The coho salmon is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon. Coho salmon are known as silver salmon or silvers. The scientific species name is based on the Russian common name kizhuch, during their ocean phase, coho salmon have silver sides and dark-blue backs. During their spawning phase, their jaws and teeth become hooked, after entering fresh water, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and dark spots on their backs. Sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, mature adults have a pronounced red skin color with darker backs and average 28 inches and 7 to 11 pounds, occasionally reaching up to 36 pounds. They develop a large kype during spawning, mature females may be darker than males, with both showing a pronounced hook on the nose. The eggs hatch in the winter or early spring after six to seven weeks in the redd. Once hatched, they remain mostly immobile in the redd during the life stage.
Alevin no longer have the egg shell, or chorion. The alevin life stage is very sensitive to aquatic and sedimental contaminants, when the yolk sac is completely resorbed, the alevin leaves the redd. Young coho spend one to two years in their natal streams, often spending the first winter in off-channel sloughs. Smolts are generally 100–150 mm and as their parr marks fade, smolts migrate to the ocean from late March through July. Some fish leave fresh water in the spring, spend summer in brackish estuarine ponds, Coho salmon live in salt water for one to three years before returning to spawn. Some precocious males, known as jacks, return as two-year-old spawners, spawning males develop kypes, which are strongly hooked snouts and large teeth. Coho salmon have introduced in all the Great Lakes. The total North Pacific harvest of salmon in 2010 exceeded 6.3 million fish. This corresponds to some 21,000 tonnes in all, Coho salmon are the backbone of the Alaskan troll fishery, the majority are caught by the net fishery.
Coho salmon average 3. 5% by fish and 5. 9% by weight of the annual Alaska salmon harvest, the total North Pacific yields of the pink salmon, chum salmon and sockeye salmon are some 10–20 fold larger by weight
Old Town Eureka
Old Town Eureka in Eureka, California, is listed on the United States National Register of Historic Places. This Historic district is a 350-acre area containing 154 buildings mostly from the Victorian era, the core of the district runs the length of First and Third Streets, between C and M Streets and includes many types of architecture from the 1850s to the present. Though not officially within the district, the Carson Mansion, the undisputed Victorian jewel of the city and region, commands the highest elevation at the eastern edge of the district. Art venues, coffee shops and breakfasts and inns, antique stores and shops, restaurants and galleries, and public areas are among the highlights of this gem of the West Coast. Of particular note is the authenticity of the district simply because it did not suffer the ravages of extensive fires or redevelopment like many other historic commercial centers. The city began as an 1850 settlement on the edge of Humboldt Bay where the district is today and settlers planned for Eureka to aid in the provision of miners working inland to the east.
By 1865 the central core of what would become Eurekas Old Town was considered a place for a small town, full of business. The roads beyond Second street were covered with stumps from the Redwood forest, Old Town is the thriving, cultural heart of Eureka and the region. The area is an attraction for visitors and locals alike and its placement on the California North Coast is indisputably beautiful. The area, often shrouded in fog and very definitely behind the Redwood Curtain, is different from the rest of California. The vibrant art scene that has grown up there in the decades of the 20th century led to the declaration that the city was one of the 100 best art towns in America. The Clarke Historical Museum is located at the corner of 3rd, the collection includes extensive representation of basketry of indigenous native cultures throughout the region and regional and cultural history, with focus on the Victorian era. Blues By the Bay occurs in summer on City of Eureka property below the Carson Mansion.
Occurs each month in the Old Town and Downtown sections of Eureka, more than 80 local galleries and other shops display local art to the public. The open house event often features wine, non-alcoholic drinks, performers, jugglers and fire dancers perform on street corners as well as in shops and galleries. The event often coincides with performances of the Eureka Symphony in the Arkley Performance Center in the refurbished Old State Theater Building, children can be safely cared for in the Discovery Museum, while parents participate in the North States largest ongoing community arts event. Old Town Eureka has a street-fair Fourth of July celebration followed by fireworks over the bay
Humboldt Arts Council
The Humboldt Arts Council is the official Humboldt County, California, USA arts council, and is located in the Morris Graves Museum of Art. The Council envisions that the importance of art will be evident in all aspects of life in Humboldt County, including homes, schools and government. The Council is dedicated to providing leadership in support of the heritage of the arts on California’s North Coast. In 1987, HAC became the State Local Partner for the California Arts Council, in 1996 the Humboldt Arts Council accepted an offer from the City of Eureka to undertake the effort to save the historic 1904 Carnegie Library building, which was destined for demolition. The former Carnegie Library had been a symbol of community pride, on January 1,2000 the Humboldt Arts Council and the community celebrated with a ribbon cutting ceremony to dedicate the Morris Graves Museum of Art for its new “Century of Service” to the community. The Morris Graves Museum of Art is located in Eureka, California and it was named after Morris Graves, a painter and founder of the Northwest School of Art in the Pacific Northwest.
Prior to his death in 2001, he donated a portion of his personal art collection, including some of his own works. It is located in the refurbished Eureka Carnegie Library building, which was the first Carnegie Library completed in California in 1904, the museum is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. Clarke Historical Museum Humboldt Bay Maritime Museum Humboldt County Historical Society Morris Graves Museum of Art and the Humboldt Arts Council
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the public, or a Private Law. The term can be used in countries with a legislature named Congress. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as Public Law X-Y or Private Law X-Y, for example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. When the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively, the word act, as used in the term Act of Congress, is a common, not a proper noun. The capitalization of the act is deprecated by some dictionaries. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code and this is likely a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution.
Act of Congress is sometimes used in speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, It takes an Act of Congress to get a permit in this town. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods, if an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, after the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code, an Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts. The judicial declaration of an Acts unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the books, rather. However, future publications of the Act are generally annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law, legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress.
Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http, //bensguide. gpo. gov/6-8/glossary. html
Humboldt Bay Life-Saving Station
Rebuilt in 1936 with marine railways to launch rescue surfboats, the historic facility was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 30,1979. The station continues to function as an important asset of the United States Coast Guard in the Coast Guard Group/Air Station Humboldt Bay, in 1851, the United States Congress appropriated $15,000 for the Humboldt Harbor Light which entered service in 1856. The vegetable oil burning light shone from a 53 feet tall tower whose keeper lived in a Cape Cod style house at the base, the first keeper in 1856 was J. Johnson whose wife, operated the light after his death in 1859 until 1863. Fog, kept the light from being seen well, years later, the top of the tower was found in the sand and relocated to the Humboldt Bay Maritime Museum. Other aids to navigation including bells on boats and fog whistles, the fog keeper and assistant keeper lived at the actual station. There was nearby housing for their families although none of the buildings remains and six other Life Saving Stations were built in California.
The others were Arena Cove, Fort Point, Golden Gate Park, Point Reyes, Point Bonita, the entire Pacific coast had 20 Life Saving Service stations.5 ton granite boulders transported from the Mad River Quarry on railroad flatbed cars transported on barges across the bay. George Reef Light, on the site of the fatal Brother Jonathan wreck offshore Crescent City and it cost $117,000 to quarry and ship, operate the facility and pay the help in 1884, a figure which was higher than expected due to the non-stop rain. The quarry operated from 1884 to 1891, commanded by Chief Payson from 1887 after whom the settlement was named, Paysonville remained idle from 1891 until World War II when it was turned into a Navy seaplane base and is now the Samoa Boat Basin. In 1878, Congress authorized the United States Life-Saving Service although stations were to be built only where navigation conditions were extremely hazardous, the Humboldt Bay station was the second to be built in California after that in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco.
It began operating in November 1878 just to the south of Paysonville, the original station was to the north side of the present building and tasked to rescue wrecked and stranded ships and patrol the beaches. The station was manned by a keeper and six volunteers, surfmen would be hired, living at the station which could house rescue victims. After the 1892 closure of the Humboldt Harbor Light, surfmen used the tower of the old lighthouse as a lookout until the tower collapsed in 1933. By 1896 there were eight surfman each working a six-day week, in 1910, the first power-driven boat was used for rescue on Humboldt Bay although hand-rowed boats were still used. In 1936, as part of the national New Deal upgrade of Coast Guard facilities, a new Humboldt Bay Station was built to replace the original. The U. S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineers Office, Washington, D. C. drew up the plans of the building dated February 1936, less than a year and $78,000 later, the building was occupied in January 1937. Chief Garner Churchill commanded the station from 1937 until he retired in 1966, during his tenure, more than 300 people were saved by the station.
The new station housed and fed a 25 man crew and had living quarters for the Chief, two marine railways were built, originally without handrails, from the bay side boat room to seven feet below mean low tide line
Bureau of Land Management
President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies, the General Land Office and the Grazing Service. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states, Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. The mission of the BLM is to sustain the health, originally BLM holdings were described as land nobody wanted because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits, the agency manages 221 wilderness areas,23 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Landscape Conservation System totaling about 30 million acres. There are more than 63,000 oil and gas wells on BLM public lands, total energy leases generated approximately $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, and Native American groups. The BLMs roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution.
As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored, during the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies. After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, France, in the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function, Land was sold so that the government would have money to survive. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted, the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by trial and error, once the territory of Ohio had been surveyed, in 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were finally fulfilled, over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land.
Several different types of patents existed and these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, and town lots. A system of land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land that was surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory. This pattern gradually spread across the entire United States, the laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, gas, the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees. The Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937, commonly referred as the O&C Act, in 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for new agency to integrate and reorganize
Arcata, originally Union Town or Union, is a city adjacent to the Arcata Bay portion of Humboldt Bay in Humboldt County, United States. At the 2010 census, Arcatas population was 17,231, located 280 miles north of San Francisco, is home to Humboldt State University. Arcata has been progressive in its political makeup, and was the first city in the United States to elect a majority of its city council members from the Green Party. As a result of the majority, Arcata capped the number of chain restaurants allowed in the city. Arcata was the first municipality to ban the growth of any type of Genetically Modified Organism within city limits, with exceptions for research and educational purposes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 11.0 square miles. Arcata contains major public and shopping areas within the city and they include, the Downtown/Plaza Area and Valley West. Arcata has the Arcata Marsh, a located on the Citys bay shore. Arcatas climate is dominated by marine influences associated with Humboldt Bay, on average, Arcata experiences 40 to 50 inches of rain per year, though there is a short but pronounced dry season from June to September.
Northerly winds keep the very cool and create a coastal upwelling of deep. This upwelling in turn results in conditions throughout the summer, with high temperatures commonly in the 50s. Yet just a few miles inland the temperatures may be up to 25 degrees warmer in the summer, winter high temperatures average in the low 40s to mid-50s, with lows in the mid-30s to lower 40s. Temperatures infrequently dip below 30 °F in the winter, and nearly as infrequently climb above 72 °F in the summer, changing populations have happened in timber and mining towns in the American West as a result of boom and bust economic cycles. Some towns decrease in population following a bust, while some, like Arcata, in the case of Arcata, the peak and the bust were close due to Arcata’s relatively late entry into the timber industry, and its domination by mechanization. The population of the city of Arcata was 3,729 during its peak 1950, for the County of Humboldt, the age distribution for urban residents, which would include Arcata, had 23. 7% of the population under the age of 15.
Those that would be considered young workers made up 14% of the population, “Normal” aged workers made up 23. 9% of the population. Older working age made up 19. 4% of the population, pre-retirement aged made up 9. 7% of the population. Those of retirement age made up 9. 1% of the population, for Arcata specifically, those age 65 and older were 8. 3% of the population in 1950, and the median age was 29.4 years
Lilium is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world, most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have lily in their name but are not related to true lilies. Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft and they form naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their overwintering organs. In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes, most bulbs are deeply buried, but a few species form bulbs near the soil surface. With these, the bulb grows naturally at some depth in the soil and these roots are in addition to the basal roots that develop at the base of the bulb. The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a range of colours including whites, oranges, reds, markings include spots and brush strokes.
The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering, flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a Turks cap. The tepals are free from other, and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary is superior, borne above the point of attachment of the anthers, the fruit is a three-celled capsule. They exhibit varying and sometimes complex patterns, many adapted to cool temperate climates. Naturally most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their native environment, the basic chromosome number is twelve. 2007, the taxonomy of Chinese species follows the Flora of China and these genera include Cardiocrinum, Notholirion and Fritillaria. The botanic name Lilium is the Latin form and is a Linnaean name, the Latin name is derived from the Greek λείριον, leírion, generally assumed to refer to true, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily. The word was borrowed from Coptic hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, meillet maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Greeks used the word κρῖνον, krīnon, albeit for non-white lilies, all English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan, shōshannā as lily, but the lily among the thorns of Song of Solomon, for instance, may be the honeysuckle. For a list of species described as lilies, see Lily. The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe, across most of Asia to Japan, south to India, and east to Indochina, in the New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States
Indian Island (Humboldt Bay)
Indian Island or Duluwat Island is located on Humboldt Bay within the city of Eureka, California. It has been called Gunther Island, and is the site of a National Historic Landmark which encompasses the midden at Gunther Island Site 67, the island is the largest of three islands located between the Samoa and Eureka Channels within Humboldt Bay and primarily consists of tidal marsh. The first major evidence of this came from Gunther Island Site 67 on Indian Island, on February 26,1860, about one hundred Wiyot men and children were massacred during a World Renewal Ceremony. The massacre was carried out by European immigrants who had settled in the area since 1850 as part of the California Gold Rush, robert Gunther acquired the island in 1860, three days before the massacre, giving it the name it had for much of recent history. Gunther diked the island and ran cattle there for nearly 40 years. In the 1870s a shipyard repair facility was constructed, the shipyard operated until the 1980s. In 1971 Caltrans built a series of bridges, which cross Humboldt Bay, two of these bridges have footings on Indian Island.
Every year since 1992, the Wiyot people and supporters come to the island on the last Saturday in February to heal the community, every year participation has increased at the vigil on a nearby island. In June 2004,67 acres of land was repatriated back into Wiyot hands, the city of Eureka, transferred the area towards the Wiyots goal to see the Wiyot dance the World Renewal ceremony again on the island. The city of Eureka and the Wiyot Tribe have installed temporary erosion control system to mitigate erosion on the site, contamination from the shipyard activities will need to be cleaned up prior to the development of a new Wiyot dance facility. The Indian Island Cultural and Environmental Restoration Project Map of Island Heizer, the Archaeology of Hum-67, The Gunther Island Site in Humboldt Bay, California. Berkeley, CA, Reports of the University of California Archaeological Survey, 5–122
Humboldt Bay is an American natural bay and a multi-basin, bar-built coastal lagoon located on the rugged North Coast of California, entirely within Humboldt County. The largest city adjoining the bay is Eureka, the center and county seat of Humboldt County. Commercially, this second largest estuary in California houses the largest oyster production operations on the West Coast, since the 1850s, the bay has been used extensively to export logs and forest products as part of the historic West coast lumber trade, with infrequent shipping occurring currently. This is partially because it is difficult to see from the ocean. The harbor opens to the sea through a narrow and historically treacherous passage, Humboldt Bay began to form when a river valley drowned about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago during a period of rapid sea level rise. Bay sediments contain buried salt marsh deposits showing that areas of the bay have subsided during episodic large magnitude subduction earthquakes, three rivers, the Mad and Eel, drained into Humboldt Bay during the mid-Pleistocene.
Daby and Indian Island are in the North Bay, low tides reveal two more islands named Bird Island and Sand Island which was formed from dredge spoils left in the early 20th century. A large eelgrass bed in the South Bay which may be exposed at low tides is locally known as Clam Island, at high tide the surface area is approximately 24 square miles while only 10.8 square miles at low tide. Each tidal cycle replaces 41% of the water in Humboldt Bay although exchange in small channels, the bay is approximately 14 miles long, but can be from 0.5 miles wide at the entrance to the widest point at 4.3 miles in the North Bay. Captain Jonathan Winship is credited with the first recorded entry into Humboldt Bay by sea in June 1806 while employed by the Russian-American Company and his party, including Aleuts in baidarka to hunt sea otter, were met with hostility by the local Indians. Winships party named the bay, the Bay of Resanof, after Nikolai Rezanov, the Chamberlain of the Tsar, in 1849, an expedition of seven men led by Josiah Gregg attempted to find an overland route to the Pacific Ocean.
They left from the town of Weaverville for the 150-mile trek to the sea. Because of the density of the forests and because Gregg stopped frequently to measure latitude. The party was near starvation when they emerged on the coast where they discovered what is now known as Humboldt Bay on 20 December 1849, after stocking up on food the party walked to San Francisco to report their discovery of the bay. In March 1850, two ships, the General Morgan and the Laura Virginia, were sent to the bay from San Francisco, after considerable initial difficulty due to waves breaking heavily over shifting sands of the bar crossing, the ships entered the bay in 1850. The members of the Laura Virginia company named the bay after Alexander von Humboldt, the Indian name for the bay was Qual-a-wa-loo, while the Wiyot nation called it Wike or Wiki. Humboldt Bay was charted by the United States Coast Survey in 1850, although the map was not published until 1852. After two years of settlement on Humboldt Bay in 1852, only six ships sailed from the bay to San Francisco