Winchester is a city in and the county seat of Franklin County, United States. It is part of Tennessee Micropolitan Statistical Area; the population of Winchester as of the 2010 census was 8,530, showing an increase of 1,201 from 2000. Winchester was created as the seat of justice for Franklin County by act of the Tennessee Legislature on November 22, 1809, was laid out the following year; the town is named for James Winchester, a soldier in the American Revolution, first Speaker of the Tennessee Legislature, a brigadier general in the War of 1812. Mary Sharp College was founded in 1851 by the Baptist Church. Though a women's college, it offered a classical curriculum based upon what was being offered at the time by Amherst College, Brown University, the University of Virginia, it closed in 1896. During the 19th century, the institution helped make Winchester an educational center. Other private schools in the city were Carrick Academy for male students, Winchester Female Academy, Winchester Normal College.
The city was occupied first by Confederate and by Union troops during the Civil War. Winchester, along with the rest of Franklin County, seceded from the Union several months before the rest of Tennessee, unofficially becoming a part of Alabama until the rest of the state seceded, it lay on the line of retreat to Chattanooga followed by the Confederate Army of Tennessee during the campaign of 1863. Recreation in Winchester received a significant boost when the Tennessee Valley Authority started construction of the Tims Ford Dam along the Elk River in 1966; the project was completed in 1972, Tims Ford Lake is now known for excellent boating and bass fishing opportunities. Tims Ford State Park is located along the lake's shoreline; the city hosts an annual Dogwood Festival each May. Winchester is located north of the center of Franklin County, is bordered to the north by the city of Decherd; the city center is just south of Boiling Fork Creek, now an arm of Tims Ford Lake. Dry Creek forms another arm of the lake along the western boundary of the city, the city limits extend as far as the Elk River arm of the lake 4 miles north of downtown.
U. S. Route 41A passes through the center of town, coming in from the southeast as South College Street and leaving to the northeast as Dinah Shore Boulevard. US 41A leads east 6 miles to Cowan and 12 miles to Sewanee, as well as north 6 miles to Estill Springs and 14 miles to Tullahoma. Tennessee State Route 16 leaves southwest from the center of town as 1st Avenue and leads 19 miles to the Alabama border. U. S. Route 64 bypasses Winchester to the south and east, leading northeast 16 miles to Interstate 24 near Pelham and west 32 miles to Fayetteville. Tennessee State Route 50 leads west and northwest from Winchester 20 miles to Lynchburg, Tennessee State Route 130 leads northwest 6 miles to Winchester Springs and 16 miles to Tullahoma. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.7 square miles, of which 10.7 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile, or 8.47%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,329 people, 2,992 households, 2,013 families residing in the city.
The population density was 734.6 people per square mile. There were 3,318 housing units at an average density of 332.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.51% White, 12.35% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.23% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.25% of the population. There were 2,992 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, the median income for a family was $41,183. Males had a median income of $31,959 versus $21,629 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,533. About 13.3% of families and 19.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.6% of those under age 18 and 19.4% of those age 65 or over. Notable citizens of Winchester have included four governors of Tennessee: Isham G. Harris Henry Horton Albert Smith Marks Peter TurneyThree natives of the city have been formally honored by the British Crown: Sir Francis Joseph Campbell, anti-slavery campaigner and pioneer in educating the blind Lady Ida Beasly Elliott, missionary in Burma Sir John Templeton and philanthropistWinchester was the birthplace of: Reuben Davis, a U. S. congressman from Mississippi Brian Dayett, New York Yankees/Chicago Cubs Major League Baseball player Mike Farris, recording artist of the Screamin' Cheetah Wheelies Phillip Fulmer, former University of Tennessee football coach Jeff Hall, former University of Tennessee placekicker Tracy Hayworth, Detroit Lions football player Jeremy Nunley, football player Dinah Shore, singer and TV personality City of Winchester offici
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
U.S. Route 431 in Alabama
U. S. Highway 431, internally designated by the Alabama Department of Transportation as State Route 1, is a major north–south state highway across the eastern part of the U. S. state of Alabama. Although US-431's south end is in Dothan, SR-1 continues south for about 13 miles along US-231 to the Florida state line. State Route 1 is the unsigned partner route assigned to U. S. Highway 431; the two routes are co-aligned from the southern terminus of US-431 at Dothan to the Tennessee state line. South of Dothan, State Route 1 is assigned to U. S. Highway 231. U. S. Route 231 enters Alabama in Meridianville with U. S. Route 431; the two routes continue south. This route is a freeway with frontage roads, it junctions with U. S. 72 east. It continues south for about three miles until it junctions with U. S. 72 west. After this concurrency terminus, I-565 is featured in another junction as downtown Huntsville rises into view to the east. After a parclo with old AL-20/Clinton Avenue, U. S. 431 loses U. S. 231 at its junction with AL-53.
It turns onto Governor's Drive and gains unsigned Alabama State Route 1. It passes by the hub of the Huntsville Hospital system, which runs throughout North Alabama, begins its journey across Monte Sano mountain. After leaving the mountain range, it has no more major junctions past this point as it loses the Governor's Drive name, it passes into Marshall County. After about twenty miles of hilly terrain, the route crosses the Tennessee River and enters Guntersville and junctions with AL-79 north, it splits into two one-way streets. It junctions with AL-69's termini before losing AL-79 south, it turns east-to-west and climbs up Sand Mountain. This grade is so steep, it enters Albertville. It junctions with AL-75 and leaves the city, entering Boaz and junctioning with AL-205 and AL-179, it enters Etowah County at Sardis City. It descends into Ridgeville and junctions with AL-77 and immediately junctions with U. S. 278 west. These junctions are beside a railroad track. U. S. 278 and U. S. 431 travel concurrently to Attalla.
They maintain a short concurrency with U. S. 11. U. S. 278 and U. S. 431 leave U. S. 11 and cross under a notable railroad bridge, known for its low clearance. The routes junction with I-59, they enter into Gadsden and junction with AL-211. U. S. 431 and U. S. 278 junction with U. S. cross a bridge over the Coosa River. The routes junction with George Wallace Drive, which leads to I-759. U. S. 278 leaves U. S. continues east to Hokes Bluff. U. S. 431 crosses into Calhoun County. The route enters into Wellington and junctions with AL-204; the route climbs and descends multiple hills as it enters into Alexandria, where it junctions with AL-144. It climbs up a steep hill and gives drivers a great view of Anniston, Cheaha State Park, some of the highest mountains in Alabama as it descends a steep grade into Anniston, it turns south into Oxford. The route junctions with U. S. 78 and junctions with I-20. The route merges with Interstate 20 and about two miles it leaves it, turning south, enters Cleburne County; the route enters Cheaha State Park, passes through the forest, junctioning with AL-281, which climbs up to the crest of Mount Cheaha, the highest mountain in the state.
It leaves the forest and enters Hollis Crossroads, junctioning with AL-9. It enters Randolph County; the route has no major junctions. It junctions with AL-48, it leaves Wedowee as a short four-lane divided highway. It regains its two-laned status and enters Roanoke. Here, it junctions with AL-22, it enters Chambers County. The route passes through Five Points before crossing into La Fayette. Here, Alabama State Route 77 returns to the scene. In Oak Bowery, U. S. 431 junctions with AL-147. It enters Lee County for about a mile before crossing back into Chambers County, it cuts a corner of Lee County before re-entering into Chambers County for under a mile. It enters into Lee County not cutting another corner, it passes through eastern Opelika before reaching a turn and junctioning with I-85, U. S. Route 29, U. S. Route 280, it gains U. S. continues along a four-lane divided highway into Russell County. The two routes enter a concurrency with U. S. 80 in western Phenix City. It loses U. S. 80 and leaves U. S. 280 just short of the Georgia line at the Chattahoochee River.
In rural Russell County, the route junctions with AL-165. In Seale, it junctions with AL-26, it passes through Pittsview. It crosses the line into Barbour County; the route crosses a fork of the Chattahoochee River. It enters Eufaula and junctions with U. S. 82 west. Just before the route can cross the river into Georgia, it loses U. S. Route moves away from the state line. In rural Barbour County, the route junctions with AL-30, AL-131, AL-95 crossing multiple forks of the Chattahoochee River, but not crossing the state line, it crosses the line into Henry County. It moves farther away from the state line, it junctions with AL-10 and AL-27. It makes the long journey through straight terrain down to Headland, it leaves the city. It enters Houston County; the route has entered the Dothan Metropolitan Area. The route reaches the Ross Clark Circle, U. S. 84 at this point. It joins it, it loses U. S. 84 and conti
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1974 Super Outbreak
The 1974 Super Outbreak was the second-largest tornado outbreak on record for a single 24-hour period, just behind the 2011 Super Outbreak. It was the most violent tornado outbreak recorded, with 30 F4/F5 tornadoes confirmed. From April 3 to 4, 1974, there were 148 tornadoes confirmed in 13 U. S. states and the Canadian province of Ontario. In the United States, tornadoes struck Illinois, Michigan, Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, West Virginia, New York; the outbreak caused $843 million USD with more than $600 million in damage occurring in the United States. The outbreak extensively damaged 900 sq mi along a total combined path length of 2,600 mi. At one point, as many as 15 separate tornadoes were on the ground simultaneously; the 1974 Super Outbreak was the first tornado outbreak in recorded history to produce more than 100 tornadoes in under a 24-hour period, a feat, not repeated globally until the 1981 United Kingdom tornado outbreak and in the United States until the 2011 Super Outbreak.
A powerful spring-time low pressure system developed across the North American Interior Plains on April 1. While moving into the Mississippi and Ohio Valley areas, a surge of moist air intensified the storm further while there were sharp temperature contrasts between both sides of the system. Officials at NOAA and in the National Weather Service forecast offices were expecting a severe weather outbreak on April 3, but not to the extent that occurred. Several F2 and F3 tornadoes had struck portions of the Ohio Valley and the South in a separate, earlier outbreak on April 1 and 2, which included three killer tornadoes in Kentucky and Tennessee; the town of Campbellsburg, northeast of Louisville, was hard-hit in this earlier outbreak, with a large portion of the town destroyed by an F3. Between the two outbreaks, an additional tornado was reported in Indiana in the early morning hours of April 3, several hours before the official start of the outbreak. On Wednesday, April 3, severe weather watches were issued from the morning from south of the Great Lakes, while in portions of the Upper Midwest, snow was reported, with heavy rain falling across central Michigan and much of Ontario.
By 12 UTC on April 3, a large-scale trough extended over most of the contiguous United States, with several modest shortwaves rotating around the broad base of the trough. The mid-latitude low-pressure center over Kansas continued to deepen to 980 mb, wind speeds at the 850-mb level increased to 50 kn over portions of Louisiana and Alabama. Due to significant moisture advection, destabilization proceeded apace. CAPE levels in the region rose to 1,000 j/kg. However, a warm temperature plume in the elevated mixed layer kept thunderstorms from initiating at the surface. Meanwhile, a large mesoscale convective system that had developed overnight in Arkansas continued to strengthen due to strong environmental lapse rates. In the day, strong daytime heating caused instability to further rise: by 18 UTC, CAPE values in excess of 2,500 j/kg were present over the lower Ohio and the Mississippi Valley; as wind speeds in the troposphere increased, Large-scale lifting overspread the warm sector. At the same time, the forward-propagating MCS spread into the Tennessee and Ohio valleys, where it evolved into the first of three main convection bands that produced tornadoes.
This first convective band moved northeast, at times reaching speeds of about 60 kn. However, thunderstorm activity, for the moment, remained elevated in nature. By 1630 UTC, the large MCS began to splinter into two sections: the southern part slowed, lagging into southeast Tennessee, while the northern part accelerated, reaching Pennsylvania by 1930 UTC; the split was related to several factors, including a band of subsidence over eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia. These factors allowed the northern part of the MCS to accelerate due to efficient ducting, while the southern part slowed as the boundary layer warmed and moistened. Numerous surface-based supercells began to develop in the southern area, beginning with one that produced an F3 tornado at about 1630 UTC near Cleveland, Tennessee. Meanwhile, a new band of scattered thunderstorms developed at 1500 UTC over eastern Arkansas and Missouri. In the wake of the MCS, backing low-level winds, rapid diurnal destabilization, cool, mid-level advection had occurred over the warm sector, weakening the convective inhibition layer, favorable wind profiles bolstered helicity to over 230 m²/s²—a combination of factors conducive to tornadogenesis.
The storms increased in intensity and coverage as they moved into Illinois and northern Kentucky, producing several tornadoes, including the first F5 tornado of the day, at 1920 UTC, near Depauw, Indiana. Several of the storms to form between 1920 and 2020 UTC became significant, long-lived supercells, producing many strong or violent tornadoes, including three F5s at Depauw; these storms formed the second of three convective bands to generate tornadoes. While violent tornado activity increased over the warm sector, a third band of convection developed at about 16 UTC and extended
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai