the country. Balkhi thus associated with the greater Hazara community. Balkhi was introduced to reformist movements popular at that time in the Middle East, he imported these intellectual enhancements to this motherland and started preaching it with a zeal unmatched in a country haunted by social ignorance and political isolation. A religious activist, Bakhi was concerned during the liberal late 1940s period of Afghanistan becoming a political radical.
In 1949, Balkhi plotted with at least five associates a coup d'etat against King Mohammad Zahir Shah. The plan was foiled, Balkhi spent fourteen years in prison under the charges of conspiring to overthrow the monarchy and establish a republic; the dynamism of Balkhi's personality is that he got his education in an environment where clerics were either turned into radical revolutionaries like Khomeini and Khamenei or into self-absorbed mystics. He was an exception among all such individuals. Ismael Balkhi was a mystic. Balkhi believed in political change but he never embraced any terrorist ideology or internationalist approach, his patriotism and love for his country are evident in a number of poems he generated whilst in prison. Balkhi gave the Afghans a message of democracy, he preached individual liberty among fellow Hazaras. He taught, he might have had personality flaws like all other individuals of history but he is one of the flag-bearers of liberty and unity in Afghanistan. Tasnimnews.com/در «پگاه بیداری»؛ درک و دریافتی از اشعار علامه سید اسماعیل بلخی
Bolani, or Perakai, Poraki, is a flat-bread from Afghanistan, baked or fried with a vegetable filling. It has a thin crust and can be stuffed with a variety of ingredients, such as potatoes, pumpkin, chives, or leeks, it can be served with plain mint yogurt. Bolani is made for special occasions like engagement parties or holidays. In America, the Bolani is the quintessential food item at any Kabob House; the variations are endless. Toppings include chives, lentils and other vegetables. However, it is not limited to traditional toppings; the dough is only limited to the imagination. While white flour is common, many enthusiasts prefer whole rye; the method of using eggroll wrappers instead of making the dough for the bolani is a time saving convenience used in Western countries. The edges of the eggroll wrappers are brushed with water to allow for sticking; the wrappers are filled half way either diagonally or lengthwise with the preferred filling. Each side is fried until golden brown; this method is the fastest way of preparing bolani.
Another popular method for making " Perakai " Bolani is baking them. Although, Frying is the most popular method for special occasions, baking is becoming popular amongst the western crowd. While baking Bolani was to cut back on fat, it is now becoming popular due to the unique flavor it imparts. Baking allows for a thicker crust; some argue that baked Bolani is not traditional due to its thick meat stuffed variations. Regardless, it remains as one of the most popular methods of preparing Bolani in America