John Woods House (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
The John Woods House at 4604 Monongahela Street in the Hazelwood neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a vernacular stone house, built in 1792. It was added to the List of City of Pittsburgh historic designations by Pittsburgh City Council on February 22, 1977. On April 29, 1993, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. John Woods was a political leader, a Federalist, a member of a prominent founding Pittsburgh family, he was the son of Colonel George Woods of Pennsylvania. "The elder Woods laid out the plan for the City of Pittsburgh in 1784. John did the actual drafting, the plan is referred to as the'John Woods plan of Pittsburgh.'" John Woods was elected to the Pennsylvania Senate in 1797, was elected as a Representative to the Fourteenth United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1815, to March 3, 1817. The house stayed in the Woods family until 1885. Composer Stephen Foster was friends with the Woods family, his song "Nelly Bly", written circa 1849 and published in 1850, was inspired by a servant girl who worked at the Woods house.
The song was composed on Rachel Keller Woods' piano, on which Foster is said to have written other classics, the instrument is housed at the Stephen Foster Memorial in Pittsburgh. This house is owned by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, it may be developed into a Scottish pub
Central Northside (Pittsburgh)
Central Northside is a neighborhood in the North Side of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. It has a zip code of 15212, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6. Known as "The Buena Vista Tract", it is densely filled with restored row houses, community gardens and tree lined streets and alleyways. In the late 19th century, Pennsylvania became known for its stately homes, occupied by some of the area's wealthy families. One such area became known as the Mexican War Streets; the Mexican War Streets were laid out in 1847, during the Mexican–American War, by William Robinson Jr. ex-mayor of the city of Allegheny. Robinson, who contrary to some tellings did not serve in the war, subdivided his land and named the new streets after the war's battles and generals. Central Northside has seven city neighborhood borders with Perry South to the north, Fineview to the northeast, East Allegheny to the southeast, Allegheny Center to the south, Allegheny West to the southwest, Manchester to the west and California-Kirkbride to the northwest.
The 1979 sports/cult classic The Fish That Saved Pittsburgh used the neighborhoods southern border of North Avenue's gritty former "burlesque row" adjacent to the Garden Theater to depict Stockard Channing's gypsy fortune teller characters office and residence. Thirty years in 2010, the Katherine Heigl film One for the Money uses the same exact buildings complete with Garden Theater marquee to once again depict a gritty inner city environment—though much of the characters and vice of the North Avenue corridor has been corrected, the structures still adapt well on the areas southern border. On 10 September 2012, the Central Northside Neighborhood Council voted to change the neighborhood's name to Allegheny City Central. However, according to an FAQ published by the CNNC in August 2012, the Council reported that official city maps would "probably not" reflect the name change and that the city planning department is "always reluctant" to alter established names; the same document refers to the name change as a "branding initiative", part of a "new brand and marketing strategy".
List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods City of Pittsburgh's Central Northside page Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Mexican War Streets Society Allegheny City Central
Cameron Jibril Thomaz, known professionally as Wiz Khalifa, is an American rapper, singer and actor. He released his debut album and Prove, in 2006, signed to Warner Bros. Records in 2007, his Eurodance-influenced single, "Say Yeah", received urban radio airplay, charting on the Rhythmic Top 40 and Hot Rap Tracks charts in 2008. Khalifa parted with Warner Bros. and released his second album, Deal or No Deal, in November 2009. He released the mixtape Kush and Orange Juice as a free download in April 2010, he is well known for his debut single for Atlantic, "Black and Yellow", which peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100. His debut album for the label, Rolling Papers, was released on March 29, 2011, he followed that album with O. N. I. F. C. On December 4, 2012, backed by the singles "Work Hard, Play Hard" and "Remember You". Wiz released his fifth album Blacc Hollywood on August 18, 2014, backed by the lead single "We Dem Boyz". In March 2015, he released "See You Again" for the soundtrack of the film Furious 7 and the song peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 for 12 non-consecutive weeks.
Khalifa was born Cameron Jibril Thomaz on September 8, 1987 in Minot, North Dakota, to parents serving in the military. His parents divorced, he is a military brat with his parents' military service causing him to move regularly. Khalifa lived in Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan before settling in Pittsburgh with his mother in around 1996 where he attended Taylor Allderdice High School. Soon after moving to Pittsburgh, Khalifa began to write and perform his own lyrics before he was a teenager, his stage name is derived from Khalifa, an Arabic word meaning "successor", wisdom, shortened to Wiz when Khalifa was a young boy. Khalifa stated to Spinner.com that the name came from being called "young Wiz'cause I was good at everything I did, my granddad is Muslim, so he gave me that name. He got a tattoo of his stage name on his 17th birthday. By the age of 15 he was recording his music in a studio called I. D. Labs; the management of the studio was so impressed by his lyrics that they allowed Khalifa to record for free.
This allowed him to receive professional grade studio time at no cost to him. This allowed him to receive more exposure at such a young age than other artists. Rostrum Records president Benjy Grinberg first heard about Wiz Khalifa in 2004 when the rapper's contribution to a mixtape of various new Pittsburgh artists attracted his interest; when Grinberg met the 16-year-old artist, he decided he wanted to work with him telling HitQuarters: "Even though he wasn't all the way developed you could just tell that he was a diamond in the rough, that with some polishing and backing he could become something special." Khalifa began a seven-year period of artist development. Khalifa released his first mixtape, Prince of the City: Welcome to Pistolvania, in 2005; the mixtape paved the way for his first full-length album entitled Show and Prove in 2006. Khalifa was declared an "artist to watch" that year in Rolling Stone magazine. In 2007, Khalifa signed to Warner Bros. Records and released two mixtapes through Rostrum Records: Grow Season, hosted by DJ Green Lantern and released on July 4, 2007, Prince of the City 2, released on November 20, 2007.
His debut Warner Bros. single "Say Yeah" reached number 25 on the Billboard Rhythmic Top 40 music chart and number 20 on Billboard's Hot Rap Tracks. The song samples "Better Off Alone" by Alice Deejay. Khalifa's vocals from "Say Yeah" appear near the end of Pittsburgh mash up producer Girl Talk's 2008 album, Feed the Animals, over music from Underworld's "Born Slippy", Usher's "Love in This Club", the Cure's "In Between Days". Khalifa appeared with The Game, David Banner and Play-n-Skillz at U92's Summer Jam at the USANA Amphitheatre in West Valley City, Utah on August 2, 2008. Khalifa released the mixtapes Star Power in September 2008, Flight School in April 2009 on Rostrum Records. Khalifa parted ways with Warner Bros. Records in July 2009 after numerous delays in releasing his planned debut album for the label, First Flight. Khalifa stated to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette that, "I learned a lot during my time there and matured as an artist during the process. I'm happy to be moving on with all of my material and having the chance to be in control of my next moves".
Khalifa appeared with Girl Talk, Modey Lemon, Grand Buffet, Don Caballero at the Amphitheatre at Station Square in Pittsburgh on July 31, 2009, where he announced that his relationship with Warner Bros. was over. Continuing his association with Rostrum Records, Khalifa released the single "Teach U to Fly", the mixtape How Fly, a collaboration with New Orleans rapper Curren$y, on August 9, 2009. Khalifa introduced a more melodic style on the mixtape, alternating between rapping, he opened for Wu-Tang Clan member U-God at the 2009 CMJ Music Marathon in New York City. Khalifa released the mixtape Burn After Rolling on November 2, 2009, where he raps over familiar beats from other artists, including the songs "If I Were A Boy" and "Diva" by Beyoncé, "Walking on a Dream" by Empire of the Sun, "Luchini AKA This Is It" by Camp Lo, "Best I Ever Had" by Drake. Khalifa released his second album, Deal or No Deal, on November 24, 2009. Khalifa performed at Emo's in Austin, Texas in March 2010 as part of the 2010 South by Southwest Music Festival.
He appeared on the cover of XXL magazine that same month, for the magazine's annual list of Top 10 Freshman, which included Donnis, J. Cole, Freddie Gibbs, Fashawn. Wiz Khalifa was named 2010 "Ro
Oakland is the academic and healthcare center of Pittsburgh and one of the city's major cultural centers. The neighborhood is home to three universities and hospitals, as well as an abundance of shopping and recreational activities. Oakland is home to the Schenley Farms National Historic District which encompasses two city designated historic districts: the residential Schenley Farms Historic District and the predominantly institutional Oakland Civic Center Historic District, it is home to the locally designated Oakland Square Historic District. The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire has Fire Station No. 14 on McKee Place and Fire Station No. 10 on Allequippa Street in Oakland. Oakland is divided into four neighborhoods: North Oakland, West Oakland, Central Oakland, South Oakland; each section has a unique identity, offers its own flavor of venues and housing. Oakland is Pittsburgh's second most populated neighborhood with 22,210 residents, a majority of these residents being students. North Oakland can be loosely defined as the area of Oakland between Neville and Bouquet Streets, encompassing all of Craig Street and running north to Polish Hill.
The Cathedral of Learning, the engineering or midsection of the University of Pittsburgh campus, the Craig Street business district are in North Oakland. RAND's Pittsburgh center is located in North Oakland as well as the long time RIDC business incubator on Henry Street; the Islamic Center of Pittsburgh, the largest mosque in the city, is located in North Oakland. This sector is home to the Schenley Farms Historic District and many mid-rise condominium and apartment buildings. Central Oakland is bordered by Schenley Park, the Boulevard of the Allies, Fifth Avenue, Halket Street. Many students at the University of Pittsburgh who decide to live off-campus reside in this neighborhood. Many of its homes are historic masonry structures dating from the turn of the century; the area is mistakenly called South Oakland. Its Main Business District runs along Forbes and Fifth Avenue, contains a diversity of restaurants and financial services; these businesses are organized by the Oakland Business Improvement District.
Smaller business districts in Central Oakland provide additional dining options along Atwood Street and Semple Street. It is the location of the isolated and historic neighborhood of Panther Hollow which runs along Boundary Street in Junction Hollow as well as the Oakland Square Historic District. South Oakland runs along the Monongahela River and forms a triangular shape between the Monongahela River, the Boulevard of the Allies, the western bank of Junction Hollow. Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC and the Pittsburgh Technology Center are major landmarks of this neighborhood; the neighborhood is split between a riverfront flood plain to the southwest and a plateau to the northeast. The plateau is divided into two residential areas which are separated from one another by Bates Street, which runs up a valley from the flood plain to the plateau; the residents of the neighborhood on the north side of Bates Avenue call their neighborhood Oakcliffe. The flood plain was packed with industrial sites such as the Pittsburgh Works Consolidated Gas Co. and the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. but presently, the Pittsburgh Technology Center hosts facilities such as the Entertainment Technology Center of Carnegie Mellon University.
Some residents of Central Oakland think of their neighborhood as being part of South Oakland. However, the border between Central Oakland and South Oakland is further south; the area between Forbes Avenue and Boulevard of the Allies is part of Central Oakland. Articles in some news media have made this error. South Oakland is reputed to be a student neighborhood, but only 36.9% of its population is between the ages of 18 and 24, compared to Central Oakland's figure of 74.1%. The difference is because the area between Forbes Avenue and the Boulevard of the Allies houses many undergraduate students. While it is considered to be in South Oakland, it is the heart of Central Oakland. South Oakland was the childhood home of Andy Warhol, the residence of fellow pop artist Keith Haring. Haring had his first art show while living in Oakland. NFL Hall of Fame Quarterback Dan Marino was born in Oakland, not far from Warhol's home. Dan Marino Field on Frazier Street was named in honor of its native son. Although they were not contemporaries and Marino grew up on the same block with their former houses only a few doors apart.
West Oakland, the smallest of the four districts, is bordered by Fifth Avenue in the south, DeSoto Street in the east, the Birmingham Bridge to the west, Allequippa Street to the north. Carlow University and most of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center can be found there. Although the campus of Carnegie Mellon University and parts of Schenley Park, including Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens and Flagstaff Hill are popularly referred to as being in Oakland, are located with the 15213 zip code, they are part of the adjacent neighborhood of Squirrel Hill North; the border between Oakland and Squirrel Hill runs along Junction Hollow. The name first appeared in 1839 in Harris' Intelligencer; the area got its name from the abundance of oak trees found on the farm of William Eichenbaum, who settled there in 1840. Oakland developed following the Great Fire of 1845 in Downtown Pittsburgh, with many people moving out to suburban territory. By 1860, there was considerable commercial development along
Downtown Pittsburgh, colloquially referred to as the Golden Triangle, the Central Business District, is the urban downtown center of Pittsburgh. It is located at the confluence of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River whose joining forms the Ohio River; the "triangle" is bounded by the two rivers. The area features offices for major corporations such as PNC Bank, U. S. Steel, PPG, Bank of New York Mellon, Federated Investors and Alcoa, it is where the fortunes of such industrial barons as Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, Henry J. Heinz, Andrew Mellon and George Westinghouse were made, it contains the site where Fort Duquesne, once stood. In 2013, Pittsburgh had the second-lowest vacancy rate for Class A space among downtowns in the United States; the Central Business District is bounded by the Monongahela River to the south, the Allegheny River to the north, I-579 to the east. An expanded definition of Downtown may include the adjacent neighborhoods of Uptown/The Bluff, the Strip District, the North Shore, the South Shore.
Downtown is served by the Port Authority's light rail subway system, an extensive bus network, two inclines. The Downtown portion of the subway has the following stations: T Stations Station Square on the South Shore in the Station Square development First Avenue near First Avenue & Ross Street, Downtown Steel Plaza at Sixth Avenue & Grant Street, Downtown Penn Plaza near Liberty Avenue & Grant Street, Downtown Wood Street at the triangular intersection of Wood Street, Sixth Avenue, Liberty Avenue, Downtown Gateway Center at Liberty Avenue & Stanwix Street, Downtown North Side near General Robinson Street & Tony Dorsett Drive on the North Shore Allegheny near Allegheny Avenue & Reedsdale Street on the North Shore Downtown is home to the Pittsburgh Amtrak train station connecting Pittsburgh with New York City and Washington, D. C. to the east and Cleveland and Chicago to the west. Greyhound's Pittsburgh bus terminal is located across Liberty Avenue from the Amtrak Station, in the Grant Street Transportation Center building.
Major roadways serving Downtown from the suburbs include the "Parkway East" from Monroeville, the "Parkway West" from the airport area, the "Parkway North" from the North Hills, in Downtown Pittsburgh. Other important roadways are Pennsylvania Route 28, Pennsylvania Route 51, Pennsylvania Route 65, U. S. Route 19. Three major entrances to the city are via tunnels: the Fort Pitt Tunnel and Squirrel Hill Tunnel on I-376 and the Liberty Tunnels; the New York Times once called Pittsburgh "the only city with an entrance," referring to the view of Downtown that explodes upon drivers upon exiting the Fort Pitt Tunnel. Traveling I-279 south and I-376, the city "explodes into view" when coming around a turn in the highway. Downtown surface streets are based on two distinct grid systems that parallel the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers; these two grids intersect along Liberty Avenue. Furthermore, the Allegheny grid contains numbered streets, while the Monongahela grid contains numbered avenues. And, in fact, there are cases where these numbered creating some confusion.
This unusual grid pattern leads to Pittsburghers giving directions in the terms of landmarks, rather than turn-by-turn directions. Pittsburgh is nicknamed "The City of Bridges". In Downtown, there are 10 bridges connecting to points south; the expanded definition of Downtown includes 18 bridges. Citywide there are 446 bridges. In Allegheny County the number exceeds 2,200. Downtown Bridges Fort Pitt Bridge carries I-376 between Downtown and the Fort Pitt Tunnel Fort Duquesne Bridge carries I-279 between Downtown and the North Shore Smithfield Street Bridge carries Smithfield Street between Downtown and the South Shore Panhandle Bridge carries the city's light rail transit system between Downtown and the South Shore Liberty Bridge connects the Liberty Tunnel to I-579 Downtown Roberto Clemente Bridge connects 6th Street Downtown to Federal Street on the North Shore at PNC Park Andy Warhol Bridge connects 7th Street Downtown to Sandusky Street on the North Shore at the Andy Warhol Museum Rachel Carson Bridge connects 9th Street Downtown to Anderson Street on the North Shore Fort Wayne Railroad Bridge carries freight and Amtrak trains from Downtown to the North Shore Veterans Bridge carries I-579 from Downtown to the North Side Bridges of Expanded Downtown West End Bridge carries US Route 19 from the West End/South Shore to the North Shore/North Side just west of Downtown 16th Street Bridge carries 16th Street from the Strip District to Chestnut Street on the North Side West Penn Bridge is part of the Three Rivers Heritage Trail connecting the North Side to Washington's Landing on Herr's Island 30th Street Bridge connects River Avenue on the North Side with Waterfront Drive on Washington's Landing at Herr's Island 31st Street Bridge connects PA Route 28 on the North Side with 31st Street in the Strip District 33rd Street Railroad Bridge connects the North Side to the Strip District and crosses Herr's Island South 10th Street Bridge connects the Armstrong Tunnel at Second Avenue just east of Downtown with the South Side at South 10th Street Birmingham Br
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Rusyns, sometimes referred to as Rusnaks known as Carpatho-Ruthenians or Carpatho-Russians, are an East Slavic people, who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn. As a distinctive people, Rusyns descend from an East Slavic population that inhabited the northern regions of the Eastern Carpathians since the Early Middle Ages. Together with other East Slavs from neighboring regions, they were labeled by the common exonym Ruthenians, or by the regionally more specific designation Carpathian Ruthenians. Unlike their eastern neighbors, who adopted the use of the ethnonym "Ukrainians" in the early 20th century, Rusyns kept and preserved their original name; as residents of northeastern regions of the Carpathian Mountains, Rusyns are connected to, sometimes associated with, other Slavic communities in the region, like the Slovak highlander community of Gorals. The main regional designations for Rusyns are: Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Ruthenians and Carpatho-Russians, with the Carpathian prefix referring to Carpathian Ruthenia, a historical cross-border region encompassing south-western parts of modern Ukraine, north-eastern regions of Slovakia, south-eastern parts of Poland.
In official Ukrainian contexts, the various subgroups of Carpatho-Rusyns are known collectively as Verkhovyntsi meaning "Highlanders". The endonym Rusyn has gone unrecognised by various governments, has in other cases been prohibited. Today, Poland, the Czech Republic and Croatia recognize contemporary Rusyns as an ethnic minority. In 2007, Carpatho-Rusyns were recognized as a separate ethnicity in Ukraine by the Zakarpattia Regional Council, in 2012 the Rusyn language gained official regional status in certain areas of the province, as well as nationwide based on the 2012 Law of Ukraine, "On the principles of the state language policy". Most contemporary self-identified ethnic Rusyns live outside of Ukraine. Of the estimated 1.2 million people of Rusyn origins, as few as 90,000 individuals have been identified as such in recent national censuses. This is due, in part, to the refusal of some governments to count Rusyns and/or allow them to self-identify on census forms in Ukraine; the ethnic classification of Rusyns as a separate East Slavic ethnicity distinct from Russians, Ukrainians, or Belarusians is politically controversial.
The majority of scholars on the topic consider Rusyns to be an ethnic subgroup of the Ukrainian people. This is disputed by some non-mainstream scholars, as well as other scholars from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United States. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, about a third of Rusyns in Ukraine speak the Ukrainian language, while others stick to their native language; the terms "Rusyn," "Ruthenes," "Rusniak," "Lemak," "Lyshak," and "Lemko" are considered by some scholars to be historic and synonymical names for Carpathian Ukrainians. Those who use the ethnonym Rusyn for self-identification are people living in the mountainous Transcarpathian region of western Ukraine and adjacent areas in Slovakia who use it to distinguish themselves from Ukrainians living in the central regions of Ukraine; those Rusyns who self-identify today have traditionally come from or had ancestors who came from the Eastern Carpathian Mountain region. This region is referred to as Carpathian Rus'. There are resettled Rusyn communities located in the Pannonian Plain, parts of present-day Serbia, as well as present-day Croatia.
Rusyns migrated and settled in Prnjavor, a town in the northern region of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many Rusyns emigrated to the United States and Canada. With the advent of modern communications such as the Internet, they are able to reconnect as a community. Concerns are being voiced regarding the preservation of their unique cultural legacy; the region of Carpathian Ruthenia and Prykarpattia since the Early Middle Age was inhabited by the tribes of White Croats and Dulebes. There existed different theories to explain Rusyns origin. According to Paul Robert Magocsi, the origin of the present-day Carpatho-Rusyns is complex and not related to the Kievan Rus'; the ancestors are the early Slavs whose movement to the Danubian Basin was influenced by Huns and Pannonian Avars between the 5th and 6th century, the White Croats who lived in both slopes of the Carpathians and built many hill-forts in the region including Uzhhorod ruled by mythical ruler Laborec, the Rusyns of Galicia and Podolia, Vlachian shepherds of Transylvania.
The 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of Carpathian Highlanders - Lemkos and Boykos people - showed a common ancestry with other modern Europeans. A 2009 analysis of maternal lineages found that Hutsuls have the highest frequency of the haplogroup H1 found in Central and Eastern populations to that date. Lemkos shared the highest frequency of haplogroup I, identical to 2005 sampled population of the island of Krk in Croatia indicating a founder effect, the highest frequency of haplogroup Haplogroup M* in the region. However, the haplogroup frequencies in Boykos were different as had atypically low frequencies of haplogroup H and J for a European population. Comparison of eight other Central and Eastern European populations, showed that the three groups had a greater distance between themselves than these p