Edward Baker Lincoln
Edward Baker Lincoln was the second son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd Lincoln. He was named after Lincoln's friend Edward Dickinson Baker; the National Park Service uses "Eddie" as a nickname and the name is on his gravestone. Little is known about the Lincolns' second son. A surviving story says that one day during a visit to Mary's family, Eddie's older brother, Robert Todd Lincoln, found a kitten and brought it to the house. Despite Mary's stepmother's dislike of cats and order to throw it out, Eddie protested, he cared for the helpless kitten, which he loved. Eddie was described by his parents as a tender-hearted and loving child. Eddie died a month before his fourth birthday. Although census records list "chronic consumption" as the cause, it has been suggested that Eddie died of medullary thyroid cancer given that: "consumption" was a term applied to many wasting diseases, cancer is a wasting disease, his father and two of his brothers had several features compatible with the genetic cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b, Eddie's thick, asymmetric lower lip is a sign of MEN2B, 100% of persons with MEN2B develop medullary thyroid cancer, sometimes as early as the neonatal period.
Eddie's body was buried at Hutchinson's Cemetery in Illinois. Both parents were devastated. A week after Eddie's death, an unsigned poem entitled "Little Eddie" was printed in the Illinois Daily Journal. Authorship of the poem was long a mystery with some supposing that Abraham and Mary Lincoln wrote it. In 2012, the Abraham Lincoln Association published an article in their journal that concludes neither parent wrote the poem, that it was instead an early draft by a young poet from St. Louis; the final line is on the boy's tombstone. The next child of Abraham and Mary was born ten months after Eddie's death. After the death of President Lincoln, Eddie's remains were transferred to the Lincoln Tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield. Lincoln family tree Edward Baker Lincoln biography with photo Edward "Eddie" Baker Lincoln via Lincoln Family Home National Historic Site Edward Baker Lincoln at Find a Grave
The Lincoln–Douglas debates were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the United States Senate from Illinois, incumbent Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate. At the time, U. S. senators were elected by state legislatures. The debates previewed the issues that Lincoln would face in the aftermath of his victory in the 1860 presidential election. Although Illinois was a free state, the main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery in the United States. In agreeing to the official debates and Douglas decided to hold one debate in each of the nine congressional districts in Illinois; because both had spoken in two—Springfield and Chicago—within a day of each other, they decided that their "joint appearances" would be held in the remaining seven districts. The debates were held in seven towns in the state of Illinois: Ottawa on August 21 Freeport on August 27 Jonesboro on September 15 Charleston on September 18 Galesburg on October 7 Quincy on October 13 Alton on October 15The debates in Freeport and Alton drew large numbers of people from neighboring states, as the issue of slavery was of monumental importance to citizens across the nation.
Newspaper coverages of the debates were intense. Major papers from Chicago sent stenographers to create complete texts of each debate, which newspapers across the United States reprinted in full, with some partisan edits. Newspapers that supported Douglas edited his speeches to remove any errors made by the stenographers and to correct grammatical errors, while they left Lincoln's speeches in the rough form in which they had been transcribed. In the same way, pro-Lincoln papers edited Lincoln's speeches, but left the Douglas texts as reported. After winning a plurality of the voters but losing in the legislature, Lincoln edited the texts of all the debates and had them published in a book; the widespread coverage of the original debates and the subsequent popularity of the book led to Lincoln's nomination for President of the United States by the 1860 Republican National Convention in Chicago. The format for each debate was: one candidate spoke for 60 minutes the other candidate spoke for 90 minutes, the first candidate was allowed a 30-minute "rejoinder."
The candidates alternated speaking first. As the incumbent, Douglas spoke first in four of the debates. Stephen Douglas was first elected to the United States Senate in 1846. In 1858, he was seeking re-election for a third term. During his time in the Senate, the issue of slavery was raised several times with respect to the Compromise of 1850; as chairman of the committee on territories, Douglas argued for an approach to slavery termed popular sovereignty. Decisions about whether slavery was permitted or prohibited within certain states and territories had been made at a federal level. Douglas was successful with passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854. Abraham Lincoln, like Douglas, had been elected to Congress in 1846, he served one two-year term in the House of Representatives. During his time in the House, Lincoln disagreed with Douglas and supported the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in new territory. Lincoln returned to politics in the 1850s to oppose the Kansas–Nebraska Act, help develop the new Republican party.
Before the debates, Lincoln said that Douglas was encouraging his fears of amalgamation of the races with enough success to drive thousands of people away from the Republican Party. Douglas tried to convince the Democrats, that Lincoln was an abolitionist for saying that the American Declaration of Independence did apply to blacks as well as whites. Lincoln called a self-evident truth "the electric cord... that links the hearts of patriotic and liberty-loving men together" of different ethnic backgrounds. Lincoln argued in his House Divided Speech that Douglas was part of a conspiracy to nationalize slavery. Lincoln said that ending the Missouri Compromise ban on slavery in Kansas and Nebraska was the first step in this direction, that the Dred Scott decision was another step in the direction of spreading slavery into Northern territories. Lincoln expressed the fear. Both Lincoln and Douglas had opposition. Although Lincoln was a former Whig, the prominent former Whig Judge Theophilus Lyle Dickey said that Lincoln was too tied to the abolitionists, supported Douglas.
But Democratic President James Buchanan opposed Douglas for defeating the Lecompton Constitution, which would have made Kansas a slave state, set up a rival National Democratic party that drew votes away from him. The main theme of the Lincoln–Douglas debates was slavery the issue of slavery's expansion into the territories, it was Douglas's Kansas–Nebraska Act that repealed the Missouri Compromise's ban on slavery in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, replaced it with the doctrine of popular sovereignty, which meant that the people of a territory could decide for themselves whether to allow slavery. Lincoln said that popular sovereignty would perpetuate slavery. Douglas argued that both Whigs and Democrats believed in popular sovereignty and that the Compromise of 1850 was an example of this. Lincoln said that the national policy was to limit the spread of slavery, mentioned the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which banned slavery from a large part of the modern-day Midwest
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
Nancy Hanks Lincoln was the mother of U. S. President Abraham Lincoln, her marriage to Thomas Lincoln produced a daughter, a son, Thomas Jr. When Nancy and Thomas had been married for just over 10 years, the family moved from Kentucky to Perry County, Indiana, in 1816. Nancy Lincoln died from milk sickness or consumption at the Little Pigeon Creek Community in Spencer County when Abraham was nine years old; this article reflects the prevailing theories regarding Nancy Hanks Lincoln's heritage. There is information, published about the Shipley and Berry family and for Kentucky heritage sites that differs from the prevailing theory; this is explored in greater detail in the Nancy Hanks Lincoln heritage article. Nancy Hanks Lincoln was born to Lucy Hanks in what was at that time part of Hampshire County, Virginia. Today, the same location is in Antioch in West Virginia. Years after her birth, Abraham Lincoln's law partner William Herndon reported that Lincoln told him his maternal grandfather was "a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter."
According to William E. Barton in the "Life of Abraham Lincoln" and Michael Burkhimer in "100 Essential Lincoln Books", Nancy was most born illegitimate due to the fact that Hanks' family created stories in order to lead Abraham to believe he was a legitimate member of the Sparrow family, it is believed that Nancy Hanks Lincoln's grandparents were Ann and Joseph Hanks and that they raised her from infancy until her grandfather died when she was about 9 years old. At the time of Nancy's birth and his wife and children were all living on 108 acres near Patterson Creek in then-Hampshire County, Virginia. In March 1784, Joseph Hanks sold his property via a mortgage and moved his wife, 8 children, young granddaughter Nancy to Kentucky; the family lived on land along Pottinger's Creek, in a settlement called Rolling Fork in Nelson County, until patriarch Joseph's death in 1793. Nancy's grandmother, called by the more formal name Ann rather than its common nickname Nancy, decided to return to her homeland, old Farnham parish in Virginia.
At that time, Nancy went to live with her mother, now Lucy Hanks Sparrow. Having married Henry Sparrow in Harrodsburg, two or three years earlier. After Lucy's sister Elizabeth Hanks married Henry Sparrow's brother Thomas in Mercer County, Kentucky, in 1796, Nancy went to live with the couple, whom she called "mother and father". Lucy's sister Nancy Hanks gave birth to an illegitimate son in 1799 named Dennis Friend Hanks, Nancy Hanks Lincoln's cousin, raised by Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow. At the home of Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow, Nancy would have learned the skills and crafts a woman needed on the frontier to cultivate crops and clothe and feed her family, she learned to read by the Bible and became an excellent seamstress, working at the Richard Berry home before her marriage. Lucy's marriage to Henry Sparrow produced 8 children, Lucy had a reputation as a "fine Christian woman". Two sons were preachers. Nancy Hanks Lincoln heritage timeline: her life events and who she lived with during those times On June 12, 1806, Hanks married Thomas Lincoln at Beechland, the home of Richard Berry, by Reverend Jesse Head.
Nancy was brought to the home to work as a seamstress by her friend Polly Ewing Berry, the wife of Richard Berry Jr. since October 10, 1794. Polly was a friend of Nancy's from Mercer County and Richard Berry Jr. was a good friend of Thomas Lincoln. Lincoln proposed to her in his childhood home at what is now Lincoln Homestead State Park or in the Francis Berry house in front of the fireplace. Nancy's marriage bond was signed by Richard Berry Jr.. Per Warren, "The title had no legal significance, Berry having never been so appointed, Nancy Hanks was of age, but of him to call himself'guardian' was a courtesy customary under such circumstances". A record of their marriage license is held at the county courthouse, they had three children: Sarah Lincoln Abraham Lincoln Thomas Lincoln Jr. The young family lived in what was Hardin County, Kentucky. After 1811, on the Knob Creek Farm. Neighbors reported that Nancy Hanks Lincoln was "superior" to her husband, a mild yet strong personality who taught young Abraham his letters as well as the extraordinary sweetness and forbearance he was known for all his life.
In 1816, the year that Indiana became the 19th state, the Lincoln family moved to Spencer County in southern Indiana and proceeded to homestead at Little Pigeon Creek Settlement. Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow and Dennis Hanks settled at Little Pigeon Creek the following fall, having lived in a shelter the Lincolns had lived in until they built their cabin. While Abraham was ten years younger than his second cousin Dennis, the boys were good friends. William Herndon, author of Life of Lincoln, described Nancy Hanks Lincoln: She was above the ordinary height in stature, weighed about 130 pounds, was slenderly built, had much the appearance of one inclined to consumption, her skin was dark. Though her life was clouded by a spirit of sadness, she was in disposition amiable and cheerful. Nancy was described as "a bold, daredevil kind of woman, stepping on to the v
Memorials to Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States from 1861 to 1865, has been memorialized in many town and county names, Along with George Washington, he is an iconic image of American democracy and American nationalism. Barry Schwartz, a sociologist who has examined America's cultural memory, states that in the 1930s and 1940s, the memory of Abraham Lincoln was sacred and provided the nation with "a moral symbol inspiring and guiding American life." During the Great Depression, he says, Lincoln served "as a means for seeing the world's disappointments, for making its sufferings not so much explicable as meaningful." Franklin D. Roosevelt, preparing America for World War II, used the words of the American Civil War-era president to clarify the threat posed by Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan. Americans asked, "What would Lincoln do?" However, he finds that since World War II, Lincoln's symbolic power has lost relevance, this "fading hero is symptomatic of fading confidence in national greatness."
He suggested that multiculturalism have diluted greatness as a concept. While Lincoln remains in the top tier of the historical rankings of presidents of the United States, all of the presidents have slipped in historical prestige in the public's mind. Schwartz said that the reason is what he calls the "acids of equality": as the culture of the United States became more diverse and multicultural, it suffered a "deterioration and coarsening of traditional symbols and practices."Lincoln sites remain popular tourist attractions, but crowds have thinned. In the late 1960s, 650,000 people a year visited the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, slipping to 393,000 in 2000–2003. Visits to Lincoln's New Salem fell by half because of the enormous draw of the new museum in Springfield. Visits to the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. have since declined. However crowds at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D. C. have grown sharply. The oldest continuously-operating association in the United States honoring Lincoln is the Lincoln Association of Jersey City in Jersey City, New Jersey, formed in 1865 shortly after Lincoln's assassination.
The association has held a banquet in Jersey City every year on Lincoln's birthday, February 12. The association has been addressed by a number of people of national importance, including political figures, military veterans and civil rights leaders; the association celebrated its 150th anniversary on February 12, 2015, which included the laying of a wreath at the entrance to Jersey City's Lincoln Park. The association's annual dinner featured speaker Todd Brewster, author of Lincoln's Gamble, about the struggle to create the Emancipation Proclamation; the memorials include the name of the capital of Nebraska. The first public monument to Abraham Lincoln, after his death, was a statue erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after his assassination; the first national memorial to Abraham Lincoln was the historic Lincoln Highway, the first road for the automobile across the United States of America, dedicated in 1913, predating the 1921 dedication of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.
C. by nine years. Lincoln's name and image appear in numerous other places, such as the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. and Lincoln's sculpture on Mount Rushmore, Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park in Hodgenville, Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial in Lincoln City, Lincoln's New Salem and Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois commemorate the president. The Lincoln Memorial at Louisville Waterfront Park features a double-life-size sculpture of a seated, hatless Lincoln surrounded by narrative bas relief sculptures by Edward Hamilton which depict the history of slavery as witnessed by Lincoln in the slave markets of Kentucky. Ford's Theatre and Petersen House are maintained as museums, as is the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, located in Springfield; the Lincoln Tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, contains his remains and those of his wife Mary and three of his four sons, Edward and Thomas. Springfield's airport is named for the Abraham Lincoln Capital Airport.
There was the Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln exhibit in Disneyland, the Hall of Presidents exhibit at Walt Disney World, based on Walt Disney admiring Lincoln since he was a little boy. On the night of November 7, 1876, a group of counterfeiters entered Lincoln's tomb with the intent of absconding with his mortal remains and holding them for ransom in order to secure the release of their leader, Benjamin Boyd, an imprisoned engraver of counterfeit currency plates; the group entered his tomb, but had only succeeded in dislodging its marble lid before a US Secret Service agent who had infiltrated their number alerted law enforcement authorities. Although several escaped, most served a one-year prison term. For much of the next decade, Lincoln's tomb was mobile. Stone Mountain Park, Georgia, a Confederate memorial, opened 100 years to the day after Lincoln's assassination. On August 16, 2017, a bust of Abraham Lincoln in a park in West Englewood, Chicago was spray-painted black and covered in tar and set on fire.
Within a year of this death, Lincoln's image began to be disseminated throughout the world on stamps. Pictured on many United States postage stamps, Lincoln is the only U. S. President to appear on a U. S. airmail stamp. Lincoln was one of five people to be depicted on United States paper currency during their lifetime (along with Salmon P. Chase, Francis E. Sp
Abraham Lincoln and slavery
Abraham Lincoln's position on slavery is one of the most discussed aspects of his life. Lincoln expressed moral opposition to slavery in public and private, he attempted to bring about the eventual extinction of slavery by stopping its further expansion into any U. S. by proposing compensated emancipation in the early part of his presidency. Lincoln stood by the Republican Party's platform of 1860 stating that slavery should not be allowed to expand into any more U. S. territories. He worried that the extension of slavery in new western lands could block "free labor on free soil."As early as the 1850s, Lincoln had been politically attacked as an abolitionist. Howard Jones says that "in the prewar period, as well as into the first months of the American Civil War itself.... Lincoln believed it prudent to administer a slow death to slavery through gradual emancipation and voluntary colonization rather than to follow the abolitionist and demanding an immediate end to slavery without compensation to owners."
In 1863, Lincoln ordered the freedom of all slaves in the areas "in rebellion" and insisted on enforcement freeing millions of slaves, but he did not call for the immediate end of slavery everywhere in the U. S. until the proposed 13th Amendment became part of his party platform for the 1864 election. In 1842, Abraham Lincoln had married Mary Todd, a daughter of a slave-owning family from Kentucky. Lincoln returned to the political stage as a result of the 1854 Kansas–Nebraska Act and soon became a leading opponent of the "Slaveocracy"—the political power of the Southern slave owners; the Kansas–Nebraska Act, written to form the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, included language, designed by Stephen A. Douglas, which allowed the settlers to decide whether they would or would not accept slavery in their region. Lincoln was outraged by the repeal of the 1820 Missouri Compromise, which had outlawed slavery above the 36-30' parallel. During the Civil War, Lincoln used the war powers of the presidency to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, in January 1863..
It declared "all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United States, shall be thenceforward, forever free" but exempted border states and those areas of slave states not in rebellion and therefore beyond the reach of the constitutional war power to emancipate. It changed the legal status of all slaves in the affected areas, as soon as the Union Army arrived, it did liberate the slaves in that area. On the first day, it affected tens of thousands of slaves, but when the war ended, in April 1865, only about fifteen percent of the slaves had been freed. Full abolition was achieved that year, with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery everywhere in the United States. Lincoln was born on February 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky, his family attended a Separate Baptists church, which had strict moral standards and opposed alcohol and slavery. The family moved north across the Ohio River to free territory and made a new start in Perry County.
Lincoln noted that this move was "partly on account of slavery" but due to land title difficulties. As a young man, he settled in the free state of Illinois. Lincoln, the leader most associated with the end of slavery in the United States, came to national prominence in the 1850s, following the advent of the Republican Party, whose official position was that freedom was "national," the natural condition of all areas under the direct sovereignty of the Constitution, whereas slavery was exceptional and sectional. Earlier, as a member of the Whig Party in the Illinois General Assembly, Lincoln issued a written protest of the assembly's passage of a resolution stating that slavery should not be abolished in Washington, D. C. In 1841, he won a court case, representing a black woman and her children who claimed she had been freed and could not be sold as a slave. In 1845, he defended Marvin Pond for harboring the fugitive slave John Hauley. In 1847, he lost a case representing a slave owner claiming return of fugitive slaves.
While a congressman from Illinois in 1846 to 1848, Lincoln supported the Wilmot Proviso, which, if it had been adopted, would have banned slavery in any U. S. territory won from Mexico. Lincoln, in collaboration with abolitionist Congressman Joshua R. Giddings, wrote a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for the owners, enforcement to capture fugitive slaves, a popular vote on the matter. After leaving Congress in 1849 Lincoln became somewhat less active in politics until he was drawn back into it by the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed territories to decide for themselves whether they would allow slavery. Lincoln was politically opposed to any expansion of it. At issue was extension into the western territories. On October 16, 1854, in his "Peoria Speech", Lincoln declared his opposition to slavery, which he repeated in his route to presidency. Speaking in his Kentucky accent, with a powerful voice, he said the Kansas Act had a "declared indifference, but as I must think, a covert real zeal for the spread of slavery.
I hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world..."Impressed by the strength of anti-black racism in his
Lincoln's New Salem
Lincoln's New Salem State Historic Site is a reconstruction of the former village of New Salem in Menard County, where Abraham Lincoln lived from 1831 to 1837. While in his twenties, the future U. S. President made his living in this village as a boatman, soldier in the Black Hawk War, general store owner, postmaster and rail splitter, was first elected to the Illinois General Assembly. Lincoln left New Salem for Springfield in 1837, the village was abandoned by about 1840, as other towns developed. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps built a historic recreation of New Salem based on its original foundations, establishing a state park commemorating Lincoln and Illinois' frontier history; the village is located 15 mi northwest of Springfield, 3 mi south of Petersburg. New Salem was founded in 1829, when James Rutledge and John Camron built a gristmill on the Sangamon River, they surveyed and sold village lots for commercial business and homes on the ridge stretching to the west above the mill.
Over the first few years of its existence, the town grew but after the county seat was located in nearby Petersburg, the village began to shrink and by 1840, it was abandoned. The fact that the Sangamon River was not well-suited for steamboat travel was a reason for the town's decline. In 1831, when Abraham Lincoln's father, relocated the family to a new homestead in Macon County, Illinois, 22-year-old Lincoln struck out on his own. Lincoln arrived in New Salem by way of flatboat and he remained in the village for about six years. During his stay, Lincoln earned a living as a shopkeeper, soldier in the Black Hawk War, general store owner, land surveyor, rail splitter, as well as doing odd jobs around the village; as far as historians know, Lincoln never owned a home in the village as most single men did not own homes at this time. He ran for the Illinois General Assembly in 1832, handily winning his New Salem precinct but losing the countywide district election, he won. Lincoln left New Salem and moved to Springfield in his election district, around 1837.
When Lincoln lived in New Salem, the village was home to a cooper shop, blacksmith shop, wool carding mill, four general stores, a tavern, a grocery, two doctors' offices, a shoemaker, a carpenter, a hat maker, a tanner, a schoolhouse/church, several residences, common pastures, kitchen gardens. During its short existence, the village was home to anywhere from 20 to 25 families at a time. New Salem was not a small farm village, but instead a commercial village full of young businessmen and craftsmen trying to start a new life on the frontier. In 1906, William Randolph Hearst purchased the village land and deeded it to the Old Salem Chautauqua Association. In 1919, the land was gifted to the State of Illinois; the current village site was open to the public on May 19, 1921 and rebuilt on the foundations of the original village by the Civilian Conservation Corps, during the Great Depression. The location is presently called Lincoln's New Salem State Historic Site, featuring 23 buildings log houses and costumed interpreters, representing the era of Lincoln's residency.
The cabins and businesses are furnished by period implements and furniture, with many acquired from area farms and homes. In addition to the village, the 700 acres park includes extensive woodlands. Twenty-two of the village buildings are reconstructed. In 1922, it was returned to New Salem. In addition to archeological investigations, much of the town was recreated based on period documents and the recollections and drawings of former residents interviewed in the late 19th century. In the summer of 1961, after a period of design and fabrication, a 73-foot, 40-ton, upper-cabin sternwheel steamboat made its way from Dubuque, Iowa to New Salem by way of the Mississippi River, Illinois River, the Sangamon River; the steamer, christened the Talisman, was a scaled-down recreation of the original boat that ventured from Cincinnati, down the Ohio River, up the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, into central Illinois on the Sangamon under the charter of Springfield businessman Vincent Bogue in 1832. The original Talisman was a 136-foot, 150-ton steamer, may or may not have been a sidewheel boat.
Lincoln helped clear obstructions from the riverbanks on the Talisman's trip upriver, co-piloted the steamer with Rowan Herndon back to Beardstown. The recreation boat was given a landing next to the Rutledge Camron Saw and Grist Mill site on the riverbank, tourists had the opportunity to take short excursions on the river. Just like the original Talisman, the recreated steamer was plagued by low water levels on the river which diminished in the years following its arrival at New Salem, which made navigation difficult to impossible; the boat was grounded in the late 1990s a few miles upriver from the historical site, now serves as a large lawn decoration about a hundred feet from the riverbank. Lincoln's New Salem was visited by 600,000 people in 2006, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, under the name, Lincoln's New Salem Village. The historic site includes a visitor's center with an theater. Active recreational infrastructure centers on the Mentor Graham Trail, 0.75 mi long, the Volksmarch Trail, 6 mi long.
The state park contains 200 campsites, including 100 e