Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C.
Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. is located at the corner of 8th and I Streets, Southeast in Washington, D. C. Established in 1801, it is a National Historic Landmark, the oldest post in the United States Marine Corps, the official residence of the Commandant of the Marine Corps since 1806, main ceremonial grounds of the Corps, it is home to the U. S. Marine Drum and Bugle Corps and the U. S. Marine Band. Barracks Marines conduct ceremonial missions in and around the National Capital Region as well as abroad, they provide security at designated locations around Washington, D. C. as necessary, carry out the distance education and training program of the Marine Corps through the Marine Corps Institute, Barracks officers are part of the White House Social Aide Program. Marine Barracks Washington and the Historic Home of the Commandants were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. A 6-acre property with eight contributing buildings was included in the listing, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976.
The buildings at the Marine Barracks are some of the oldest in Washington. In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson and Lt. Col. William Ward Burrows, the commandant of the Marine Corps, rode horses about the new capital to find a place suitable for the Marines near the Washington Navy Yard, they chose a location within marching distance of both the Navy Yard and the Capitol and hired architect George Hadfield to design the barracks and the Commandant's House. When the British burned Washington during the War of 1812, they captured the Marine barracks, it is traditionally held within the Marine Corps that, out of respect for the brave showing of the Marines at the Battle of Bladensburg, the British refrained from burning the barracks and the Commandant's house. Though neither Admiral Cockburn nor General Ross mentioned the Marines in their conversation with the wounded Commodore Barney, it is now acknowledged that the compliment extends towards both Barney's Flotilla men and the 103 Marines present.
This was due to the fact that Miller's Marines had brought heavier field guns and small arms to act as the core of Barney's line. There is little doubt that Barney's sailors would have held their ground had it not been for the cannons dispensing grape and canister volley after volley into the 85th Light Foot Regt; this is supported by the fact that Baltimore artillery on the Marines' right flank was only firing round shot in an attempt to stop Thornton from crossing the bridge. Round shot, in general, is ineffective against dispersed troops such as the light infantry of the 85th; this account of events still survives: The people of the flotilla, under the orders of Captain Barney and the Marines, were justly applauded for their excellent conduct on this occasion. No troops could have stood better. Captain Barney himself, Captain Miller, of the Marine Corps, in particular, gained much additional reputation; the "last stand" of the sailors and Marines is to this day immortalized by Col. Charles Waterhouse's painting of Captain Miller's Marines manning two of the three 12 lb Gribeuaval type cannons.
The three guns themselves were hauled from the Marine barracks onto the battlefield to cover a strategic bridgehead. This event has been marked by sculptor Joanna Blake of Cottage City in her "Undaunted in Battle." It shows a wounded Barney being helped by a Marine and flanked by a sailor representing a member of the "Flotilla." The background shows a wheeled cannon one of the three hauled to the battlefield by the Marines. Ones that proved so decisive in holding off the British if for a brief moment. Square 927, now the block surrounded by 8th & I, 9th & G Streets S. E. was entered in the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, was designated a National Historic Landmark by the Department of the Interior in 1976.8th and I has been the home of the Silent Drill Platoon and the Marine Band since the barracks' establishment in 1801 and the residence of the Commandant since 1806, when the Commandant's House was completed. The Commandant's house is the only original building left in the complex, the remainder having been rebuilt in 1900 and 1907.
The Marine Corps Institute moved to the barracks from its previous home at Marine Barracks Quantico in 1920. The Drum and Bugle Corps has been based at the barracks since its formation in 1934; the barracks complex is one of the oldest government buildings in continuous use in Washington, D. C. though some sources conflict on. While traditionally known as the "oldest post in the Corps", Marines did serve at the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston a year earlier, though they did not have a permanent detachment until 1805 nor a barracks until 1810, it was vacated in 1974; the Tun Tavern is considered the birthplace of the Corps, having been used for one of the first Continental Marines' recruiting drives in 1775, though it is disputed if it occurred before one at Samuel Nicholas's family tavern, the Conestoga Waggon. Funeral escort for dignitaries. Ceremonial honor guard for state functions. Security forces for the White House Communications Agency. Parades: Friday Evening Parade Tuesday Sunset Parade at the Iwo Jima Memorial Provided military correspondence courses for Marines and other services through tenant Marine Corps Institute.
- Officially Deactivated 1 October 2015 Training to maintain MOS proficiency and emergency pre
Chief of Naval Operations
The Chief of Naval Operations is the highest-ranking officer and professional head of the United States Navy. The position is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral, a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, the President; the current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral John M. Richardson. Despite the title, the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces; the CNO is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, exercises supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy. Operational command of naval forces falls within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense; the Chief of Naval Operations is the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the U. S. Navy unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers.
As per 10 U. S. C. § 5035, whenever there is a vacancy for the Chief of Naval Operations or during the absence or disability of the Chief of Naval Operations, unless the President directs otherwise, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations performs the duties of the Chief of Naval Operations until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases. The CNO performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U. S. C. § 5033, such as presiding over the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, exercising supervision of Navy organizations, other duties assigned by the Secretary or higher lawful authority, or the CNO delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in OPNAV or in organizations below. Acting for the Secretary of the Navy, the CNO designates naval personnel and naval forces available to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense; the CNO is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U. S. C. § 151 and 10 U.
S. C. § 5033. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CNO is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Navy forces. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, individually or collectively, in their capacity as military advisers, shall provide advice to the President, the National Security Council, or the Secretary of Defense on a particular matter when the President, the NSC, or SECDEF requests such advice. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may submit to the Chairman advice or an opinion in disagreement with, or advice or an opinion in addition to, the advice presented by the Chairman to the President, NSC, or SECDEF; when performing his JCS duties, the CNO is responsible directly to the SECDEF, but keeps SECNAV informed of significant military operations affecting the duties and responsibilities of the SECNAV, unless SECDEF orders otherwise. The Chief of Naval Operations is nominated by the President for appointment and must be confirmed by the Senate.
A requirement for being Chief of Naval Operations is having significant experience in joint duty assignments, which includes at least one full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment as a flag officer. However, the president may waive those requirements if he determines that appointing the officer is necessary for the national interest. By statute, the CNO is appointed as a four-star admiral. Number One Observatory Circle, located on the northeast grounds of the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, was built in 1893 for its superintendent; the Chief of Naval Operations liked the house so much that in 1923 he took over the house as his own official residence. It remained the residence of the CNO until 1974, when Congress authorized its transformation to an official residence for the Vice President; the Chief of Naval Operations resides in Quarters A in the Washington Naval Yard. The Chief of Naval Operations presides over the Navy Staff, formally known as the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory organization within the executive part of the Department of the Navy, its purpose is to furnish professional assistance to the Secretary of the Navy and the CNO in carrying out their responsibilities. The OPNAV organization consists of: The Chief of Naval Operations The Vice Chief of Naval Operations, the principal deputy of the Chief of Naval Operations, delegated complete authority to act for the CNO in all matters not reserved by law to the CNO; the Director of the Navy Staff. Several Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations of either three or two-star rank, heading functional directorates. DCNO Manpower, Training, & Education/Chief of Naval Personnel DCNO Warfare Dominance/Director of the Office of Naval Intelligence DCNO Operations, Plans, & Strategy DCNO Fleet Readiness & Logistics DCNO Integration of Capabilities & Resources DCNO Warfare Systems The Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, appointed by the Chief of Naval Operations to serve as a spokesperson to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Navy.
The Director of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, a unique eight-year posting held by a 4 star admiral, created and served in by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover; the appointment as Director is both a military and civilian position as it is the head of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program in the Department of the Navy and deputy administrator for the Office of Naval Reactors of the National Nuclear Security Administration
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Fleet Marine Force
The United States Fleet Marine Forces are combined general and special purpose forces within the United States Department of the Navy that perform offensive amphibious or expeditionary warfare and defensive maritime employment. The Fleet Marine Forces provide the National Command Authority with a responsive force that can conduct operations in any spectrum of conflict around the globe; the Fleet Marine Forces consists of Marine Corps' operating forces components that constitute the Fleet Marine Forces on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, or within its "designate". While the FMF is a Marine Corps organization, the FMF is a type command under the operational control of Navy fleet commanders; the Commanding General of the Fleet Marine Force. The subordinate units of the Fleet Marine Forces come under the operational control of the commanders, U. S. Fleet Forces Command or United States Pacific Fleet; the commanders of Marine Forces Command and Pacific serve as Marine Corps component commanders to their respective combatant commanders and may serve as commanding generals of Fleet Marine Forces Atlantic, or Pacific.
The operating forces of the Marine Corps are organized into two Fleet Marine Forces: Fleet Marine Force, Pacific with headquarters in Honolulu, Hawaii Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic with headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia. Each FMF is equivalent to a U. S. Navy type command and reports to its respective Fleet Commander-in-Chief; the commanding general -- a lieutenant general -- may be either a ground officer. His deputy commanding general is from the other community. Marine Corps forces are organized into warfighting units of combined arms known as Marine Air Ground Task Forces and are either employed as part of naval expeditionary forces or separately as part of larger joint or combined forces; each FMF consists of at least one Marine Expeditionary Force consisting of at least one Marine Division, one Marine Aircraft Wing, one Marine Logistics Group, an MEF Information Group. Other miscellaneous supporting units may be attached. In addition to one or more MEF, each FMF is further organized into one or more intermediate-sized MAGTFs called Marine Expeditionary Brigades and smaller MAGTFs called Marine Expeditionary Units.
Its predecessor was the Advanced Base Force in the early 20th century. The history of the FMF dates to December 7, 1933, when Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson issued General Order 241 defining the Fleet Marine Force. Momentarily before and during World War II, the Fleet Marine Force had FMF units in western Pacific assigned to the United States Asiatic Fleet, establishing the Fleet Marine Force, Western Pacific. For service in the Fleet Marine Force, the United States Department of the Navy issues the FMF Enlisted Warfare Specialist Insignia and the FMF Qualified Officer Insignia. Navy Fleet Marine Force personnel Corpsmen, Religious Program Specialists or Naval Gunfire Liaison Officers who participate in amphibious assaults, are eligible to receive the FMF Combat Operations Insignia to certain service medals and ribbons; such Navy personnel are authorized to wear the Marine Corps utility uniform with Navy insignia, must conform to all physical requirements of the U. S. Marines. Marine Air-Ground Task Force Reconnaissance Marine Detachment Naval Expeditionary Combat Command Organization of the United States Marine Corps 1st Naval Construction Division United States Navy Amphibious Reconnaissance Corpsman United States Navy Hospital Corpsman http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/SJH.htm http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1995/MJS.htm
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo