Dry Creek Valley AVA
The Dry Creek Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, located northwest of the town of Healdsburg. The valley is formed by Dry Creek, a tributary of the Russian River, is 16 miles long and 2 miles wide; the appellation benefits from the proximity of the Lake Sonoma reservoir for irrigation in this dry area. At the turn of the 20th century, Dry Creek Valley was one of California's most prominent producers of Zinfandel. During Prohibition, much of the valley was converted to plum and prune trees, much of the fruit was processed by Sunsweet Growers in Healdsburg. Since the resurgence of wine grape production in the 1970s, Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel have become the most planted varieties, Dry Creek Valley AVA has become one of the state's top Zinfandel producers. Sauvignon blanc has become the most important white grape varietal produced in the valley. Over 50 wineries are resident in Dry Creek Valley AVA, over 160 wineries produce wines that bear a Dry Creek Valley AVA designation.
Dry Creek Valley AVA is home to the majority of the Sonoma vineyards of E & J Gallo Winery, who established winery facilities in the valley in the early 1990s. Sonoma County wine Wine Country Official website Dry Creek Valley Wineries at Curlie
Alexander Valley AVA
The Alexander Valley is a Californian American Viticultural Area just north of Healdsburg in Sonoma County. It is home to many vineyards, as well as the city of Cloverdale, it is the largest and most planted wine region in Sonoma. Highway 101 runs through the valley, the Russian River flows down the valley, surrounded by vineyards on both sides. From the higher elevations of the valley rim, there is a view as far south as Taylor Mountain and Sonoma Mountain; the region was named for Cyrus Alexander, owner of a part of the Rancho Sotoyome Mexican land grant, in 1847. Granted AVA status in 1984, the boundaries of the appellation are defined in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Section 9.53. In its early history, the territory referred to as the "Alexander Valley" denoted the benchlands east of the Russian River leading up to the Mayacamas Mountains; the area west of the Russian River was known as “the plaines” or “the ranchos.” Viticulture in the area dates back to 1843, when Cyrus Alexander used vines cuttings collected from Fort Ross on the Pacific coast, to establish vineyards in the area.
For most of its history the region was predominately associated with mass-produced bulk & jug wines made from indiscriminately planted field blends of red grape varieties. A modern era of quality wine production began in the late 1960s when a new owner of Simi Winery sought to revive the area's long winemaking history. In the 1970s, a new wave of producers, such as Chateau Souverain and Jordan Vineyard & Winery, descended upon the area and started making wines that received critical and consumer acclaim. Wine pioneer, Rodney Strong, whose namesake winery is located in Russian River Valley, was among the first to recognize Alexander Valley's potential and releasing Sonoma County's first single vineyard Cabernet Sauvignon from the 1974 vintage; the vineyard designated was Strong's Alexander's Crown vineyard located near Jimtown. In 1988, E & J Gallo Winery purchased substantial tracts of land in the Alexander Valley to establish the fine wine brand of the company. In 1963, one of Alexander Valley's most prestigious vineyards, the Robert Young Vineyard, was planted.
There were few wineries in the area at the time so the vineyard sourced most of it fruit to wineries outside the valley. One of these wineries, Chateau St. Jean, was so impressed with the quality of fruit that with the 1975 vintage of their Chardonnay they put the name of the vineyard on the wine label; this "vineyard designated wine" would be one of the first premium wines in California wine history to have the name of the vineyard appear on the label. Located in the northeastern section of Sonoma County, the original boundaries of the AVA extend from the banks of the Russian River eastward to the foothills of the Mayacamas Mountains. In 1986 these boundaries were expanded to include overlapping regions of the Russian River AVA. A second expansion occurred in 1990 to cover vineyards owned by Sir Peter Michael and Ellis Alden in the foothills east of Geyserville. In 2001, the area consisting of the Gill Creek watershed was changed from being part of the Dry Creek AVA to a reclassification as part of the Alexander Valley AVA.
The Alexander Valley covers a broad expanse of land east of the Russian River consisting of the watershed that runs southeast from the Mendocino County line down to the boundaries of the Chalk Hill AVA. The area is sheltered from the influence of the nearby Pacific Oceans by the low-lying hills northeast of Healdsburg; the dominant vineyard soil of the region is alluvial. During the day, the Alexander Valley is one of the warmest areas in Northern California but a night experiences a wide diurnal temperature variation that offers cool climate conditions; the region's proximity to the Russian River serves a source for early morning fog that covers the lower vineyard areas until it burned off by the morning sun. A characteristic associated with Alexander Valley wines is a rich, fleshy mouthfeel and a degree of voluptuousness due to the area's warm climate and ability to sufficiently ripen the grapes. While the wine exhibit a degree of drinkability and accessibility in their youth, they may not have the same aging potential as wines from Napa Valley or other areas of Sonoma County.
The Alexander Valley is capable of growing a wide range of grape varieties but in recent years, the area has been noted for the quality of its Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. The alluvial soils of the region tend to impart a chocolate note to the Cabernet. Other Alexander Valley varietals that have been gaining recognition include Chardonnay and Sangiovese; the Chardonnay from this region is characterized by its tropical fruits. Some experts, such as Jancis Robinson, have speculated that Zinfandel and Sauvignon blanc may prove themselves to be best suited to the climate and soils of the Alexander Valley. In the early 21st century, controversy erupted in the Alexander Valley when the Alexander Valley Association of farmers and property owners objected to a proposed tribal casino to be built on land owned by the Pomo people. In 1998, the association had been able to block a large winery expansion proposed by Kendall-Jackson, but in the dispute with the Pomo casino and state laws granted the tribe the right to develop the land in any way they wished.
The casino was named River Rock Casino. Resulting traffic problems along Highway 128 following River Rock Casino's 2002 opening have led to public safety concerns during harvest season when the narrow rural roadways must accommodate tractor trailers and grape gondolas; these concerns intensified after River Rock received their liquor license in 2008. Alexander Valley Winegrowers Sonoma County Winegrape Commission a
Wine Country (California)
Wine Country is the region of California, in the northern Bay Area, known worldwide as a premium wine-growing region. The region is famed for its wineries, its cuisine, Michelin star restaurants, boutique hotels, luxury resorts, historic architecture, culture. Viticulture and wine-making have been practiced in the region since the Spanish missionaries from Mission San Francisco Solano established the first vineyards in 1812. There are over 400 wineries in the North San Francisco Bay Area located in the area's valleys, including Napa Valley in Napa County, the Sonoma Valley, Alexander Valley, Dry Creek Valley, Bennett Valley, Russian River Valley in Sonoma County. Wine grapes are grown at higher elevations, such as Atlas Peak and Mount Veeder AVAs. Cities and towns associated with the Wine Country include Santa Rosa, Sonoma, Petaluma, Guerneville, Windsor and Cloverdale in Sonoma County. Lake County is an important part of the area, surpassing Mendocino County in 2014 in price paid per ton of grapes in the North Coast premium market.
Wine Country is regarded as the combined counties of Napa, Sonoma and Lake. These counties contain the following American Viticultural Areas: in Sonoma County: Alexander Valley, Bennett Valley, Chalk Hill, Dry Creek Valley, Green Valley of Russian River Valley, Knight's Valley, Los Carneros, Northern Sonoma, Russian River Valley, Sonoma Coast, Sonoma Mountain, Sonoma Valley. In Napa County: Atlas Peak, Los Carneros, Mount Veeder, Napa Valley, Rutherford, Saint Helena, Stags Leap District, Yountville. in Mendocino County: Anderson Valley, Covelo and Potter Valley. In Lake County: Clear Lake, Guenoc Valley, High Valley, Red Hills Lake County; the six-county North Coast AVA overlaps with the Wine Country. In addition, the names of the counties themselves are legal for use as appellation names; the earliest prehistory of the Wine Country involves habitation by several Native American tribes from 8000 BC. The principal tribes living in this region included the Pomo, Coast Miwok and Patwin, whose early peoples practiced certain forms of agriculture, but not involving the cultivation of grapes.
During the Mexican Colonial period and after, European settlers brought in more intensive agriculture to the Wine Country, including growing grapes and wine production. Some of the historical events that led to the establishment of California as a state transpired in the Wine Country. In particular, the town of Sonoma, is known as the birthplace of American California. Agoston Haraszthy is credited with being one of the forefathers of the California wine industry in Sonoma by his planting of grapes in the lower Arroyo Seco Creek watershed of Sonoma County. In 2017, many portions of California's Wine Country were devastated by wildfires, including the October 2017 Northern California wildfires. A diversity of aquatic and terrestrial organisms populate its riparian zones. Winter-run Chinook salmon, Delta smelt and steelhead are the most prominent fishes. Researchers have studied anadromous fish-movements extensively in Sonoma Creek and in the Napa River as well as in the Laguna de Santa Rosa - not only in the mainstems, but in many of the tributaries.
These investigations have demonstrated a historical decline in spawning and habitat value for these species due to sedimentation and secondarily to removal of riparian vegetation since the 19th century. A variety of salamanders and frogs are present in the Wine Country; the federally listed as threatened California red-legged frog is present in the northern reach draining the south slopes of Annadel State Park. Several endangered species present include Ridgway's rail, California black rail, California brown pelican, California freshwater shrimp, salt marsh harvest mouse, Suisun shrew, Sacramento splittail; the above are endangered species with the exception of the splittail and black rail, which are federally designated as threatened. Upland ecosystems drained include mixed California oak woodland and savannah woodland. In these upland reaches one finds plentiful black-tailed deer, skunk, opossum, wild turkey, turkey vulture, red-tailed hawk and bobcat and mountain lion. Prominent higher elevation trees include: Coast live oak, Garry oak, Pacific madrone, California buckeye, Douglas fir, whereas valley oak is prevalent on the Wine Country valley floors.
The Wine Country has undergone a boom in tourism. In 1975 there were only 25 Napa Valley wineries. Tourists come to the region not only for wine tasting, but for hiking, hot air ballooning, historic sites, as well as the extensive culinary choices. Numerous notable chefs and restaurateurs are present in the Wine Country, including Thomas Keller, John Ash, Sondra Bernstein. Besides the obvious winery attractions, the Wine Country is known for the Sonoma County coastline along the Pacific Ocean, the Russian River valley, hot spring baths, petrified forests and other natural areas; the Wine Country tourism boom has its downside, exemplified by traffic congestion on State Route 29 on summer weekends, when the number of tourists exceeds t
A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. A total of 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems. 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 125 in Canada, others in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Belgium, the Caribbean, Mauritius and Fiji. At first, Carnegie libraries were exclusively in places where he had a personal connection - namely his birthplace in Scotland and the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area, his adopted home-town. Yet, beginning in the middle of 1899, Carnegie increased funding to libraries outside these areas. In years few towns that requested a grant and agreed to his terms were refused. By the time the last grant was made in 1919, there were 3,500 libraries in the United States, nearly half of them built with construction grants paid by Carnegie; the first of Carnegie's public libraries, Dunfermline Carnegie Library was in his birthplace, Scotland.
It was first commissioned or granted by Carnegie in 1880 to James Campbell Walker and would open in 1883. The locally quarried sandstone building displays a stylized sun with the carved motto "Let there be light" at the front entrance; the first library in the United States to be commissioned by Carnegie was in 1886 in his adopted hometown of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1890, it became the second of his libraries to open in the USA; the building contained the first Carnegie Music Hall in the World. The first Carnegie library to open in the United States was in Braddock, about 9 miles up the Monongahela river from Pittsburgh, home to one of the Carnegie Steel Company's mills in 1889, it was the second Carnegie Library in the United States to be commissioned, 1887, was the first of just four libraries that he endowed. An 1893 addition doubled the size of the building and included the third Carnegie Music Hall in the United States. Carnegie limited his support to a few towns in which he had an interest.
These would be in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area. In America, 6 out of the first 7, 7 of the first 10, 9 of the first 13 libraries he commissioned are all found in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Architectural critic Patricia Lowry wrote "to this day, Carnegie's free-to-the-people libraries remain Pittsburgh's most significant cultural export, a gift that has shaped the minds and lives of millions."Until 1898, only one library was commissioned in America outside Southwestern Pennsylvania—a library in Fairfield, commissioned in 1892. As the first time that Carnegie had funded a library in which he had no personal ties, it helped initiate the funding model that would be used by Carnegie for thousands of additional libraries. Beginning in 1899, his foundation funded a dramatic increase in the number of libraries; this coincided with the rise of women's clubs in the post-Civil War period, which were most responsible for organizing efforts to establish libraries, including long-term fundraising and lobbying within their communities to support operations and collections.
They led the establishment of 75–80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country. Carnegie believed in giving to ambitious. Under segregation black people were denied access to public libraries in the Southern United States. Rather than insisting on his libraries being racially integrated, Carnegie funded separate libraries for African Americans. For example, in Houston he funded a separate Colored Carnegie Library; the Carnegie Library in Savannah, opened in 1914 to serve black residents, excluded from the public library. The organized Colored Library Association of Savannah had raised money and collected books to establish a small Library for Colored Citizens. Having demonstrated their willingness to support a library, the group petitioned for and received funds from Carnegie. Future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas wrote in his memoirs that he used it as a boy, before the library system was desegregated. Most of the library buildings were unique, constructed in a number of styles, including Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, Classical Revival, Spanish Colonial.
Scottish Baronial was one of the styles used in Carnegie's native Scotland. Each style was chosen by the community, although as the years went by James Bertram, Carnegie's secretary, became less tolerant of designs which were not to his taste. Edward Lippincott Tilton, a friend recommended by Bertram, designed many of the buildings; the architecture was simple and formal, welcoming patrons to enter through a prominent doorway, nearly always accessed via a staircase. The entry staircase symbolized a person's elevation by learning. Outside every library was a lamppost or lantern, meant as a symbol of enlightenment. Carnegie’s grants were large for the era and his library philanthropy is one of the largest philanthropic activities, by value, in history. Small towns received grants of $10,000 that enabled them to build large libraries that were among the most significant town amenities in hundreds of communities. Books and libraries were important to Carnegie, beginning with his early childhood in Scotland and his teen years in Allegheny/Pittsburgh.
There he listened to readings and discussions of books from the Tradesman's Subscription Library, which his father helped create. In Pennsylvania, while working for the l
Russian River Valley AVA
The Russian River Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California. Centered on the Russian River, the Russian River Valley AVA accounts for about one-sixth of the total planted vineyard acreage in Sonoma County; the appellation was granted AVA status in 1983 and enlarged in 2005. The area lies between Sebastopol and Santa Rosa in the south, Forestville and Healdsburg in the north; the Russian River Valley has a characteristically cool climate affected by fog generated by the valley's proximity to the Pacific Ocean. The area is known for its success with cool climate varietals, notably Pinot Chardonnay. Despite its name, the Russian River Valley AVA does not cover the entire Russian River Valley-which extends north into Mendocino County and southwest all the way to the Pacific Ocean; the river continued south and emptied into San Francisco Bay but during its history, for reasons not yet understood by geologists, the river changed course. The small segment of the river valley that makes up the AVA begins near Healdsburg once the river leaves the Alexander Valley region through a narrow gorge in the foothills of the Mayacamas Mountains.
From there it extends south to the Santa Rosa Plains and Sebastopol and west to the towns of Monte Rio and Occidental. Within the boundaries of the Russian River AVA are Sonoma Green Valley. In 2003 the AVA was expanded to include 767 acres south of Fulton; the geography of the Russian River Valley was shaped millions of years ago by collisions between the North American and Pacific tectonic plates and eruptions by volcanic vents that deposited volcanic ash over layers of eroded bedrock. This created sandstone of loam known as "Goldridge soil"; some of the area's most respected Pinot noir and Chardonnay vineyards are planted along deposits of Goldridge soil. Near the town of Sebastopol, a different soil, more clay based, known as "Sebastopol soil" has shown itself to work well with Pinot noir due to its ability to retain less water than Goldridge soil; this soil was created by water flowing off the Sonoma Mountains. A third soil type, found close to the river, is predominately alluvial and makes up the benchland regions of the river.
With parts of the AVA located less than 10 miles from the Pacific, the climate of the Russian River AVA is characterized by cool morning fog that comes in from the ocean through the Petaluma Gap and burns off during the day. The cooling influence of the fog is responsible for the large diurnal temperature variation with nighttime temperatures dropping as much as 35 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit from daytime high; the Russian River is a rain-fed waterway that swells in the wintertime and provides vital irrigation to the region's vineyards during the dry season in late spring. In the summertime, the warmth of the season is tempered by the maritime influence of fog that facilitates a long, slow ripening period and limits the risk of over ripeness or "baked" flavors in the grapes. Harvest in the Russian River Area take place at dates than in its neighboring regions; the central and western reaches of the AVA are the coolest and tend to be most extensively planted with Pinot noir and Chardonnay. The eastern parts of the AVA, located near US 101 and include the sub-AVA of Chalk Hill, are the warmest areas of the Russian River AVA being the furthest away from the ocean.
The Russian River AVA has had a number of disputes regarding the expansion and revision of the appellation boundaries. In 1997, the Russian River Winegrowers association attempted to expand the AVA all the way down to the town of Cotati in the southeast corner of Sonoma County; this proposal was rejected by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives for being too broad in scope. In 1999, the grower's association filed a new proposal to revise the boundaries based on the influences of coastal fog. Under this proposal the warmer Chalk Hill sub-AVA, which has little fog influence, would be excluded from the Russian River AVA and more acreage along the southwest corner of the AVA would be added; that proposal was rejected as well. In 2003, a new proposal was issued expanding the AVA 767 acres on the south western end near the Green Valley region; this expansion was approved that year. In 2008, E & J Gallo petition for a further expansion of the AVA in the southwestern corner of 14,000 acres that would include the winery's Two Rock Vineyard located along the Highway 101 corridor near Cotati in the AVA.
If approved, the petition would expand the AVA's total acreage to 169,000 acres. When first proposed, the Russian River Winegrowers Association voted unanimously to oppose the expansion on the grounds that the proposed area is climatically different from the rest of the Russian River areas. Gallo contested that opinion and after changes in leadership the grower's associations takes a neutral stance on the proposal though some vocal opposition still exist; as of a meeting of the members on December 9, 2008, the Russian River Winegrowers are opposed the proposed expansion. Viticulture in the Russian River region dates back to the 19th century when immigrants from Mediterranean countries descended upon the region and began planting vines. While most vineyards were "gardens" for personal family consumption, commercial wineries sprung up and by the dawn of the 20th century there were nearly 200 wineries operating; the advent of Prohibition in the United States dealt a devastating blow to the region with many wineries going out of business.
Some winemaking families continued to make wine illegally and others converted to bootlegging a sugar and water base wine known as "Jackass brandy" to survive dur
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai