Yeasts are eukaryotic single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, 1,500 species are identified, they are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae. Yeast sizes vary depending on species and environment measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their single-celled growth habit, can be contrasted with molds. Fungal species that can take both forms are called dimorphic fungi. By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols – for thousands of years the carbon dioxide has been used in baking and the alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
It is a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, is one of the most researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and human biology. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in humans. Yeasts have been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Yeasts do not form a single phylogenetic grouping; the term "yeast" is taken as a synonym for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in two separate phyla: the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. The budding yeasts are classified within the phylum Ascomycota; the word "yeast" comes from Old English gist and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning "boil", "foam", or "bubble". Yeast microbes are one of the earliest domesticated organisms. Archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4,000-year-old bakeries and breweries.
In 1680, Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, but rather globular structures as researchers were doubtful whether yeasts were algae or fungi. Theodor Schwann recognized them as fungi in 1837. In 1857, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, but fermentation was inhibited – an observation called the "Pasteur effect". In the paper "Mémoire sur la fermentation alcoolique," Pasteur proved that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst. By the late 18th century two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis. S. cerevisiae has been sold commercially by the Dutch for bread-making since 1780. In 1825, a method was developed to remove the liquid; the industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the filter press in 1867.
In 1872, Baron Max de Springer developed a manufacturing process to create granulated yeast, a technique, used until the first World War. In the United States occurring airborne yeasts were used exclusively until commercial yeast was marketed at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 in Philadelphia, where Charles L. Fleischmann exhibited the product and a process to use it, as well as serving the resultant baked bread; the mechanical refrigerator liberated brewers and winemakers from seasonal constraints for the first time and allowed them to exit cellars and other earthen environments. For John Molson, who made his livelihood in Montreal prior to the development of the fridge, the brewing season lasted from September through to May; the same seasonal restrictions governed the distiller's art. Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs, as they use organic compounds as a source of energy and do not require sunlight to grow. Carbon is obtained from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose.
Some species can metabolize pentose sugars such as ribose and organic acids. Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration or are anaerobic, but have aerobic methods of energy production. Unlike bacteria, no known yeast species grow only anaerobically. Most yeasts grow best in a neutral or acidic pH environment. Yeasts vary in regard to the temperature range. For example, Leucosporidium frigidum grows at −2 to 20 °C, Saccharomyces telluris at 5 to 35 °C, Candida slooffi at 28 to 45 °C; the cells can survive freezing with viability decreasing over time. In general, yeasts are grown in liquid broths. Common media used for the cultivation of yeasts include potato dextrose agar or potato dextrose broth, Wallerstein Laboratories nutrient agar, yeast peptone dextrose agar, yeast mould agar or broth. Home brewers who cultivate yeast use dried malt extract and agar as a solid grow
Whole foods are plant foods that are unprocessed and unrefined, or processed and refined as little as possible, before being consumed. Examples of whole foods include whole grains, legumes, vegetables. There is some confusion over the usage of the term surrounding the inclusion of certain foods, in particular animal foods; the modern usage of the term whole foods diet is now synonymous with "whole foods plant-based diet" with animal products and salt no longer constituting whole foods. The earliest use of the term in the post-industrial age appears to be in 1946 in The Farmer, a quarterly magazine published and edited from his farm by F. Newman Turner, a writer and pioneering organic farmer; the magazine sponsored the establishment of the Producer Consumer Whole Food Society Ltd, with Newman Turner as president and Derek Randal as vice-president. Whole food was defined as "mature produce of field, orchard, or garden without subtraction, addition, or alteration grown from seed without chemical dressing, in fertile soil manured with animal and vegetable wastes, composts therefrom, ground, raw rock and without chemical manures, sprays, or insecticides," having intent to connect suppliers and the growing public demand for such food.
Such diets are rich in whole and unrefined foods, like whole grains, dark green and yellow/orange-fleshed vegetables and fruits, legumes and seeds. Organic food culture Raw foodism Specialty foods Traditional food
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products in diet, an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances; the term ethical vegan is applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, oppose the use of animals for any purpose. Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Vegan diets are regarded as appropriate for all stages of life including during infancy and pregnancy by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, the British Dietetic Association; the German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for children or adolescents, or during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, phytochemicals. Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues; some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements. Vitamin B12 supplementation is important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and irreversible neurological damage. Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian", but from 1951 the Society defined it as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals". Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s in the latter half. More vegan stores opened and vegan options became available in supermarkets and restaurants in many countries; the term "vegetarian" has been in use since around 1839 to refer to what was described as a vegetable regimen or diet. Modern dictionaries based on scientific linguistic principles explain its origin as an irregular compound of vegetable and the suffix -arian.
The earliest-known written use is attributed to actress and abolitionist Fanny Kemble, in her Journal of a Residence on a Georgian plantation in 1838–1839. The practice can be traced to Indus Valley Civilization in 3300–1300 BCE in the Indian subcontinent in northern and western India and in Pakistan. Early vegetarians included Indian philosophers such as Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; the Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of strict vegetarianism, but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he advocated any form of vegetarianism at all. He certainly prohibited his followers from eating beans and from wearing woolen garments. Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that "Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so avoided killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but kept his distance from cooks and hunters". One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Maʿarri.
Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, the view—espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium —that if humans deserve justice so do animals. Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States. A minority of vegetarians avoided animal food entirely. In 1813, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors", in 1815, William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne. Lambe called animal food a "habitual irritation", argued that "milk eating and flesh-eating are but branches of a common system and they must stand or fall together". Sylvester Graham's meatless Graham diet—mostly fruit, vegetables and bread made at home with stoneground flour—became popular as a health remedy in the 1830s in the United States. Several vegan communities were established around this time.
In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844, in England, James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838. In 1843, members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food, led by Sophia Chichester, a wealthy benefactor of Alcott House. Alcott House helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent; the Medical Times and Gazette in London reported in 1884: There are two kinds of Vegetarians—one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food whatever. The Vegetarian Society... belongs to the latter more moderate division. An article in the Society's magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to shoe leat
Whole Foods Market
Whole Foods Market Inc. is an American supermarket chain which sells products free from hydrogenated fats and artificial colors, flavors and sweeteners. Being the only USDA Certified Organic grocer in the United States, the chain is popularly known for its organic selections. Whole Foods has 500 stores in North America and the United Kingdom as of March 4, 2019. On August 23, 2017, it was reported that the Federal Trade Commission had approved a merger between Amazon and Whole Foods Market. In 1978, John Mackey and Renee Lawson borrowed $45,000 from family and friends to open a small vegetarian natural foods store called SaferWay in Austin, Texas; when the two were evicted from their apartment for storing food products in it, they decided to live at the store. Because it was zoned for commercial use, there was no shower stall, so they bathed using a water hose attached to their dishwasher. Two years Mackey and Lawson partnered with Craig Weller and Mark Skiles to merge SaferWay with the latter's Clarksville Natural Grocery, resulting in the opening of the original Whole Foods Market, which included meat products.
At 10,500 square feet and with a staff of 19, the store was large in comparison to the standard health food store of the time. The following Memorial Day, on May 25, 1981, the most damaging flood in 70 years devastated Austin. Whole Foods' inventory was ruined, most of the equipment was damaged; the loss was $400,000 and Whole Foods Market had no insurance. Customers and staff assisted to repair and clean up the damage. Creditors and investors assisted in helping recovery, the store reopened 28 days later. Beginning in 1984, Whole Foods Market expanded out of Austin, first to Houston and Dallas and into New Orleans with the purchase of The Whole Food Co. in 1988. In 1989, the company expanded to the West Coast with a store in California. While opening new stores, the company fueled rapid growth by acquiring other natural foods chains throughout the 1990s: Wellspring Grocery of North Carolina, Bread & Circus of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Mrs. Gooch's Natural Foods Markets of Los Angeles, Bread of Life of Northern California, Fresh Fields Markets on the East Coast and in the Midwest, Florida Bread of Life stores, Detroit-area Merchant of Vino stores, Nature's Heartland of Boston.
The company purchased Allegro Coffee Company in 1997. The company's 100th store was opened in Torrance, California, in 1999; the company started its third decade with additional acquisitions. The first was Natural Abilities in 2000, which did business as Food for Thought in Northern California. After the departure of company president Chris Hitt and regional president Rich Cundiff, Southern California region, John Mackey promoted A. C. Gallo, president of the Northeast region and Walter Robb, president of the Northern California region to Co-COO and soon after added the titles of Co-President; this led to the promotion of a new era for the company. David Lannon became president of the Northeast region, Anthony Gilmore became president of the Southwest region, Ron Megehan became president of the Northern California region. In 2001, Whole Foods moved into Manhattan; that year Ken Meyer became president of the newly formed South region and Whole Foods Market acquired the assets of Harry's Farmers Market, which included three stores in Atlanta.
In 2002, the company continued its expansion in North America and opened its first store in Toronto, Ontario. Further continuing its expansion, Select Fish of Seattle was acquired in 2003. In 2005, Whole Foods opened its 80,000 sq ft flagship store in downtown Austin; the company's headquarters moved into offices above the store. Whole Foods opened its first store in Hawaii in 2008 and in 2008 it opened a southeast distribution center in Braselton, calling it the first "green distribution center" for the company. Along with new acquisitions, such as the 2014 purchase of seven Dominick's Finer Foods locations in Chicago, Whole Foods has sold stores to other companies. For example, 35 Henry's Farmers Market and Sun Harvest Market stores were sold to a subsidiary of Los Angeles grocer Smart & Final Inc. for $166 million in 2007. Whole Foods opened its second store in western New York in Amherst, a suburb of Buffalo in September, 2017; as part of a streamlining campaign, in January 2017 the company reported that it would close three remaining regional kitchens in Everett and Atlanta.
In June 2017, Amazon purchased Whole Foods Market for $13.7 Billion. Amazon plans for Whole Foods customers who have an Amazon prime account to be able to order groceries online and pick them up in store for free. In January 2019, as part of expansion further to some unreachable areas, Amazon announced to acquire some former Sears and Kmart locations from Sears Holdings which filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy protection on October 15, 2018; these vacant locations would remodel into new Whole Foods Market locations. In 2004, Whole Foods Market entered the U. K. by acquiring seven Fresh & Wild stores. In June 2007, it opened its first full-size store, a total of 80,000 sq ft on three levels, on the site of the old Barkers department store on Kensington High Street, West London and their largest store in the world. Company executives claimed that as many as forty stores might be opened throughout the U. K. However, by September 2008, in the wake of Whole Foods Market's financial troubles, Fresh & Wild had been reduced to four stores, all in London.
The flagship Bristol branch closed because it had "not met profitability goals". In the year to September 2
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming. Standards vary worldwide, but organic farming features practices that cycle resources, promote ecological balance, conserve biodiversity. Organizations regulating organic products may restrict the use of certain pesticides and fertilizers in the farming methods used to produce such products. Organic foods are not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or synthetic food additives. In the 21st century, the European Union, the United States, Mexico and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification to market their food as organic. Although the produce of kitchen gardens may be organic, selling food with an organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the National Organic Program of the US Department of Agriculture or European Commission. From an environmental perspective, fertilizing and the use of pesticides in conventional farming may negatively affect ecosystems, biodiversity and drinking water supplies.
These environmental and health issues are intended to be avoided in organic farming. However, the outcome of farming organically may not produce such benefits because organic agriculture has higher production costs and lower yields, higher labor costs, higher consumer prices. Demand for organic foods is driven by consumer concerns for personal health and the environment. From the perspective of science and consumers, there is insufficient evidence in the scientific and medical literature to support claims that organic food is either safer or healthier to eat than conventional food. While there may be some differences in the nutrient and antinutrient contents of organically and conventionally produced food, the variable nature of food production, shipping and handling makes it difficult to generalize results. Claims that "organic food tastes better" are not supported by tests. For the vast majority of its history, agriculture can be described as having been organic; the organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to the industrialization of agriculture.
In 1939, Lord Northbourne coined the term organic farming in his book Look to the Land, out of his conception of "the farm as organism," to describe a holistic, ecologically balanced approach to farming—in contrast to what he called chemical farming, which relied on "imported fertility" and "cannot be self-sufficient nor an organic whole." Early soil scientists described the differences in soil composition when animal manures were used as "organic", because they contain carbon compounds where superphosphates and haber process nitrogen do not. Their respective use affects humus content of soil; this is different from the scientific use of the term "organic" in chemistry, which refers to a class of molecules that contain carbon those involved in the chemistry of life. This class of molecules includes everything to be considered edible, include most pesticides and toxins too, therefore the term "organic" and the term "inorganic" as they apply to organic chemistry is an equivocation fallacy when applied to farming, the production of food, to foodstuffs themselves.
Properly used in this agricultural science context, "organic" refers to the methods grown and processed, not the chemical composition of the food. Ideas that organic food could be healthier and better for the environment originated in the early days of the organic movement as a result of publications like the 1943 book The Living Soil and Farming and Gardening for Health or Disease. In the industrial era, organic gardening reached a modest level of popularity in the United States in the 1950s. In the 1960s, environmentalists and the counterculture championed organic food, but it was only in the 1970s that a national marketplace for organic foods developed. Early consumers interested in organic food would look for non-chemically treated, non-use of unapproved pesticides, fresh or minimally processed food, they had to buy directly from growers. "Know your farmer, know your food" became the motto of a new initiative instituted by the USDA in September 2009. Personal definitions of what constituted "organic" were developed through firsthand experience: by talking to farmers, seeing farm conditions, farming activities.
Small farms grew vegetables using organic farming practices, with or without certification, the individual consumer monitored. Small specialty health food stores and co-operatives were instrumental to bringing organic food to a wider audience; as demand for organic foods continued to increase, high volume sales through mass outlets such as supermarkets replaced the direct farmer connection. Today, many large corporate farms have an organic division. However, for supermarket consumers, food production is not observable, product labeling, like "certified organic," is relied upon. Government regulations and third-party inspectors are looked to for assurance. In the 1970s, interest in organic food grew with the rise of the environmental movement, was spurred by food-related health scares like the concerns about Alar that arose in the mid-1980s. Organic food production is a self-regulated industry with government oversight in some countries, distinct from private gardening; the European Union, the United States, Canada and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification based on government-defined standards in order to marke
Bulk foods are food items offered in large quantities, which can be purchased in large, bulk lots or transferred from a bulk container into a smaller container for purchase. Bulk foods may be priced less compared to packaged foods because they're packaged in large generic bulk containers and packaging for grocery outlets, which utilizes lesser natural resources. Additionally, less packaging is congruent with the environmental conservation of natural resources and sustainability. One study found a 96% reduction in packaging used for bulk foods compared to packaged foods. A National Bulk Foods Week had been designated between October 16–22, 2011 in ten U. S. states. Some available bulk foods and products include: Dry goods Liquid and wet goods Household goods Dish detergent Laundry detergent Notable retailers of bulk foods include: Grocers – sold dry goods out of bins and barrels Grocery store Warehouse club Dickinson, Meg. "Amish bulk-food store a great resource". The News Gazette. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
Hinton, Dave. "Bulk food service to start in Rantoul". The News-Gazette. Retrieved February 28, 2012
John Harvey Kellogg
John Harvey Kellogg, M. D. was an American medical doctor, inventor, health activist, businessman. He was the director of the Battle Creek Sanitarium in Michigan; the sanitarium was founded by members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. It combined aspects of a European spa, a hydrotherapy institution, a hospital and a high-class hotel. Kellogg treated the poor who could not afford other hospitals. Disagreements with other members of the church led to a major schism within the denomination: Kellogg was disfellowshipped in 1907, but continued to follow many Adventist beliefs and directed the sanitarium until his death in 1943. Kellogg helped to establish the American Medical Missionary College in 1895; the College operated independently until 1910. Kellogg was a major leader in progressive health reform in the second phase of the clean living movement, he wrote extensively on health. His approach to "biologic living" combined scientific knowledge with Adventist beliefs, promoting health reform and sexual abstinence.
His promotion of developing anaphrodisic foods was based on these beliefs. Many of the vegetarian foods that Kellogg developed and offered his patients were publicly marketed: Kellogg is best known today for the invention of the breakfast cereal corn flakes intended to be an anaphrodisiac, with his brother, Will Keith Kellogg, his creation of the modern breakfast cereal changed "the American breakfast landscape forever."Kellogg was an early proponent of the new germ theory of disease, well ahead of his time in relating intestinal flora and the presence of bacteria in the intestines to health and disease. The sanitarium approached treatment in a holistic manner promoting vegetarianism, the use of enemas to clear intestinal flora, sun-bathing and abstention from smoking tobacco, drinking alcoholic beverages and sexual activity. John Harvey Kellogg was born in Tyrone, Michigan on February 26, 1852, to John Preston Kellogg and his second wife Ann Janette Stanley, his father, John Preston Kellogg, was born in Massachusetts.
John Preston Kellogg and his family moved to Michigan in 1834, after his first wife's death and his remarriage in 1842, to a farm in Tyrone Township. In addition to six children from his first marriage, John Preston Kellogg had 11 children with his second wife Ann, including John Harvey and his younger brother, Will Keith Kellogg. John Preston Kellogg became a member of several revivalist movements, including the Baptists, the Congregationalist Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, he was one of four adherents who pledged substantial sums to convince Seventh-day adventists Ellen G. White and her husband James Springer White to relocate to Battle Creek, with their publishing business, in 1855. In 1856, the Kellogg family moved to Battle Creek to be near other members of the denomination. There John Preston Kellogg established a broom factory; the Kelloggs believed that the Second Coming of Christ was imminent, that formal education of their children was therefore unnecessary. A sickly child, John Harvey Kellogg attended Battle Creek public schools only from ages 9–11.
He left school to work sorting brooms in his father's broom factory. Nonetheless, he read voraciously and acquired a broad but self-taught education. At age 12, John Harvey Kellogg was offered work by the Whites, he became one of their protegées, rising from errand boy to printer's devil, doing proofreading and editorial work. He helped to set articles for Health, or how to live and The Health Reformer, becoming familiar with Ellen G. White's theories of health, beginning to follow recommendations such as a vegetarian diet. Ellen White described her husband's relationship with John Harvey Kellogg as closer than that with his own children. Kellogg hoped to become a teacher, at age 16 taught a district school in Hastings, Michigan. By age 20, he had enrolled in a teacher's training course offered by Michigan State Normal School in Ypsilanti, Michigan; the Kelloggs and the Whites, convinced him to join his half-brother Merritt, Edson White, William C. White, Jennie Trembley, as students in a six-month medical course at Russell Trall's Hygieo-Therapeutic College in Florence Township, New Jersey.
Their goal was to develop a group of trained doctors for the Adventist-inspired Western Health Reform Institute in Battle Creek. Under the Whites' patronage, John Harvey Kellogg went on to attend medical school at the University Medical School in Ann Arbor and the New York University Medical College at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, he graduated in 1875 with a medical degree. In October 1876, Kellogg became director of the Western Health Reform Institute. In 1877, he renamed it the Battle Creek Medical Surgical Sanitarium, cleverly coining the term "sanitarium" to suggest both hospital care and the importance of sanitation and personal health. Kellogg would lead the institution until his death in 1943. John Harvey Kellogg married Ella Ervilla Eaton of Alfred Center, New York, on February 22, 1879. Kellogg followed Adventist views in favor of celibacy; the couple did not have any biological children. However, they were foster parents to 42 children adopting at least seven of them, before Ella died in 1920.
The adopted children included Agnes Grace, John William, Ivaline Maud, Paul Alfred, Robert Mofatt, a