2014 Tunisian parliamentary election
Legislative elections were held in Tunisia on 26 October 2014. Campaigning started on 4 October 2014, they were the first free regular legislative elections since independence in 1956, the first elections held following the adoption of the new constitution in January 2014, which created a 217-seat Assembly of the Representatives of the People. According to preliminary results, Nidaa Tounes gained a plurality of votes, winning 85 seats in the 217-seat parliament, beating the Ennahda Movement and many smaller parties. Presidential elections were held a month on 23 November; the 217 members of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People were elected in 33 constituencies. There were 27 multi-member constituencies in Tunisia varying in size from four to ten seats and electing a total of 199. There were six overseas constituencies electing a total of 18 seats: two constituencies in France electing five seats each, one three-seat constituency in Italy, a single-member constituency in Germany, a two-member constituency covering the rest of Europe and the Americas, a two-member constituency covering the Arab world and the rest of the world.
Seats were elected by party-list proportional representation. Poll results are listed in the table below in chronological order, showing the most recent polls last. According to the final results released by the Independent High Authority for Elections, Nidaa Tounes took the lead in the election, winning 86 seats in the 217-seat parliament. Ennahda Movement came second with 69 seats losing 16 seats compared to 2011 elections; the biggest losers were CPR of Moncef Marzouki and Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties who were members of a coalition government formed with Ennahda Movement following 2011 elections, opposition party Current of Love. On the other hand, there was a noticeable emergence of smaller parties like the UPL of businessman Slim Riahi with 16 seats, Popular Front with 15 seats and Afek Tounes with 8 seats; the Elections Authority decided to sanction Nidaa Tounes in Kasserine electoral district by withdrawing one seat following reported irregularities conducted by partisans.
However, the decision was overturned by the administrative court after an appeal by Nidaa Tounes. The ruling took away the only seat obtained by Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties leaving the party with no presence in parliament. A low youth voter turnout was recorded with over 80% of 18- to 25-year-olds boycotting the vote. Ennahda's Lotfi Zitoun said the party had "accepted this result and congratulate the winner." The result was hailed internationally for its democratic viability as the only one of the major Arab Spring uprisings, including Libya and Egypt, not convulsed by instability and turmoil. In the United States, President Barack Obama hailed the free and non-violent elections as a "milestone," while Secretary of State John Kerry said it was an example of "why Tunisia remains a beacon of hope, not only to the Tunisian people, but to the region and the world." Comparisons were drawn to holding Tunisia as a model for Lebanon amidst its own turmoil. With Nidaa Tounes having won a plurality it has the right to name a prime minister and form a government in coalition.
Beji Caid Essebsi said it was too early to talk of a coalition government – including one with Ennahda. Instead he said the Tunisian presidential election, 2014 will give direction to the formation of a new government. On 5 January 2015, Nidaa Tounes nominated independent Habib Essid as Prime Minister and asked him to form a new government, he was chosen over former trade unionist Taieb Baccouche "because he is independent and has experience in the areas of security and the economy," said the speaker of Congress, Mohamed Ennaceur. The nomination of a politician who had served under former autocratic president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali however was criticized. Popular Front leader Hamma Hammami stated that with Essid as prime minister, "the real power" would rather be in the presidential palace. On 23 January 2015, Essid presented a minority cabinet including 10 ministers from Nidaa Tounes and three from the liberal Free Patriotic Union, after the other liberal power Afek Tounes was said to have abruptly pulled out of the coalition.
Without Afek Tounes, the two parties could, only count on 102 of the 217 seats. Both Ennahda and the Popular Front announced to vote against the proposed government. On 4 February 2015, Essid proposed a unity government consisting of independent politicians, ministers of Nidaa Tounes, the two liberal parties UPL and Afek Tounes, a minister of the Islamist Ennahda; the next day, Essid's new proposal found a strong majority in the Assembly of the Representatives of the People, when 166 of the 217 legislators approved his new government
2009 Tunisian general election
Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in Tunisia on 25 October 2009. Results released on 26 October 2009 indicated a substantial victory for incumbent President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, who won the reelection for a fifth five-year term, the governing Constitutional Democratic Rally, it was the last election contested under the Ben Ali regime, prior to the Tunisian Revolution. The African Union sent a team of election observers to cover the election; the delegation was led by Benjamin Bounkoulou who described the election as "free and fair". However, a spokesperson from the United States State Department indicated that Tunisia did not allow international monitoring of elections, but the U. S. was still committed to working with the president of its government. There were reports of mistreatment of an opposition candidate; the Interior Ministry released the official results for the election on Monday 26 October 2009. Voter turnout was recorded at 89.40% with 4,447,388 of Tunisia's 5.3 million registered voters participating.
In the presidential race, incumbent president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali won 89.62% of the vote. His nearest rivals were Mohamed Bouchiha with 5.01% of the vote and Ahmed Inoubli with 3.80%, Ahmed Brahum with 1.57%. In the Chamber of Deputies election, the Democratic Constitutional Rally, which had governed continuously from Tunisia's independence from France in 1956 until the Tunisian Revolution, won 84.59% of the vote and 161 seats. The Movement of Socialist Democrats won 16 seats with 4.63% of the vote, the Popular Unity Party won 12 seats and 3.39% of votes, The Unionist Democratic Union won 9 seats with 2.56%. The remaining 16 seats were divided between the Social Liberal Party, who won eight seats, the Green Party for Progress, who won six and the Movement Ettajdid who won two seats. Presidential and Legislative Elections in Tunisia - 2009 Ben Ali reelected with 89 per cent - Radio France Internationale Unsurprising victory for Ben Ali - Radio France Internationale Final results give President Ben Ali a fifth term - France 24 Ben Ali wins unsurprising landslide in presidential election - France 24
President of Tunisia
The President of Tunisia, formally known as the President of the Republic of Tunisia is the head of state of Tunisia. Tunisia is a semi-presidential republic, whereby the president is the head of state and the prime minister is head of government. Under Article 77 of the Constitution of Tunisia, the president is the commander-in-chief of the Tunisian Armed Forces; the president is directly elected by universal suffrage by majority, with a second round between the top two candidates, if neither receives an absolute majority in the first round. A presidential candidate must be at least 35 years old on the day of filing for candidacy, must be a Muslim; the candidate must have a Tunisian nationality, must abandon any other nationality. The president's role and powers are defined in part one of the constitution. In addition to being the head of state, the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces; the president is limited to a maximum of two terms, may not hold a partisan position while serving as president.
The president and the prime minister have executive roles, with the executive power being exercised by the president and the government. The Assembly of the Representatives of the People has the right to, by majority, present a motion to impeach the president for a grave violation of the constitution. Article 77 specifies that the president is responsible for the general state of defence, foreign policy and national security, after consultation with the head of government. Article 78 specifies that the president is responsible for appointing and dismissing: The General Mufti of the Tunisian Republic Individuals in senior positions in the Presidency of the Republic and dependent institutions. Individuals in senior military and diplomatic positions, related to national security, after consultation with the Head of Government; the head of the central bank, upon proposal from the head of government after approval from the Assembly of the Representatives of the People. Article 80 specifies that in exceptional circumstances, the president, after consultation with the government and the president of the Assembly, may take measures necessitated by the circumstances.
Article 81 specifies that the president has the responsibility of signing laws, ensure their publication. With the exception of draft constitutional laws, the president has the right to return laws to the assembly with an explanation. A returned law requires approval by an absolute majority of assembly members, or in the case of an organic law, three-fifths of the assembly members. Article 82 specifies that the president may in exceptional circumstances put certain draft laws to a referendum. Article 87 specifies. Since the promulgation of a republican constitution in June 1959, three years after gaining independence from France, Tunisia has had just three directly elected presidents; the first president was Habib Bourguiba, who became the country's first president after the proclamation of a republic in 1957. He was formally elected to the post in 1959, was proclaimed president for life in 1975, he was removed from office in a coup d'état in 1987 by Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali after being declared medically unfit to continue in office.
Ben Ali ascended as acting president, was elected in his own right in 1989 and served until 2011, when he was forced from office during an uprising against his rule. The current president, Beji Caid Essebsi, was elected in the country's first free presidential election, held in December 2014. For most of its history as an independent state, Tunisia lacked political democracy in the Western sense, saw widespread violations of human rights; because of this, presidential elections in Tunisia, such as that of 2009, lacked international credibility, with elections dominated by the ruling party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally and its previous incarnations as the Neo Destour party and the Socialist Destourian Party. Prior to 1999, presidential candidates had to be endorsed by at least 30 political figures--a realistic possibility only for a candidate from a well-organized party like the RCD. Given the RCD's near-total domination of Tunisian politics, opposition candidates found it impossible to get their nomination papers signed.
From 1987 to 2002, a president was limited to three five-year terms, with not more than two in a row. However, this provision was removed in June 2002; the 2014 Constitution retained the presidency as the key institution, but hedged it about with numerous checks and balances to prevent a repeat of past authoritarian excesses. Most notably, a president is limited to two terms, whether separated. For example, if incumbent president Essebsi were to leave office in 2019, he would be eligible to run again in 2024. However, if he were to return to office that year, he would not be eligible to run again in 2029. Following Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's ousting in January 2011, prime minister Mohamed Ghannouchi invoked article 56 of the Constitution regarding temporary absence of the President to assume the role of acting President; this move was deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court hours and President of the Chamber of Deputies Fouad Mebazaa was appointed as acting President based on article 57 of the Constitution regarding permanent absence of the President.
On December 12, 2011, Moncef Marzouki was elected by the newly formed Constituent Assembl
Mohamed Ennaceur is a Tunisian politician. Since 2014 he is the President of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People and leader of the governing Nidaa Tounes party, he served as Minister of Social Affairs in the 1970s and 1980s under President Habib Bourguiba, again in 2011 in the transitional Ghannouchi and Essebsi governments. Ennaceur was the founding director of the Tunisian Association of Social Law, the Revue tunisienne de droit social and the Festival international de musique symphonique d'El Jem. On 4 December 2014, he was elected as President of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People with 176 yes votes out of 214 present MPs.: Grand Cordon in the Order of Independence. Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Republic. France: Grand offier of the National Order of Merit. Luxembourg: Grand Cross in the Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Belgium: Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold. Germany: Commander of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Orange-Nassau. United Kingdom: Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Ivory Coast: Crand offier of the National Order of the Ivory Coast
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance. It included a series of street demonstrations which took place in Tunisia, led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011, it led to a thorough democratization of the country and to free and democratic elections. The demonstrations were caused by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, a lack of political freedoms like freedom of speech and poor living conditions; the protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades and resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces. The protests were sparked by the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi on 17 December 2010 and led to the ousting of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 28 days on 14 January 2011, when he resigned after fleeing to Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power. Labor unions were an integral part of the protests.
The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet was awarded the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize for "its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Tunisian Revolution of 2011". The protests inspired similar actions throughout the Arab world, in a chain reaction which became known as the Arab Spring movement. In Tunisia and the wider Arab world, the protests and change in government are called the Revolution or sometimes the Sidi Bouzid Revolt, the name being derived from Sidi Bouzid, the city where the initial protests began. In the Western media, these events have been dubbed the Jasmine Revolution or Jasmine Spring after Tunisia's national flower and in keeping with the geopolitical nomenclature of "color revolutions"; the name "Jasmine Revolution" originated from American journalist Andy Carvin, but it was not adopted in Tunisia itself. In fact, the debate surrounding the name and the poetic influences behind the Tunisian revolution was a popular question among Tunisian intellectuals themselves as seen in the following article: Tunisia's revolution of dignity and freedom cannot be color-coded.
The name adopted in Tunisia was the Dignity Revolution, a translation of the Tunisian Arabic name for the revolution ثورة الكرامة. Within Tunisia, Ben Ali's rise to power in 1987 was known as the Jasmine Revolution. President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali had ruled Tunisia since 1987 as a one-party state with the Democratic Constitutional Rally in power, his government was characterized by the development of Tunisia's private sector in favor of foreign investment, the repression of political opposition. Foreign media and NGOs criticized his government, supported by the United States and France; as a result, the initial reactions to Ben Ali's abuses by the U. S. and France were muted, most instances of socio-political protest in the country, when they occurred at all made major news headlines. Riots in Tunisia were rare and noteworthy since the country is considered to be wealthy and stable as compared to other countries in the region. Any form of protests in the country were successfully repressed and kept silent by the former regime and protesters would be jailed for such actions, as were for example protests by hundreds of unemployed demonstrators in Redeyef in 2008.
In fact, as noted by Mohamed Bacha in his book The Revolutionary Chants of Club Africain Ultras, Tunisian youth had managed to circumvent repression and to express their anger and dissatisfaction towards the oppressive regime and social / political injustice for years preceding the Tunisia revolution, notably through the fan chants of Club Africain Ultras who predicted the imminence of a revolution in Tunisia, in chants like: The capital is angry, We are solidary when we make war to the sons of --- Who oppress us, Hey Regime,The Revolution is Imminent. Al Jazeera English said that Tunisian activists are among the most outspoken in its part of the world with various messages of support being posted on Twitter for Bouazizi. An op-ed article in the same network said of the action that it was "suicidal protests of despair by Tunisia's youth." It pointed out that the state-controlled National Solidarity Fund and the National Employment Fund had traditionally subsidized many goods and services in the country but had started to shift the "burden of providence from state to society" to be funded by the bidonvilles, or shanty towns, around the richer towns and suburbs.
It cited the "marginalization of the agrarian and arid central and southern areas continue unabated." The protests were called an "uprising" because of "a lethal combination of poverty and political repression: three characteristics of most Arab societies." It was a revolution, notes a Tunisian geographer, "started not by the middle class or the northern urban centers, but by marginalized social groups." Twenty-six-year-old Mohamed Bouazizi had been the sole income earner in his extended family of eight. He operated a apple cart for seven years in Sidi Bouzid 190 miles south of Tunis. On 17 December 2010, a female officer produce. Bouazizi, who had had such an event happen to him before, tried to pay the 10-dinar fine, it was reported that in response the policewoman insulted his deceased father and slapped him. The story turned to be false and "had been disseminated and used to mobilize as much as possible against the Ben Ali regime; the officer, Faida Hamdi, stated that she was not a policewoman, but a city employee, tasked that morning with confiscating produce from vendors without licenses.
When she tried
The Tunisian passport is issued to citizens of Tunisia for international travel. There are three main types of passport: 1. Regular passport, issued to citizens for international travel, valid for 5 years. 2. "Special" passport, issued to Tunisians travelling on official business. 3. Diplomatic passport, issued to Tunisian diplomats and their relatives. All Tunisian passports comply with ICAO standards, they contain 32 pages. The first machine-readable passports were issued in 2003; the Tunisian passport has the following wording on its cover: Top: "الجمهورية التونسة" "RÉPUBLIQUE TUNISIENNE" "REPUBLIC OF TUNISIA" Middle: The Coat of Arms of Tunisia Bottom: "جواز سفر " "PASSEPORT" "PASSPORT" In 2018, Tunisian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 66 countries and territories, ranking the Tunisian passport 72nd in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index. See Visa requirements for Tunisian citizens
Mustapha Dinguizli was a Tunisian politician. He was born in Tunis. Dinguizli was born in Tunis to a family of Turkish origin, he studied at the Collège Sadiki and at the Ecole Normale de Versailles and the École Normale Supérieure de Fontenay-Saint-Cloud. His maternal uncle, Sadok Ghileb, was the mayor of Tunis which allowed Dinguizli to climb the ranks to the post of governor of the caid suburbs of Tunis between 1900 and 1912. After Ghileb's death, Dinguizli succeeded his uncle as head of the municipality of Tunis between 1912 and 1915, he was appointed Grand Vizier of Tunis in 1922, with the agreement of the Resident General of France. Pursuing a conciliatory policy with the authorities of the French protectorate of Tunisia, Dinguizli remained at his post until his death in 1926, he is among the ministers buried in the mausoleum of Tourbet el Bey located in the medina of Tunis. His brother Béchir Dinguizli became the first Tunisian Muslim to become a doctor in the modern era