Ethnic groups in Europe
The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities; the total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people and ethno-linguistic group, are used as synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe. There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30 million members residing in Europe.
These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population: Russians, French, Italians, Spaniards, Poles. Smaller ethno-linguistic groups with more than 10 million people residing in Europe include: Romanians, Turks, Swedes, Czechs, Serbs. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin; the population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality and British, may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations. Of the total population of Europe of some 740 million, close to 90% fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being.
Romance, including. Germanic, including. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations. Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not related to those larger language families. Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European: Uralic languages, including. Turkic languages, including. Semitic languages, including. Kartvelian languages, including Georgian, Zan and Laz. Northwest Caucasian languages. Northeast Caucasian languages. Language isolates. Mongolic languages exist in the form of Kalmyk spoken in the Caucasus region of Russia; the Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations, after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe.
The Finnic peoples are assumed to be descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains, that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago. Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and Camunic. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basqu
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater, containing household sewage plus some industrial wastewater. Physical and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater, safe enough for release into the environment. A by-product of sewage treatment is a semi-solid slurry, called sewage sludge; the sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land. Sewage treatment may be referred to as wastewater treatment. However, the latter is a broader term which can refer to industrial wastewater. For most cities, the sewer system will carry a proportion of industrial effluent to the sewage treatment plant which has received pre-treatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load. If the sewer system is a combined sewer it will carry urban runoff to the sewage treatment plant. Sewage water can travel towards treatment plants via piping and in a flow aided by gravity and pumps.
The first part of filtration of sewage includes a bar screen to filter solids and large objects which are collected in dumpsters and disposed of in landfills. Fat and grease is removed before the primary treatment of sewage; the term "sewage treatment plant" is nowadays replaced with the term wastewater treatment plant or wastewater treatment station. Sewage can be treated close to where the sewage is created, which may be called a "decentralized" system or an "on-site" system. Alternatively, sewage can be collected and transported by a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant; this is called a "centralized" system. Sewage is generated by residential, institutional and industrial establishments, it includes household waste liquid from toilets, showers and sinks draining into sewers. In many areas, sewage includes liquid waste from industry and commerce; the separation and draining of household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world, with treated greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets.
Sewage may include urban runoff. Sewerage systems capable of handling storm water are known as combined sewer systems; this design was common when urban sewerage systems were first developed, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Combined sewers require more expensive treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Heavy volumes of storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow. Sanitary sewers are much smaller than combined sewers, they are not designed to transport stormwater. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive infiltration/inflow is allowed into a sanitary sewer system. Communities that have urbanized in the mid-20th century or generally have built separate systems for sewage and stormwater, because precipitation causes varying flows, reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency; as rainfall travels over roofs and the ground, it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment, heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, oil and grease.
Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for stormwater include retention basins, buried vaults with various kinds of media filters, vortex separators. In regulated developed countries, industrial effluent receives at least pretreatment if not full treatment at the factories themselves to reduce the pollutant load, before discharge to the sewer; this process is called pretreatment. The same does not apply to many developing countries where industrial effluent is more to enter the sewer if it exists, or the receiving water body, without pretreatment. Industrial wastewater may contain pollutants which cannot be removed by conventional sewage treatment. Variable flow of industrial waste associated with production cycles may upset the population dynamics of biological treatment units, such as the activated sludge process. Sewage collection and treatment in the United States is subject to local and federal regulations and standards.
Treating wastewater has the aim to produce an effluent that will do as little harm as possible when discharged to the surrounding environment, thereby preventing pollution compared to releasing untreated wastewater into the environment. Sewage treatment involves three stages, called primary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil and lighter solids float to the surface; the settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Some sewage treatment plants that are connected to a combined sewer system have a bypass arrangement after the primary treatment unit; this means that during heavy rainfall events, the secondary and tertiary treatment systems can be bypassed to protect them from hydraulic overloading, the mixture of sewage and stormwater only receives primary treatment. Secondary treatment removes suspended biological matter.
Secondary treatment is performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Seconda
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
European Environment Agency
The European Environment Agency is the agency of the European Union which provides independent information on the environment. ĐỊT ĐỊT ĐỊT The European Environment Agency is the agency of the European Union which provides independent information on the environment. Its goal is to help those involved in developing and evaluating environmental policy, to inform the general public; the EEA was established by the European Economic Community Regulation 1210/1990 and became operational in 1994, headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark. The agency is governed by a management board composed of representatives of the governments of its 33 member states, a European Commission representative and two scientists appointed by the European Parliament, assisted by a committee of scientists; the current Executive Director of the agency is Professor Hans Bruyninckx, appointed for a five-year term. He is the successor of Professor Jacqueline McGlade; the member states of the union are members. It was the first EU body to open its membership to the 13 candidate countries.
The EEA has six cooperating countries. The 33 member countries include the 28 EU Member States together with Iceland, Norway and Turkey; the six Balkan countries are cooperating countries: Albania and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99. These cooperation activities are integrated into Eionet and are supported by the EU under the "Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance"; the EEA is an active member of the EPA Network. The 33 member countries include the 28 European Union member states together with Iceland, Norway and Turkey; the six Western Balkan countries are cooperating countries: Albania and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Serbia as well as Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99. The European Environment Agency reported in 2017 that climate-related extreme events accounted ca €400 billion of economic losses in EEA area from 1980 to 2013, were responsible for 85,000 deaths during 1980-2013; the European environment information and observation network is a partnership network of the EEA and the countries.
The EEA is responsible for coordinating its activities. To do so, the EEA works together with national focal points national environment agencies or environment ministries which are responsible for coordinating national networksof the National Reference Centres involving many institutions. Apart from the NFPs and NRCs, Eionet covers six European Topic Centres in the areas of air and climate change, biological diversity, climate change impacts and adaptation, land use and spatial information and analysis and sustainable consumption and production. In February 2012, the European Parliament's Committee on Budgetary Control published a draft report, identifying areas of concern in the use of funds and its influence for the 2010 budget such as a 26% budget increase from 2009 to 2010 to €50 600 000. and questioned that maximum competition and value-for-money principles were honored in hiring possible fictitious employees. The EEA's Executive Director refuted allegations of irregularities in a public hearing.
On 27 March 2012 Members of the European Parliament voted on the report and commended the cooperation between the Agency and NGOs working in the environmental area. On 23 October 2012, the European Parliament voted and granted the discharge to the European Environment Agency for its 2010 budget. In April 2013, the MEPs granted the discharge to the EEA for its 2011 budget. In addition to its 33 members and six Balkan cooperating countries, the EEA cooperates and fosters partnerships with its neighbours and other countries and regions in the context of the European Neighbourhood Policy: EaP states: Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Georgia UfM states: Algeria, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian Authority, Tunisia other ENPI states: Russia Central Asia states: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, UzbekistanAdditionally the EEA cooperates with multiple international organizations and the corresponding agencies of the following countries: United States of America Canada PR China The 26 official languages used by the EEA are: Bulgarian, Croatian, German, English, Estonian, French, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Malti, Norwegian, Portuguese, Slovak, Slovene and Turkish.
Agencies of the European Union EU environmental policy List of atmospheric dispersion models List of environmental organizations Confederation of European Environmental Engineering Societies Coordination of Information on the Environment European Agency for Safety and Health at Work Environment Agency European Environment Agency website European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity Model Documentation System The European Environment Agency's near real-time ozone map The European Climate Adaptation Platform Climate-ADAPT EnviroWindows
Water supply and sanitation in France
Water supply and sanitation in France is universal and of good quality. Salient features of the sector compared to other developed countries are the high degree of private sector participation using concession and lease contracts and the existence of basin agencies that levy fees on utilities in order to finance environmental investments. Water losses in France are high compared to Germany; this article is part of a series of articles describing water and sanitation in various countries around the world using the same categories to facilitate comparison. For more details see the links to articles on other countries in the category "Water supply and sanitation by country" at the end of the article. Access to improved water supply and to adequate sanitation in France is universal. However, not every household has access to water from the network or disposes its wastewater through sewers. Concerning water supply, according to a survey undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture in 1995, 370,000 permanent inhabitants in rural areas did not have access to piped water supply.
They are supplied by most of them wells. The government plans to increase the access rate to 100%, improve water quality by establishing protection areas around wells and springs, to increase the reliability of water supply by increasing production and interconnection of existing networks. Concerning sanitation, while most of the population is served by sewers, according to one source about 12 million people out of 65 are served by on-site sanitation systems such as septic tanks; the above-mentioned inventory by the Ministry of Agriculture notes that out of 40m inhabitants of rural areas – 25m permanent and 15m seasonal inhabitants – 21m are connected to a sewer system, 10.6m should be connected and 9.6m cannot be connected. The total of those not connected to sewers is higher; the government intends to increase the coverage to the sewer networks in rural areas, in particular in ecologically vulnerable zones. According to the Centre d'Information sur l'Eau residential water use in France is for the following uses: 39% for baths and showers 20% for toilets 12% for washing clothes 10% for washing dishes 6% for food preparation 6% for other residential uses 6% for outdoor uses 1% for drinking Total domestic water use in France is about 6 billion cubic metres or only about 3 percent of total runoff.
62 percent of drinking water supply is from 38 percent from surface water. Service quality is good with continuous water supply. In early 2008 private operators published for the first time consolidated performance indicators on service quality, it showed that 99.7% of samples complied with bacteriological standards for drinking water quality, but only 82.3% of samples complied with standards for the discharge of treated wastewater. The share of unplanned water service interruptions was less than 3%; the indicators do not include statistics on sewer overflows. A decree of May 2007 requires public service providers to provide the same information on service quality to the public, provided by private service providers, beginning in 2008. According to a 2008 survey by the water information centre C. I. Eau 81 % of respondents think; as in other EU countries, water quality monitoring is carried out at two levels, first by the service provider on a permanent basis, second by the authorities on a sample basis.
The lack of wastewater treatment in some cities and towns discharging wastewater into sensitive areas is another matter of concern. In January 2008 the European Commission sent France a final warning alerting it that it will be taken to the European Court of Justice for the second time and face fines unless it brings its waste water treatment up to EU standards. France is not complying with the 1991 EU directive on urban waste water treatment; the deadline for treating all wastewater covered by the directive was 31 December 2000. In 2004 the European Court of Justice condemned France for failing to designate eleven areas as sensitive and for inadequate treatment facilities in a number of settlements which discharge their waste waters into these areas; the ECJ found that 121 settlements breached the directive by discharging their waste waters into designated sensitive areas. In 2006 France designated the eleven areas as sensitive. However, 140 settlements – including the city of Paris – continue to discharge into these sensitive areas.
With regard to the 121 settlements discharging into the designated sensitive areas France proceeded to rearrange them into 164 settlements, resulting in some settlements no longer meeting the threshold level of 10,000 residents at which the directive applies. The Commission considers such rearranging of settlements to avoid compliance with the directive unacceptable. In November 2009 it referred the matter to the ECJ. A 2001 report to the French Parliament by one of its members, Yves Tavernier from the Socialist Party, concluded the following: "The French feel that the rapid and poorly distributed increase in the price of water leads to new social inequities, they find it hard to accept that the water tariff weighs on urban users and that, in apartment buildings, it is included in the rent. They do not understand that agricultural production is exempt from the Polluter-pays principle and that it continues to deteriorate the quality of groundwater with impunity, they wonder about the lack of transparency.
They find it hard to understand their water bills."A repre
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a high Human Development Index and are regarded as developed countries; as of 2017, the OECD member states collectively comprised 62.2% of global nominal GDP and 42.8% of global GDP at purchasing power parity. OECD is an official United Nations observer. In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan; this would be achieved by allocating United States financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.
In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states. The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in France; the OECD is funded by contributions from member states at varying rates and had a total budget of €374 million in 2017. The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II, it started its operations on 16 April 1948, originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Château de la Muette in France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues. According to Yanis Varoufakis, the OEEC can be seen as a continental planning commission established by the victorious United States following the successful model of their planning commissions of the New Deal.
The economic philosophy these commission followed can be characterized as Keynesian. The lead in the organisation should be with a strong integration of the Germans. In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area, to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC. By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission, it would be a hard-fought task, after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were OEEC observers, on board as full members.
It would set to work straight away on bringing in Japan. Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC; the Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada, with Japan joining three years later; the official founding members are: During the next 12 years Japan, Finland and New Zealand joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country; the OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre, International Energy Agency, Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering. Unlike the organisations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization". In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe to prepare market economy reforms.
In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition was established, in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia and Poland. This programme included a membership option for these countries; as a result of this, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, as well as Mexico and South Korea became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000. In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey. In 1996, Estonia and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD. Slovenia applied for membership that same year. In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation; the EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states. Romania reaffirmed in 2
Health care in France
The French health care system is one of universal health care financed by government national health insurance. In its 2000 assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world. In 2011, France spent 11.6% of GDP on health care, or US$4,086 per capita, a figure much higher than the average spent by countries in Europe but less than in the US. 77% of health expenditures are covered by government funded agencies. Most general physicians are in private practice but draw their income from the public insurance funds; these funds, unlike their German counterparts, have never gained self-management responsibility. Instead, the government has taken responsibility for the financial and operational management of health insurance; the French government refunds patients 70% of most health care costs, 100% in case of costly or long-term ailments. Supplemental coverage may be bought from most of them nonprofit, mutual insurers.
Until 2000, coverage was restricted to those who contributed to social security, excluding some poor segments of the population. Only about 3.7% of hospital treatment costs are reimbursed through private insurance, but a much higher share of the cost of spectacles and prostheses and dental care. There are public hospitals, non-profit independent hospitals, as well as private for-profit hospitals. France 1871–1914 followed well behind Bismarckian Germany, as well as Great Britain, in developing the welfare state including public health. Tuberculosis was the most dreaded disease of the day striking young people in their 20s. Germany set up vigorous measures of public hygiene and public sanatoria, but France let private physicians handle the problem, which left it with a much higher death rate; the French medical profession jealously guarded its prerogatives, public health activists were not as well organized or as influential as in Germany, Britain or the United States. For example, there was a long battle over a public health law which began in the 1880s as a campaign to reorganize the nation's health services, to require the registration of infectious diseases, to mandate quarantines, to improve the deficient health and housing legislation of 1850.
However the reformers met opposition from bureaucrats and physicians. Because it was so threatening to so many interests, the proposal was debated and postponed for 20 years before becoming law in 1902. Success came when the government realized that contagious diseases had a national security impact in weakening military recruits, keeping the population growth rate well below Germany's; the current system has undergone several changes since its foundation in 1945, though the basis of the system remains state planned and operated. Jean de Kervasdoué, a health economist, believes that French medicine is of great quality and is "the only credible alternative to the Americanization of world medicine." According to Kervasdoué, France's surgeons, clinicians and its emergency care system are an example for the world. However, despite this, Kervasdoué criticizes the fact that hospitals must comply with 43 bodies of regulation and the nit-picking bureaucracy that can be found in the system. Kervasdoué believes that the state intervenes too much in regulating the daily functions of French hospitals.
Furthermore, Japan and the Netherlands have health care systems with comparable performance to that of France's, yet spend no more than 8% of their GDP. According to various experts, the battered state of the French social security system's finances is causing the growth of France's health care expenses. To control expenses, these experts recommend a reorganization of access to health care providers, revisions to pertinent laws, a repossession by CNAMTS of the continued development of medicines, the democratization of budgetary arbitration to counter pressure from the pharmaceutical industry; the entire population must pay compulsory health insurance. The insurers are non-profit agencies that annually participate in negotiations with the state regarding the overall funding of health care in France. There are three main funds, the largest of which covers 84% of the population and the other two a further 12%. A premium is deducted from all employees' pay automatically; the 2001 Social Security Funding Act, set the rates for health insurance covering the statutory health care plan at 5.25% on earned income and winnings from gambling and at 3.95% on benefits.
After paying the doctor's or dentist's fee, a proportion is reimbursed. This is around 75 to 80%, but can be as much as 100%; the balance is a co-payment paid by the patient but it can be recovered if the patient pays a regular premium to a voluntary health insurance scheme. Most of them are managed by non-for-profit groups. Under recent rules, general practitioners are expected to act as "gate keepers" who refer patients to a specialist or a hospital when necessary; however the system offers