Francois Henri Jack LaLanne was an American fitness and nutrition expert and motivational speaker, sometimes referred to as the "Godfather of Fitness" and the "First Fitness Superhero". He described himself as being a "sugarholic" and a "junk food junkie" until he was age 15, he had behavioral problems, but "turned his life around" after listening to a public lecture about the benefits of good nutrition by health food pioneer Paul Bragg. During his career, he came to believe that the country's overall health depended on the health of its population, referred to physical culture and nutrition as "the salvation of America". Decades before health and fitness began being promoted by celebrities like Jane Fonda and Richard Simmons, LaLanne was widely recognized for publicly preaching the health benefits of regular exercise and a good diet, he published numerous books on fitness and hosted the fitness television program The Jack LaLanne Show between 1953 and 1985. As early as 1936, at age 21, he opened one of the nation's first fitness gyms in Oakland, which became a prototype for dozens of similar gyms bearing his name.
One of his 1950s television exercise programs was aimed toward women, whom he encouraged to join his health clubs. He invented a number of exercise machines, including the pulley and leg extension devices and the Smith machine. Besides producing his own series of videos, he coached the elderly and disabled not to forgo exercise, believing it would enable them to enhance their strength. LaLanne gained recognition for his success as a bodybuilder, as well as for his prodigious feats of strength. Arnold Schwarzenegger once exclaimed "That Jack LaLanne's an animal!" after a 54-year-old LaLanne beat 21-year-old Schwarzenegger badly in an informal contest. On the occasion of LaLanne's death, Schwarzenegger credited LaLanne for being "an apostle for fitness" by inspiring "billions all over the world to live healthier lives", and, as governor of California, had earlier placed him on his Governor's Council on Physical Fitness. Steve Reeves credited LaLanne as his inspiration to build his muscular physique while keeping a slim waist.
LaLanne has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. LaLanne was born in San Francisco, the son of Jennie and Jean/John LaLanne, French immigrants from Oloron-Sainte-Marie. Both entered the U. S. in the 1880s as young children at the Port of New Orleans. LaLanne had two older brothers, who died in childhood, Norman, who nicknamed him "Jack", he grew up in Bakersfield and moved with his family to Berkeley, California circa 1928. In 1939, his father died at the age of 58 in a San Francisco hospital, which LaLanne attributed to "coronary thrombosis and cirrhosis of the liver". In his book The Jack LaLanne Way to Vibrant Health, LaLanne wrote that as a boy he was addicted to sugar and junk food, he had violent episodes directed against himself and others, describing himself as "a miserable goddamn kid... it was like hell". Besides having a bad temper, LaLanne suffered from headaches and bulimia, temporarily dropped out of high school at age 14; the following year, at age 15, he heard health food pioneer Paul Bragg give a talk on health and nutrition, focusing on the "evils of meat and sugar".
Bragg's message had a powerful influence on LaLanne, who changed his life and started focusing on his diet and exercise. In his own words, he was "born again", besides his new focus on nutrition, he began working out daily. Describing his change of diet, LaLanne stated, "I had to take my lunch alone to the football field to eat so no one would see me eat my raw veggies, whole bread and nuts. You don't know the crap I went through."Writer Hal Reynolds, who interviewed LaLanne in 2008, notes that he became an avid swimmer and trained with weights, describes his introduction to weight lifting: LaLanne went back to school, where he made the high school football team, went on to college in San Francisco where he earned a Doctor of Chiropractic degree. He studied Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body and concentrated on bodybuilding and weightlifting. In 1936, he opened the nation's first health and fitness club in Oakland, where he offered supervised weight and exercise training and gave nutritional advice.
His primary goal was to motivate his clients to improve their overall health. Doctors, advised their patients to stay away from his health club, a business unheard of at the time, warned their patients that "LaLanne was an exercise'nut,' whose programs would make them'muscle-bound' and cause severe medical problems." LaLanne recalls the initial reaction of doctors to his promotion of weight-lifting: LaLanne designed the first leg extension machines, pulley machines using cables, the weight selectors that are now standard in the fitness industry. He invented the original model of. LaLanne encouraged women to lift weights. By the 1980s, Jack LaLanne's European Health Spas numbered more than 200, he licensed all his health clubs to the Bally company, now known as Bally Total Fitness. Though not associated with any gym, LaLanne continued to lift weights until his death. LaLanne's gym ownership led to a brief professional wrestling career in 1938. Wrestlers were among the few a
New Musical Express is a British music journalism website and former magazine, published since 1952. It was the first British paper to include a singles chart, in the edition of 14 November 1952. In the 1970s it became the best-selling British music newspaper. During the period 1972 to 1976, it was associated with gonzo journalism became associated with punk rock through the writings of Julie Burchill, Paul Morley and Tony Parsons, it started as a music newspaper, moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s and 1990s, changing from newsprint in 1998. An online version, NME.com, was launched in 1996. It became the world's biggest standalone music site, with over sixteen million users per month. With newsstand sales falling across the UK magazine sector, the magazine's paid circulation in the first half of 2014 was 15,830. In 2013, the list of NME's The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time and the way it was conceived was criticized by the media; the printed magazine NME was relaunched in September 2015 to be distributed nationally as a free publication.
The first average circulation published in February 2016 of 307,217 copies per week was the highest in the brand's history, beating the previous best of 306,881, recorded in 1964 at the height of the Beatles' fame. By December 2017, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, average distribution of NME had fallen to 289,432 copies a week, although its publisher Time Inc. UK claimed to have more than 13m global unique users per month, including 3m in the UK. In March 2018, the publisher announced that the print edition of NME would cease publication after 66 years, leaving it as an online-only title. NME's headquarters are in Southwark, England; the brand's current editor is Charlotte Gunn, replacing Mike Williams, who stepped down in February 2018. The paper was established in 1952; the Accordion Times and Musical Express was bought by London music promoter Maurice Kinn, for the sum of £1,000, just 15 minutes before it was due to be closed. It was relaunched as the New Musical Express, was published in a non-glossy tabloid format on standard newsprint.
On 14 November 1952, taking its cue from the US magazine Billboard, it created the first UK Singles Chart, a list of the Top Twelve best-selling singles. The first of these was, in contrast to more recent charts, a top twelve sourced by the magazine itself from sales in regional stores around the UK; the first number one was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino. During the 1960s the paper championed the new British groups emerging at the time; the NME circulation peaked under Andy Gray with a figure of 306,881 for the period from January to June 1964. The Beatles and the Rolling Stones were featured on the front cover; these and other artists appeared at the NME Poll Winners' Concert, an awards event that featured artists voted as most popular by the paper's readers. The concert featured a ceremony where the poll winners would collect their awards; the NME Poll Winners' Concerts took place between 1959 and 1972. From 1964 onwards they were filmed and transmitted on British television a few weeks after they had taken place.
In the mid-1960s, the NME was dedicated to pop while its older rival, Melody Maker, was known for its more serious coverage of music. Other competing titles included Record Mirror, which led the way in championing American rhythm and blues, Disc, which focused on chart news; the latter part of the decade saw the paper chart the rise of psychedelia and the continued dominance of British groups of the time. During this period some sections of pop music began to be designated as rock; the paper became engaged in a sometimes tense rivalry with Melody Maker. By the early 1970s, NME had lost ground to Melody Maker, as its coverage of music had failed to keep place with the development of rock music during the early years of psychedelia and progressive rock. In early 1972 the paper found itself on the verge of closure by its owner IPC. According to Nick Kent: After sales had plummeted to 60,000 and a review of guitar instrumentalist Duane Eddy had been printed which began with the immortal words "On this, his 35th album, we find Duane in as good as voice as ever," the NME had been told to rethink its policies or die on the vine.
Alan Smith was made editor in 1972, was told by IPC to turn things around or face closure. To achieve this and his assistant editor Nick Logan raided the underground press for writers such as Charles Shaar Murray and Nick Kent, recruited other writers such as Tony Tyler, Ian MacDonald and Californian Danny Holloway. According to The Economist, the New Musical Express "started to champion underground, up-and-coming music.... NME became the gateway to a more rebellious world. First came glamrock, bands such as T. Rex, came punk....by 1977 it had become the place to keep in touch with a cultural revolution, enthralling the nation's listless youth. Bands such as Sex Pistols, X-Ray Spex and Generation X were regular cover stars, eulogised by writers such as Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons, whose nihilistic tone narrated the punk years perfectly." By the time Smith handed the editor's chair to Logan in mid-1973, the paper was selling nearly 300,000 copies per week and was outstripping Melody Maker, Record Mirror and Sounds.
According to MacDonald: I think all the other papers knew by 1974 that NME had become the best music paper in Britain. We had most of the best writers and photographers, the best layouts
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Xanadu is a 1980 American musical and fantasy film written by Richard Christian Danus and Marc Reid Rubel and directed by Robert Greenwald. The title is a reference to the nightclub in the film, which takes its name from Xanadu, the summer capital of Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty in China; this city appears in Kubla Khan by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, a poem, quoted in the film. The film is a remake of the film. Xanadu stars Olivia Newton-John, Gene Kelly and Michael Beck, features music by Newton-John, Electric Light Orchestra, Cliff Richard and The Tubes; the film features animation by Don Bluth. A box office flop, Xanadu earned mixed to negative critical reviews and was an inspiration for the creation of the Golden Raspberry Awards to recognize the worst films of the year. Despite the lackluster performance of the film, the soundtrack album became a huge commercial success around the world, was certified double platinum in the United States; the song "Magic" was a U. S. number one hit for Newton-John, the title track reached number one in the United Kingdom and several other countries around the world.
The film has since become a cult classic for the way it mixes the storyline from an old-fashioned 1940s fantasy with modern aesthetics featuring late 1970s rock and pop music on the soundtrack as well as for fans of Newton-John. The film opens with a large mural of the Nine Muses of Olympus coming to life, with the women emerging from the painting and flying into the sky. One of them returns to Earth. Sonny Malone is a talented artist who dreams of fame beyond his job, the non-creative task of painting larger versions of album covers for record-store window advertisements; as the film opens, Sonny is broke and on the verge of giving up his dream. Having quit his day job to try to make a living as a freelance artist, but having failed to make any money at it, Sonny returns to his old job at AirFlo Records. After some humorous run-ins with his imperious boss and nemesis Simpson, he resumes painting record covers. At work, Sonny is told to paint an album cover for a group called The Nine Sisters.
The cover features a beautiful woman in front of an art deco auditorium. Earlier that day, this same woman had collided with him, kissed him roller-skated away. Malone now discovers that no one knows who she is, he finds her at the same auditorium, now abandoned. She identifies herself as Kira. Unbeknownst to Sonny, Kira is one of the Muses. Walking near the beach, Sonny befriends Daniel "Danny" McGuire, a has-been big band orchestra leader turned construction mogul. Danny lost his muse in the 1940s, Sonny has not yet found his muse. Kira encourages the two men to form a partnership and open a nightclub at the old auditorium from the album cover, she falls in love with Sonny, this presents a problem because she is an Olympian Muse. The other eight women from the beginning of the film are her sisters and fellow goddesses, the Muses, the mural is a portal of sorts and their point of entry to Earth; when Sonny finds out that Kira is a muse, he gets upset. In a conversation between Danny and Kira it becomes apparent that Kira was Danny's muse years ago and that Danny had fallen in love with Kira, but when Danny discovered that Kira was a muse he had walked away from her, abandoned his music, went into construction, which he had always regretted.
Now Danny counsels Sonny not to be alone and regretful like he has become and to pursue his muse, telling him that if Kira can visit Earth, there must be a way Sonny can visit Kira's home, a forbidden place called Xanadu. Sonny realizes that the mural on the wall of the muses is a portal to Xanadu and he crashes through the portal by roller skating at high speed into the mural; the Muses visit Earth to help inspire others to pursue their dreams and desires, but in Kira's case, she has violated the rules by which Muses are supposed to conduct themselves, as she was only supposed to inspire Sonny but has ended up falling in love with him as well. Her parents the Greek gods Zeus and Mnemosyne, recall her to the timeless realm of the Olympian gods. Sonny professes his love for her. A short debate between Sonny and Zeus occurs, with Mnemosyne interceding on behalf of Kira and Sonny. Kira herself enters the discussion, saying the emotions she has toward Sonny are new to her. Zeus sends Sonny back to Earth.
After Kira expresses her feelings for Sonny and Mnemosyne decide to let Kira go to him for a "moment, or maybe forever." They cannot keep these straight because mortal time confuses them, the audience is left to wonder what her fate is to be. In the finale and the Muses perform for a packed house at Xanadu's grand opening, after the final song and the Muses all return to the realm of the gods in spectacular fashion. With their departure, Sonny is understandably depressed, but that changes when Danny asks for a drink for Sonny from one of the waitresses -- a waitress who looks like Kira. Sonny says he would just like to talk to her; the film ends with the two of them talking, in silhouette, as the credits begin
Goldfrapp are an English electronic music duo from London, formed in 1999. The duo consists of Will Gregory. Despite favourable reviews and a short-listing for the Mercury Prize, their 2000 début studio album Felt Mountain did not chart highly. Goldfrapp's second album Black Cherry, which incorporated glam rock and synthpop sounds into their music, was released in 2003; the album influenced the same dance-oriented sound of their third album Supernature. Supernature took Goldfrapp's work further into dance music, enjoyed international chart success; the album produced three number-one US dance singles, was nominated for Best Electronic/Dance Album at the 49th Grammy Awards. Their fourth album Seventh Tree placed a greater emphasis on ambient and downtempo music, drawing inspiration from nature and paganism, while their fifth album, Head First, found the group exploring 1980s-influenced synthpop. Head First earned the duo their second Grammy Award nomination for Best Electronic/Dance Album in 2010.
Goldfrapp released their critically acclaimed sixth studio album, the folktronica-influenced Tales of Us, in September 2013. Goldfrapp released their seventh studio album, Silver Eye, in March 2017, which debuted at number six on the UK Albums Chart. Alison Goldfrapp began her musical career performing with Dance Company Catherine Massin throughout the Netherlands during her early twenties. Afterwards, she attended Middlesex University where she studied Fine Art and started creating live performance pieces. In the early 1990s Goldfrapp served as a guest vocalist with the electronic band Orbital and trip hop artist Tricky. In 1999, she was introduced to composer Will Gregory after he had listened to an early version of the song "Human". Gregory and Goldfrapp felt a mutual connection and subsequently wrote the track "Lovely Head". Following several months of phone calls, they decided to form a musical band and began performing under Goldfrapp's last name. In August 1999, Goldfrapp signed a recording contract with London-based record label Mute Records.
The pair began recording their début album over a six-month period, beginning in September 1999, in a rented bungalow in the Wiltshire countryside. The recording process was difficult for Alison and Will, who found themselves alone and disturbed by the mice and insects in the bungalow. Goldfrapp's début album Felt Mountain was released in September 2000 and produced the singles "Lovely Head", "Utopia", "Pilots" and "Human"; the album featured Alison Goldfrapp's vocals over cinematic soundscapes and is influenced by a variety of music styles including cabaret and electronic music. The album was well received by music critics, which Pitchfork Media described as "simultaneously smarmy and seductive, yet elegant and graceful", it reached number 57 on the UK Albums Chart, was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry. In 2001, Felt Mountain was shortlisted for the Mercury Prize, an annual music prize awarded for the best British or Irish album from the previous year; the lyrics on Felt Mountain were written by Alison Goldfrapp and are abstract obsessional tales inspired by films and her childhood.
The song "Oompa Radar" was inspired by Roman Polanski's film Cul-de-sac, while "Pilots" describes travellers floating in the atmosphere above the earth. To promote Felt Mountain, Goldfrapp toured the U. K. Europe and North America, supporting the alternative music bands Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds and The Doves; the band found it difficult to perform songs from the album live because of their complex arrangements which required up to forty musicians. They settled on performing with violinist Davide Rossi, drummer Rowan Oliver and keyboardist Andy Davies. Goldfrapp's second album Black Cherry was released in April 2003; the band recorded the album in a darkened studio in England. The album focused more on dance music and glam rock-inspired synths than its predecessor. Alison Goldfrapp commented that the album differed from Felt Mountain because the band "felt that we didn't want to repeat what we had done...we kind of wanted to do something that felt as fresh to us as the first one felt fresh to us, we wanted to put more kind of "oomph" in it."
The album received positive reviews from critics. The Guardian found it to be an "unexpected delight" and About.com called it a "rare electronica album of warmth and depth...the ultimate chillout pleasure". Black Cherry peaked at number 19 on the UK Albums Chart and number four on the Billboard Top Electronic Albums chart in the United States, it sold well, reaching platinum status in the UK and selling 52,000 copies in the U. S. as of August 2006. The first single released from the album was "Train", which reached number 23 on the UK Singles Chart; the song's lyrics discuss obsession and overindulgence and were inspired by Goldfrapp's visit to Los Angeles while touring in support of Felt Mountain. "Strict Machine" was released. The song proved successful on several formats, reached number one on the US Hot Dance Club Play chart. In 2004, "Strict Machine" won an Ivor Novello Award for "Best Dance Single"; the third single released from Black Cherry was "Twist", a song inspired by a fantasy that Goldfrapp had about a boy who worked in a fairground.
The title track was released as the album's fourth single and reached number 28 in the UK. In 2003, Alison Goldfrapp modified her image, from a sophisticated Marlene Dietrich inspired look to that of a new wave diva; the reinvented image included false eyelashes, customised T-shirts, military uniforms and fishnet stockings. Starting in March 2003, the band toured the album, with a concert series entitled Black Cherry Tour. In 2004, the band further toured Australia, Japan and North America and embar
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Mute Records Ltd. is a British independent record label owned and founded in 1978 by Daniel Miller. It has featured several prominent musical acts on its roster, such as Depeche Mode, Fad Gadget, Grinderman, Inspiral Carpets, New Order, Nitzer Ebb, Yeasayer, Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, M83. During 1978, Daniel Miller began recording music using synthesisers under the name The Normal, he recorded the tracks "T. V. O. D." and "Warm Leatherette", distributed them through Rough Trade Shops under the label name Mute Records. The label was formed just to release the one single. "T. V. O. D." / "Warm Leatherette" became. "Warm Leatherette" was covered by Grace Jones and Chicks on Speed as well as Rose McDowell. After meeting Robert Rental, Miller began playing live as Robert Rental & The Normal. In 1979 the band went on tour supporting the punk band Stiff Little Fingers, which had just released an album, being distributed by Rough Trade. In 1980, Miller released the single, "Kebab-Träume", by the German band Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft, who had moved to London.
The band's 1980 album, Die Kleinen und die Bösen, was the first album released by the new label. The album had the catalogue prefix "STUMM", a play on the record label's name, meaning "mute" in German; this prefix would continue to be used through most of the label's album catalogue. In 1980, Miller recorded and released the cover single, "Memphis Tennessee", under the name Silicon Teens; the band was Miller’s realisation of a dream Mute Records group, whose main instruments were synthesisers. In mid-1980, Mute Records released the Silicon Teens' album, titled Music For Parties. Around this time the artist Fad Gadget had begun recording new demos, including the track "Back To Nature"; this was released as a single in 1980, followed by the next single "Ricky's Hand" and the album Fireside Favourites recorded at Blackwing Studios. September 1980 saw the release of the double-holed, multi-speed 7" single by Non & Smegma, one of the first experimental noise releases from the label. Boyd Rice went on to release several more recordings with Mute Records.
After touring with Daniel Miller as Robert Rental & The Normal, Robert Rental released his only Mute Records single, "Double Heart", a rare, remaining trace of this late electronic music pioneer. Miller approached Depeche Mode in 1980, after seeing them perform in London, wanting them to record a single for his label. Emerging out of the British electronic pop scene, Depeche Mode asserted themselves as a radio-friendly pop group, had hits with their next three singles, including the UK top ten single, "Just Can't Get Enough", their loyalty to Mute was reciprocated by the label’s rapid expansion to cope with their success. In defiance of the major record labels predictions of failure, Depeche Mode became a successful charting band worldwide; the band's consistency was unbroken by the departure of principal songwriter Vince Clarke. Martin Gore took over the main songwriting role, opening the band up to different influences and sustaining their creativity as a band. Mute continued to support other experimental artists, such as NON, releasing an album of Boyd Rice's pre-NON recordings, titled Boyd Rice.
1982 began with the release of the 12-inch single, "Rise", by Boyd Rice, released under the name NON. Fad Gadget released his third album for the label, titled Under the Flag, influenced by the current Falklands War and the feeling of being British in the most unseemly of times; the album spawned the singles "For Whom the Bells Toll" and "Life on the Line". Mute Record's big commercial success of 1982 was the band Yazoo, the duo of Vince Clarke and Alison Moyet. After leaving Depeche Mode, Clarke had set up a studio in the Blackwing Studios complex, where he recorded the singles "Only You" and "Don’t Go"; that year, Mute licensed the single, "Fred Vom Jupiter", from the German record label Atatak. The track was recorded by Andreas Dorau and the schoolgirl Marinas. From Germany was the single, "Los Ninos Del Parque", by Liaisons Dangereuses released by Mute. Liaisons Dangereuses included Chrislo Hass, in the German band DAF. After returning from a world tour in 1983, Depeche Mode released the industrial-influenced hit single "Everything Counts".
Bruce Gilbert and Graham Lewis, of the band Wire, teamed up with Daniel Miller to form a project known as Duet Emmo, an anagram of Mute and Dome. They released an album and 12-inch single, both titled Or So It Seems. Miller secured the rights to the back catalogue of the experimental bands Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire and Richard H. KirkDuring 1983, the Australian band The Birthday Party transferred from 4AD to Mute Records; the band broke up after releasing their final 12-inch EP, "Mutiny". Birthday Party's singer, Nick Cave, stayed with Mute and released his debut single as Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds; the single was a cover of the song, "In the Ghetto", by Mac Davis made famous by Elvis Presley. Yazoo disbanded. Vince Clarke began working at Blackwing Studios under the name The Assembly; the project's first single, "Never Never", was a hit. D. A. F. Split up, in 1983, ex-member Robert Görl released the single "Mit Dir" on Mute, he recorded the album, Night Full of Tension, the following year, including the single "Darling Don’t Leave Me", featuring Annie Lennox.
In 1984, Depeche Mode had one of their biggest hits in the UK with the single "People Are People". Their album that year, Some Great