Children's Health Insurance Program
The Children's Health Insurance Program – known as the State Children's Health Insurance Program – is a program administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides matching funds to states for health insurance to families with children. The program was designed to cover uninsured children in families with incomes that are modest but too high to qualify for Medicaid; the program came in response to the failure of comprehensive health care reform proposed in 1993 by President Bill Clinton. The legislation to create it was sponsored by Senator Ted Kennedy in a partnership with Senator Orrin Hatch, with support coming from First Lady Hillary Clinton during the Clinton administration. At its creation in 1997, SCHIP was the largest expansion of taxpayer-funded health insurance coverage for children in the U. S. since Lyndon Johnson established Medicaid in 1965. The statutory authority for CHIP is under title XXI of the Social Security Act. States are given flexibility in designing their CHIP eligibility requirements and policies within broad federal guidelines.
Some states have received authority through waivers of statutory provisions to use CHIP funds to cover the parents of children receiving benefits from both CHIP and Medicaid, pregnant women, other adults. CHIP covered 7.6 million children during federal fiscal year 2010, every state has an approved plan. Despite CHIP, the number of uninsured children continued to rise among families that cannot qualify for CHIP. An October 2007 study by the Vimo Research Group found that 68.7 percent of newly uninsured children were in families whose incomes were 200 percent of the federal poverty level or higher as more employers dropped dependents or dropped coverage altogether due to annual premiums nearly doubling between 2000 and 2006. Vimo cites the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured when it says 48 percent of the newly uninsured were not eligible for any kind of public coverage, that only those in the lowest income bracket might offset the loss of employer-sponsored coverage with increases in Medicaid and SCHIP.
In FY 2008, the program faced funding shortfalls in several states. Two attempts to expand funding for the program were vetoed by President George W. Bush, who argued that such efforts were steps toward federalization of health care, would "steer the program away from its core purpose of providing insurance for poor children and toward covering children from middle-class families." On February 4, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the Children's Health Insurance Reauthorization Act of 2009, expanding the healthcare program to an additional 4 million children and pregnant women, including “lawfully residing” immigrants without a waiting period. A 2018 survey of the existing research noted that the availability of "CHIP coverage for children has led to improvements in access to health care and to improvements in health over both the short-run and the long-run."As of February 2018, the CHIP program has been authorized to continue through the year 2027. The Children's Health Insurance Program grew out of years of work in the U.
S. Congress to improve Americans' health coverage. A decade prior, the U. S. Bipartisan Commission on Comprehensive Health Care was formed in 1989 and charged with recommending “legislative action to ensure coverage for all Americans.” The Commission, renamed the Pepper Commission in honor of its creator and first chair Representative Claude Pepper, laid out a blueprint to achieve universal coverage. Given the challenges of comprehensive health reform, Governor Jay Rockefeller, elected chair following Rep. Pepper's death, emphasized his commitment to pursue legislative action not only on the commission's full set of recommendations but on a "down payment" — to expand public health coverage for children and pregnant women, consistent with the principles the commission put forward; the legislation would guarantee public insurance coverage through Medicaid for every American child living in poverty and offset the cost of the improvements by doubling the federal excise tax on cigarettes. After his election in 1992, President Bill Clinton assembled a task force to write a comprehensive health reform bill, he worked with Congress to introduce the Health Security Act in November 1993.
It included provisions such as universal coverage and a basic benefit package, health insurance reform, consumer choice of health plans. After the HSA failed in the fall of 1994, congressional leaders and the administration recognized the need for an incremental, bipartisan approach to health care reform. Senator Jay Rockefeller continued to argue for expanded coverage for children, he referenced an amendment for accelerated coverage children and pregnant women offered during the Senate Finance Committee’s health care reform markup, adopted by a bipartisan majority of 12 to 8 as evidence that there was bipartisan support to provide assistance to children. He went on to say expanding coverage for children was essential to reforming the welfare system to “prevent families from having to go and off welfare to qualify for Medicaid.”The 1996 Bipartisan Budget Agreement made net reductions in federal Medicaid spending over a five-year period but anticipated an additional $16 billion in spending on children's health care over the same period.
However, it did not provide details on. In 1997, several members of Congress introduced bills to cover uninsured children using that $16 billion, the two most popular proposals were the Chafee-Rockefeller proposal and the Kennedy-Hatch proposal. Senator Ted Kennedy, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Health, Education and Pensions was intrigued by a children's health insurance plan in Massachu
In business, overhead or overhead expense refers to an ongoing expense of operating a business. Overheads are the expenditure which cannot be conveniently traced to or identified with any particular cost unit, unlike operating expenses such as raw material and labor. Therefore, overheads cannot be associated with the products or services being offered, thus do not directly generate profits. However, overheads are still vital to business operations as they provide critical support for the business to carry out profit making activities. For example, overhead costs such as the rent for a factory allows workers to manufacture products which can be sold for a profit; such expenses are incurred for output and not for particular work order. Overheads are very important cost element along with direct materials and direct labor. Overheads are related to accounting concepts such as fixed costs and indirect costs. Overhead expenses are all costs on the income statement except for direct labor, direct materials, direct expenses.
Overhead expenses include accounting fees, insurance, legal fees, labor burden, repairs, taxes, telephone bills, travel expenditures, utilities. There are two types of business overheads: administrative overheads and manufacturing overheads. Administrative overheads include items such as utilities, strategic planning, various supporting functions; these costs are treated as overheads due to the fact that they aren't directly related to any particular function of the organization nor does it directly result in generating any profits. Instead, these costs take on the role of supporting all of the business' other functions. Universities charge administrative overhead rates on research. In the U. S. the average overhead rate is 52%, spent on building operation, administrative salaries and other areas not directly tied to research. Academics have argued against these charges. For example, Benjamin Ginsberg showed how overhead rates are used to subsidize ballooning administrative salaries and building depreciation, neither of which directly benefit research.
An article written by Joshua Pearce in Science argued that overhead accounting practices hurt science by removing funds from research and discouraging the use of less-expensive open source hardware. He went into detail on the accounting showing how millions were wasted each year on overhead cash grabs by university administrators in ZME Science; this includes monthly and annual salaries that are agreed upon. They are considered overheads as these costs must be paid regardless of sales and profits of the company. In addition, salary differs from wage as salary is not affected by working hours and time, therefore will remain constant. In particular, this would more apply to more senior staff members as they are signed to longer tenure contracts, meaning that their salaries are more predetermined; this includes office equipment such as printer, fax machine, refrigerator, etc. They are equipment that do not directly result in sales and profits as they are only used for supporting functions that they can provide to business operations.
However, equipment can vary between administrative overheads and manufacturing overheads based on the purpose of which they are using the equipment. For example, for a printing company a printer would be considered a manufacturing overhead; this includes the cost of hiring external audit firms on behalf of the company. This would not apply if company has own audit plans. Due to regulations and necessary annual audits to ensure a satisfactory work place environment, these costs cannot be avoided. Since these costs do not contribute directly to sales, they are considered as indirect overheads. Although in most cases necessary, these costs can sometimes be reduced. Many companies provide usage of company cars as a perk for their employees. Since these cars do not contribute directly to sales and profits, they are considered an overhead. Similar company perks that are a one-off or constant payment such as partner contract fees with a gym will fall under administrative overheads; this will include company-paid business arrangements.
As well as refreshments and entertainment fees during company gatherings. Although one might argue that these costs motivate workers to become more productive and efficient, the majority of economists agree that these costs do not directly contribute to sales and profits, therefore shall be categorized as an administrative overhead. Despite these costs occurring periodically and sometimes without prior preparation, they are one-off payments and are expected to be within the company's budget for travel and entertainment. Manufacturing overheads are all costs endured by a business, within the physical platform in which the product or service is created. Difference between manufacturing overheads and administrative overheads is that manufacturing overheads are categorized within a factory or office in which the sale takes place. Whilst administrative overheads is categorized within some sort of back-office or supporting office. Although there are cases when the two physical buildings may overlap, it is the usage of the overheads that separates them.
Although the general concept is identical to the example under administrative overheads, the key difference is the role of the employee. In the case of manufacturing overheads, employees would have roles such as maintenance personnel, manufacturing m
Military Health System
The Military Health System is the enterprise within the United States Department of Defense that provides health care to active duty and retired U. S. Military personnel and their dependents, its mission is to provide health support for the full range of military operations and sustain the health of all who are entrusted to MHS care. Its primary mission is to maintain the health of military personnel, so they can carry out their military missions. Described as the medical readiness mission, this effort involves medical testing and screening of recruits, emergency medical treatment of troops involved in hostilities, the maintenance of physical standards of those in the armed services; the MHS provides, where space is available, health care to dependents of active duty service members, to retirees and their dependents, to some former spouses. Such care has been made available since 1966, through the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services and its successor, TRICARE. In October 2001, TRICARE benefits were extended to their dependents aged 65 and over.
In 2013, the Defense Health Agency replaced TRICARE. The MHS has a $50 billion budget and serves about 10 million beneficiaries, including active duty personnel and their families and retirees and their families; the actual cost of having a government-run health care system for the military is higher because the wages and benefits paid for military personnel who work for the MHS and the retirees who worked for it, is not included in the budget. MHS employs more than 137,000 in 65 hospitals, 412 clinics, 414 dental clinics at facilities across the nation and around the world, as well as in contingency and combat-theater operations worldwide. Before the Civil War, medical care in the military was provided by the regimental surgeon and surgeons' mates. While attempts were made to establish a centralized medical system, care provision was local and limited. Treatment for disease and injury was, by modern standards, primitive; the Civil War saw improvements in medical science and transportation that made centralized casualty collection and treatment more practical.
In World War I, the U. S. Army Medical Department developed its organization and structure. Care began on the battlefield and was transferred to successively better levels of medical capability. Much of this capability was located in the combat theater so that soldiers could be returned to duty if possible. Expansion without the benefit of an organizational plan. After World War II, the Executive Branch of the U. S. Government was reorganized; the Department of War and Department of the Navy were merged into a single Department of Defense. This caused friction between the Navy medical corps. Furthermore, the Air Force part of the Army, was created as a separate military service with its own separate Medical Service. Changes in the perception of health care after World War II and an assessment of medical services provided to dependents caused Congress to re-evaluate the dependent health care benefit in the late 1950s. Changes in tax law had induced business and industry to begin offering a health care benefit as an employment incentive.
A 1956 Department of Defense estimate was that 40 percent of active duty dependents did not have access to federal facilities due to distance, incomplete medical coverage at the federal facility, or due to the saturation of services at military treatment facilities. Congress responded by passing the Dependents Medical Care Act of 1956 and the Military Medical Benefits Amendments of 1966; these acts created the program known as the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services. In the late 1980s, because of escalating costs, claims paperwork demands and general beneficiary dissatisfaction, DOD launched a series of demonstration projects. Under a program known as the CHAMPUS Reform Initiative, a contractor provided both health care and administrative-related services, including claims processing; the CRI project was one of the first to introduce managed care features to the CHAMPUS program. Beneficiaries under CRI were offered three choices: a health maintenance organization-like option called CHAMPUS Prime that required enrollment and offered better benefits and low-cost shares, a preferred provider organization-like option called CHAMPUS Extra that required use of network providers in exchange for lower cost shares, the standard CHAMPUS option that continued the freedom of choice in selecting providers and higher cost shares and deductibles.
Although DOD's initial intent under CRI was to award three competitively bid contracts covering six states, it received only one bid, from Foundation Health Corporation covering California and Hawaii. Foundation delivered services under this contract between August 1988 and January 1994. In late 1993, driven by requirements in the DOD Appropriation Act for Fiscal Year 1994, DOD announced plans to implement by May 1997 a nationwide managed care program for the MHS. Under this program, known as TRICARE, the United States would be divided into 12 health care regions. An administrative organization, the lead agent, was designated for each region and coordinated the health care needs of all military treatment facilities in the region. Under TRICARE, seven managed care support contracts were awarded covering DOD's 12 health care regions. TRICARE has been restructured several times, with contract regions having been redrawn, Base Realignment and Closure, by adding "TRICARE for Life" benefits in 2001 for those who are Medicare-eligible, "TRICARE Reserve Select" in 2005.
As of 20
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, 32 miles southwest of Seattle, 31 miles northeast of the state capital, 58 miles northwest of Mount Rainier National Park; the population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the third largest in the state. Tacoma serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region, which has a population of around 1 million. Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier called Takhoma or Tahoma, it is locally known as the "City of Destiny" because the area was chosen to be the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay. By connecting the bay with the railroad, Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails". Commencement Bay serves the Port of Tacoma, a center of international trade on the Pacific Coast and Washington State's largest port.
Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization and divestment. Since the 1990s, developments in the downtown core include the University of Washington Tacoma. Neighborhoods such as the 6th Avenue District have been revitalized. With over $1 billion having been invested in downtown Tacoma alone, private investment has surpassed public investment by a ratio of 4:1. Tacoma has been named one of the most livable areas in the United States. In 2006, Tacoma was listed as one of the "most walkable" cities in the country; that same year, the women's magazine Self named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States. Tacoma gained notoriety in 1940 for the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie"; the area was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians, predominantly the Puyallup people, who lived in settlements on the delta. In 1852, a Swede named Nicolas Delin built a water-powered sawmill on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855–56.
In 1864, pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator, built a cabin. Carr hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, sold most of his claim to developer Morton M. McCarver, who named his project Tacoma City, derived from the indigenous name for the mountain. Tacoma was incorporated on November 12, 1875, following its selection in 1873 as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad due to lobbying by McCarver, future mayor John Wilson Sprague, others. However, the railroad built its depot on New Tacoma, two miles south of the Carr–McCarver development; the two communities grew together and joined, merging on January 7, 1884. The transcontinental link was effected in 1887, the population grew from 1,098 in 1880 to 36,006 in 1890. Rudyard Kipling visited Tacoma in 1889 and said it was "literally staggering under a boom of the boomiest". George Francis Train was a resident for a few years in the late 19th century.
In 1890, he staged a global circumnavigation ending in Tacoma to promote the city. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the finish line. In November 1885, white citizens led by then-mayor Jacob Weisbach expelled several hundred Chinese residents peacefully living in the city; as described by the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project Foundation, on the morning of November 3, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground." The discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1898 led to Tacoma's prominence in the region being eclipsed by the development of Seattle. A major tragedy marred the end of the 19th century, when a streetcar accident resulted in significant loss of life on July 4, 1900. From May to August 1907, the city was the site of a smelter workers' strike organized by Local 545 of the Industrial Workers of the World, with the goal of a fifty-cent per day pay raise.
The strike was opposed by the local business community, the smelter owners threatened to blacklist organizers and union officials. The IWW opposed this move by trying to persuade inbound workers to avoid Tacoma during the strike. By August, the strike had ended without meeting its demands. Tacoma was a major destination for big-time automobile racing, with one of the nation's top-rated racing venues just outside the city limits, at the site of today's Clover Park Technical College. In 1924, Tacoma's first movie studio, H. C. Weaver Studio, was sited at present-day Titlow Beach. At the time, it was the third-largest freestanding film production space in America, with the two larger facilities being located in Hollywood; the studio's importance has undergone a revival with the discovery of one of its most famous lost films, Eyes of the Totem. The 1929 crash of the stock market, resulting in the Great Depression, was only the first event in a series of misfortunes to hit Tacoma in the winter of 1929–3
Medicare (United States)
Medicare is a national health insurance program in the United States, begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration and now administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. It provides health insurance for Americans aged 65 and older, younger people with some disability status as determined by the Social Security Administration, as well as people with end stage renal disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Medicare is funded by a combination of a payroll tax, beneficiary premiums and surtaxes from beneficiaries, general U. S. Treasury revenue. In 2017, Medicare provided health insurance for over 58 million individuals—more than 49 million people aged 65 and older and about 9 million younger people. On average, Medicare covers about half of healthcare expenses of those enrolled. According to annual Medicare Trustees reports and research by the government's MedPAC group, the enrollees almost always cover their remaining costs either with additional insurance, or by joining a Medicare health plan.
No one uses United States Medicare only. No matter which of those two options the beneficiaries choose or if they choose to do nothing extra, beneficiaries have out of pocket costs. OOP costs can include co-pays. Medicare is divided into four Parts. Medicare Part A covers hospital, skilled nursing, hospice services. Part B covers outpatient services including some providers' services while inpatient at a hospital, outpatient hospital charges, most provider office visits if the office is "in a hospital," and most professionally administered prescription drugs. Part D covers self-administered prescription drugs. Part C is an alternative called Managed Medicare by the Trustees that allows patients to choose health plans with at least the same service coverage as Parts A and B the benefits of Part D, always an annual OOP spend limit which A and B lack; the beneficiary must enroll in Parts A and B first before signing up for Part C. The name "Medicare" was given to a program providing medical care for families of people serving in the military as part of the Dependents' Medical Care Act, passed in 1956.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower held the first White House Conference on Aging in January 1961, in which creating a health care program for social security beneficiaries was proposed. In July 1965, under the leadership of President Lyndon Johnson, Congress enacted Medicare under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide health insurance to people age 65 and older, regardless of income or medical history. Johnson signed the bill into law on July 30, 1965 at the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library in Independence, Missouri. Former President Harry S. Truman and his wife, former First Lady Bess Truman became the first recipients of the program. Before Medicare was created 60% of people over the age of 65 had health insurance, with coverage unavailable or unaffordable to many others, as older adults paid more than three times as much for health insurance as younger people. Many of this latter group became "dual eligible" for both Medicare and Medicaid with passing the law. In 1966, Medicare spurred the racial integration of thousands of waiting rooms, hospital floors, physician practices by making payments to health care providers conditional on desegregation.
Medicare has been operated for a half century and, during that time, has undergone several changes. Since 1965, the program's provisions have expanded to include benefits for speech and chiropractic therapy in 1972. Medicare added the option of payments to health maintenance organizations in the 1970s; as the years progressed, Congress expanded Medicare eligibility to younger people with permanent disabilities and receive Social Security Disability Insurance payments and to those with end-stage renal disease. The association with HMOs begun in the 1970s was formalized under President Bill Clinton in 1997 as Medicare Part C. In 2003, under President George W. Bush, a Medicare program for covering all self-administered prescription drugs was passed as Medicare Part D; the government added hospice benefits to aid elderly people on a temporary basis in 1982, made this permanent in 1984. Congress further expanded Medicare in 2001 to cover younger people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, a component of the U.
S. Department of Health and Human Services, administers Medicare, the Children's Health Insurance Program, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, parts of the Affordable Care Act. Along with the Departments of Labor and Treasury, the CMS implements the insurance reform provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and most aspects of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended; the Social Security Administration is responsible for determining Medicare eligibili
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit, it does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates; the proprietor is taxed on all income from the business. The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist: Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor. Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business; the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships. Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners.
Corporations can be either government-owned or owned, they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A owned, for-profit corporation can be either held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. Limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections.
In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected. Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation. Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. A company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities; the members guarantee the payment of certain amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be without having share capital. A company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. A limited company is a "company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested" with corporations being "the most common example of a limited company."
This type of company is common in many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a publicly traded company or a held company A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are funded by investors who expect a return; this type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist. A limited liability company: "A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, limitations on ownership transfer", i.e. L. L. C. LLC structure has been called "hybrid" in that it "combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship". Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, like a partnership, it has "flow-through taxation to the members" and must be "dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member".
An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply. Less common types of companies are: Companies formed by letters patent: Most corpor
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent. When this system is exposed to molecules that are foreign to the body, called non-self, it will orchestrate an immune response, it will develop the ability to respond to a subsequent encounter because of immunological memory; this is a function of the adaptive immune system. Therefore, by exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, its body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization; the most important elements of the immune system that are improved by immunization are the T cells, B cells, the antibodies B cells produce. Memory B cells and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second encounter with a foreign molecule. Passive immunization is direct introduction of these elements into the body, instead of production of these elements by the body itself. Immunization is done through various techniques, most vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection.
The fact that mutations can cause cancer cells to produce proteins or other molecules that are known to the body forms the theoretical basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines. Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine or the hormone ghrelin in experiments to create an obesity vaccine. Immunizations are widely stated as less risky and an easier way to become immune to a particular disease than risking a milder form of the disease itself, they are important for both adults and children in that they can protect us from the many diseases out there. Immunization not only protects children against deadly diseases but helps in developing children's immune systems. Through the use of immunizations, some infections and diseases have completely been eradicated throughout the United States and the World. One example is polio. Thanks to dedicated health care professionals and the parents of children who vaccinated on schedule, polio has been eliminated in the U.
S. since 1979. Polio is still found in other parts of the world so certain people could still be at risk of getting it; this includes those people who have never had the vaccine, those who didn't receive all doses of the vaccine, or those traveling to areas of the world where polio is still prevalent. Active immunization/vaccination has been named one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century". Before the introduction of vaccines, people could only become immune to an infectious disease by contracting the disease and surviving it. Smallpox was prevented in this way by inoculation, which produced a milder effect than the natural disease; the first clear reference to smallpox inoculation was made by the Chinese author Wan Quan in his Douzhen xinfa published in 1549. In China, powdered smallpox scabs were blown up the noses of the healthy; the patients would develop a mild case of the disease and from on were immune to it. The technique did have a 0.5–2.0% mortality rate, but, less than the 20–30% mortality rate of the disease itself.
Two reports on the Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700. According to Voltaire, the Turks derived their use of inoculation from neighbouring Circassia. Voltaire does not speculate on where the Circassians derived their technique from, though he reports that the Chinese have practiced it "these hundred years", it was introduced into England from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in 1721 and used by Zabdiel Boylston in Boston the same year. In 1798 Edward Jenner introduced inoculation with a much safer procedure; this procedure, referred to as vaccination replaced smallpox inoculation, now called variolation to distinguish it from vaccination. Until the 1880s vaccine/vaccination referred only to smallpox, but Louis Pasteur developed immunization methods for chicken cholera and anthrax in animals and for human rabies, suggested that the terms vaccine/vaccination should be extended to cover the new procedures; this can cause confusion if care is not taken to specify which vaccine is used e.g. measles vaccine or influenza vaccine.
Immunization can be achieved in an active or passive manner: vaccination is an active form of immunization. Active immunization can occur when a person comes in contact with, for example, a microbe; the immune system will create antibodies and other defenses against the microbe. The next time, the immune response against this microbe can be efficient. Artificial active immunization is where the microbe, or parts of it, are injected into the person before they are able to take it in naturally. If whole microbes are used, they are pre-treated; the importance of immunization is so great that the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has named it one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century". Live attenuated vaccines have decreased pathogenicity, their effectiveness depends on the immune systems ability to replicate and elicits a response similar to natural infection. It is effective with a single dose. Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include measles, rubella, MMR, yellow fever, varicella and influenza.
Passive immunization is where pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are transferred to a person so th