South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Government of California
The government of California is the governmental structure of the state of California as established by the California Constitution. It is composed of three branches: the executive, consisting of the Governor of California and the other constitutionally elected and appointed officers and offices. There is local government, consisting of counties, special districts, school districts, as well as government entities and offices that operate independently on a constitutional, statutory, or common law basis; the state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum and ratification. California's elected executive officers are: All offices are elected separately to concurrent four-year terms, each officer may be elected to an office a maximum of two times; the Governor has the powers and responsibilities to: sign or veto laws passed by the Legislature, including a line item veto. The Lieutenant Governor is the President of the California Senate and acts as the governor when the Governor is unable to execute the office, including whenever the Governor leaves the state.
The Governor and Lieutenant Governor serve as ex officio members of the University of California Board of Regents and of the California State University Board of Trustees. Regulatory activity is published in the California Regulatory Notice Register and the general and permanent rules and regulations are codified in the California Code of Regulations. State government is organized into many departments, of which most have been grouped together into several huge Cabinet-level agencies since the administration of Governor Pat Brown; these agencies are sometimes informally referred to as superagencies by government officials, to distinguish them from the general usage of the term "government agency." The Cabinet-level agencies are the: California Business, Consumer Services and Housing Agency California Government Operations Agency California Environmental Protection Agency California Health and Human Services Agency California Labor and Workforce Development Agency California Natural Resources Agency California State Transportation Agency The independently elected officers run separate departments not grouped within the superagencies, there are other Cabinet-level departments: Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation Department of Education Department of Finance Department of Food and Agriculture Department of Insurance Department of Justice Department of the Military There are several state government entities and offices that are supposed to be independent of direct control by the executive and judicial branches of the state government, as well as any local government.
Most of the leaders of these entities are appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the state Senate. Examples include the: Regents of the University of California California State University Board of Trustees California Community Colleges Board of Governors California Public Utilities Commission California State Auditor Fair Political Practices Commission The California State Legislature is the state legislature, it is a bicameral body consisting of the California State Assembly, the lower house with 80 members, the California State Senate, the upper house with 40 members. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms; the Speaker of the California State Assembly presides over the State Assembly. The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate and may break a tied vote, the President pro tempore of the California State Senate is elected by the majority party caucus; the Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Its session laws are codified into the 29 California Codes.
The state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative and recall. The Judiciary of California interprets and applies the law, is defined under the Constitution and regulations; the judiciary has a hierarchical structure with the Supreme Court at the apex. The Superior Courts are the primary trial courts, the Courts of Appeal are the primary appellate courts; the Judicial Council is the rule-making arm of the judiciary. The California Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of six Associate Justices; the Court has original jurisdiction in a variety of cases, including habeas corpus proceedings, has discretionary authority to review all the decisions of the California Courts of Appeal, as well as mandatory review responsibility for cases where the death penalty has been imposed. The Courts of Appeal are the intermediate appellate courts; the state is geographically divided into six appellate districts. Notably, all published California appellate decisions are binding on all Superior Courts, regardless of appellate district.
The California superior courts are the courts of general jurisdiction that hear and decide any civil or criminal action, not specially designated to be heard before some other court or governmental agency. As mandated by the Constitution, each of the 58 counties has a superior court; the superior courts have appellate divisions (superior
Demographics of California
California is the most populated U. S. state, with an estimated population of 39.497 million as of 2017. It has people from a wide variety of ethnic, racial and religious backgrounds. California is the most populated sub-national entity in North America. If it were an independent country, California would rank 34th in population in the world, it has a larger population than either Australia. Its population is one third larger than that of Texas. California surpassed New York to become the most populous state in 1962. However, according to the Los Angeles Times, California's population growth has slowed in the 21st century. In 2010, the state's five most populous counties were Los Angeles County, San Diego County, Orange County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County, with Riverside County having the largest percentage increase in population; the largest metro areas in California, as of 2010, are Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, San Diego, Riverside-San Bernardino, Sacramento. From 2006 until 2016, the state lost a net population of about 1 million people from domestic emigration.
As of 2006, California had an estimated population of 37,172,015, more than 12 percent of the U. S. population. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 1,557,112 people and an increase due to net migration of 751,419 people. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 1,415,879 people, migration from within the U. S. resulted in a net decrease of 564,100 people. California is the 13th fastest-growing state; as of 2008, the total fertility rate was 2.15. The most recent census reports the population of California as 39,144,818; the center of population of California is located at 35.463595°N 119.325359°W / 35.463595. No single ethnic group forms a majority of California's population, making the state a minority-majority state. Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in the state. Spanish is the state's second most spoken language. Areas with large Spanish speaking populations include the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the California-Mexico border counties of San Diego and Imperial, the San Joaquin Valley.
Nearly 43% of Californian residents speak a language other than English at home, a proportion far higher than any other state. California is home to 25% of the country's undocumented population, making up 6% of California's residents overall. Two-thirds of California's undocumented population have lived in the state for more than 10 years. About 26% of California's public school students in the 2011–12 school year identified themselves as white, 52% of the state's students identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino; the following ethnic groups that made up the statewide public school student body were Asians, African Americans, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders. Students of mixed race made up about 2% of the public schools. Hispanics made up the majority of the state's public schools since 2010. Los Angeles Unified School District, the largest school district in California and second largest in the nation, is 73% Hispanic, 10% African American, 9% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 6% Asian, 0.5% Native American, 0.4% Pacific Islander.
In 2011, there was an estimated 2.6 million undocumented immigrants residing in California. According to 2015 US Census Bureau estimates, California's population was 72.9% White, 14.7% Asian, 6.5% Black or African American, 1.7% Native Americans, 0.5% Pacific Islander and 3.8% from two or more races. By ethnicity, 38.8 % of the total population is 61.4 % Non-Hispanic. Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in California. In 2015, California had the largest ethnic/racial minority population in the United States. Non-Hispanic whites decreased from about 76.3 - 78% of the state's population in 1970 to 38.0% in 2015. While the population of minorities accounts for 100.7 million of 300 million U. S. residents, 20% of the national total live in California. California has the highest number, second highest percentage, of Asian Americans by state. Only Hawaii has a higher Asian American percentage than California. While New Mexico and Texas have higher percentages of Hispanics, California has the highest total number of Hispanics of any U.
S. state. Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in the state; the largest named ancestries in California are Mexican, Irish and Italian. Both Los Angeles and San Francisco have large numbers of residents with English, Italian, German and Scandinavian ancestry. California has the largest population of White Americans in the U. S. totaling 21,453,934 residents as of the 2010 census. The state has the fifth largest population of African Americans in the U. S. an estimated 2,299,072 residents. California's Asian population is estimated at 4.9 million one-third of the nation's estimated 15 million Asian Americans. California's Native American population of 285,512 is the third-largest of any state, behind Arizona and Oklahoma. Other estimates place the Native American population of California at one million. Since the 2000 U. S. Census, California has been known as the second state in US history to have a non-white majority, since 2014, the first state to have a Latino plurality surpass other racial/ethnic groups.
The media dis
California State Capitol
The California State Capitol is home to the government of the U. S. state of California. The building houses the office of the governor; the grounds of the capitol form the Capitol Park. Located in Sacramento, the Neoclassical structure was completed between 1861 and 1874 at the west end of Capitol Park, framed by L Street to the north, N Street to the south, 10th Street to the west, 15th Street to the east; the Capitol and grounds were listed on the office of the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, listed as a California Historical Landmark in 1974, with a re-dedication on January 9, 1982 to commemorate the close of the bicentennial restoration project. The building had undergone a major renovation, known as the California State Capitol Restoration, from 1975 until 1982 to restore the Capitol to its former beauty and to retrofit the structure for earthquake safety. Although not considered earthquake country, Sacramento was hit by two earthquakes within days of each other in 1892 which damaged the Capitol.
The building is based on the U. S. Capitol building in Washington, D. C; the west facade ends in projecting bays, a portico projects from the center of the building. At the base of the portico, seven granite archways support the porch above. Eight fluted Corinthian columns line the portico. A cornice supports the pediment above depicting Minerva surrounded by Education, Justice and Mining. Above the flat roof with balustrade are two drums supporting a dome; the first drum consists of a colonnade of Corinthian columns. Large arched windows line the drum walls; the dome is 64 m high, supports a lantern with a smaller dome capped with a gold-leafed orbed finial. The California Senate chamber seats its forty members in a large chamber room decorated in red, a reference to the British House of Lords the upper house of a bicameral legislature; the chamber is entered through a second floor corridor. From the coffered ceiling hangs an electric reproduction of the original gas chandelier. A hand-carved dais caps off a recessed bay framed by Corinthian columns.
The Latin phrase "Senatoris est civitatis libertatem tueri" lines the cornice. A portrait of George Washington by Jane Stuart, the daughter of Gilbert Stuart, is on the wall above; the State Seal hangs above. Statues of the Roman goddess Minerva once overlooked both chambers. Today, sculpted by Michael H. Casey, appears only in the senate chambers. Gilded Corinthian columns support the gallery above, dark red curtains that can be drawn for privacy are tied back along the columns. High arched windows run along the bottom below rectangular pane windows. Behind the rostrum, there are two chairs with red velvet cushions, reserved for the president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the assembly, but are never used; the California Assembly chamber is located at the opposite end of the building. Its green tones are based on those of the British House of the lower house; the dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with the central projection housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a quotation from Abraham Lincoln in Latin: legislatorum est justas leges condere.
Every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber. The capitol's grounds are known as Capitol Park, an area of 10 undivided city blocks running from 10th to 16th and from L to N Streets; the entire Capitol Park area is included in the National Register historic district listing. The park is managed by the California State Capitol Museum. California State Capitol History of Sacramento, California National Register of Historic Places listings in Sacramento County, California California Historical Landmarks in Sacramento County, California List of state and territorial capitols in the United States California State Capitol Museum
Cuisine of California
The cuisine of California is the local cuisine of the U. S. state of California. It is noted for its emphasis on fresh and health-conscious dishes, taking advantage of available produce and seafood. In addition, California's local cuisine incorporates elements of Latino, Spanish and Oceanian food traditions, sometimes combined as fusion cuisine. A varied range of micro-climates, dominated by a mild Mediterranean climate, health-conscious diets and lifestyles in California, promote the production and consumption of fresh fruits and meats, many of them organic. In Northern California, with wine country nearby, French and Mediterranean inspired food is prominent, as well as Asian-inspired fare. Many of the restaurants, cafes and grills use ingredients sourced from local growers and farmers' markets; the California coast the North Coast and Central Coast regions, is a source of seafood, a staple in the California diet. Battered and fried foods are not as common in California as they are in other regions, but there are several exceptions, such as fish tacos and french fries.
The agricultural diversity of California's Central Valley provides fresh produce in the state. On less than 1 percent of the total farmland in the US, the Central Valley produces 8 percent of the nation's agricultural output by value. Sunset, a magazine of the West published in California, has featured recipes that have influenced the cuisine of California, including the promotion of outdoor eating. Southern California's car culture and the population's reliance on automobiles for transportation throughout California's vast cities, has contributed to the popularity of the classic drive-in and modern drive-thru restaurants. Restaurant chains such as McDonald's, Jack in the Box, In-N-Out Burger, Carl's Jr. Wienerschnitzel, Del Taco, Taco Bell, Panda Express, Original Tommy's, Big Boy were all established in Southern California. Regional fast food menus differ depending on the ethnic composition of an area. In Southern California, smaller chains like The Hat feature hamburgers, Mexican food, chili fries, pastrami.
While gastropubs are not unique to California, the concept of the gourmet burger is popular. Because of California's colonial European Spanish roots, Mexican territorial history, its original population consisting of Meso-Americans, Spanish colonizers and Mexican ranchers and Spanish-origin cuisine is influential and popular in California Southern California. Commercial taquería-style Mexican fast food, consisting of offerings such as burritos, refried beans, tacos, quesadillas is popular. Taquerías can be found throughout California. Traditional Mexican food, while not as common as commercial food, is still prepared and abundant in the ethnic Mexican American border communities of San Diego, the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, in Mexican-American enclaves throughout California. Examples of these foods include tamales, tostadas, menudo, sopes, chile relleno and enchiladas. In addition to Mexican food, California restaurants serve up nearly every variation of Central American food there is.
For example, pupuserías are common in areas with a large population of Salvadorans. More "Fresh Mex" or "Baja-style" Mexican food, which places an emphasis on fresh ingredients and sometimes seafood, inspired by Baja California fare, is popular. El Pollo Loco, a fast food chain that originated in Northern Mexico, is a common sight. Rubio's Fresh Mexican Grill, Baja Fresh, Wahoo's Fish Taco, Chronic Tacos, Qdoba and La Salsa are examples of the Baja-style Mexican American food trend. In Northern California and the Central Coastal region, Dungeness crab is abundant. Sardines and Salmon were major industries, before declines in fish stocks.. Cioppino is a classic example of Northern Californian cuisine; as one of the U. S. states nearest Asia and Oceania, with long-standing Asian American and Oceanian American populations, the state tends to adopt foods from those national styles. The American sushi craze undoubtedly began in California; these days, items like mochi ice boba are popular. Fusion cuisine is quite popular in California.
The emphasis of California Cuisine is on the use of fresh, local ingredients which are acquired daily at farmers markets. Menus are changed to accommodate the availability of ingredients in season; some restaurants create a new menu daily. California chef Wolfgang Puck is known as one of the pioneers of fusion cuisine, popularizing such dishes as Chinese chicken salad at the restaurant Ma Maison in Los Angeles, his restaurant "Chinois" in Santa Monica was named after the term attributed to Richard Wing, who in the 1960s combined French and Chinese cooking at the former Imperial Dynasty restaurant in Hanford, California. California-style pizza focuses on non-traditional pizza ingredients, such as fresh produce and barbecued meats. First popularized by Wolfgang Puck's Spago restaurants, it was brought to the masses by restaurants such as California Pizza Kitchen. Barbecue has been a part of California cuisine since the Mexicans cooked beef in pit barbecues on ranches in the 1840s. Santa Maria is famous for the tri-tip, a special kind of beef cut that can be grilled, braised, or roasted.
California's barbecue style is influenced by the regional Southwestern American styles of Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma, brought on by thousands of Dust-Bowl migrants. Chicken, beef ribs and steaks are routinely gr
Sports in California
California has 19 major professional sports franchises, far more than any other US state. The San Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams spread amongst three cities: San Francisco and San Jose; the Greater Los Angeles Area has ten major league teams. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. Major League Baseball Los Angeles Angels – based in Anaheim Los Angeles Dodgers Oakland Athletics San Diego Padres San Francisco Giants National Basketball Association Golden State Warriors – based in Oakland Los Angeles Clippers Los Angeles Lakers Sacramento Kings National Football League Los Angeles Chargers – plays in Carson, headquarters in Costa Mesa Los Angeles Rams – headquarters in Agoura Hills Oakland Raiders – will leave the state for Las Vegas, most in 2020 San Francisco 49ers – plays in Santa Clara, they are nationally ranked in the various sports and dominate media coverage of college sports in the state. In addition, those Universities boast the highest academic standards of all major college programs.
All 4 schools are ranked, academically, in the top 30 nationally with Cal ranked as the #1 public university in the country and Stanford is the highest academically ranked Division 1A university in the country. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, as well as the National Funding Holiday Bowl and Foster Farms Bowl. A second San Diego game, the San Diego County Credit Union Poinsettia Bowl, was discontinued after the 2016 season. California has produced the most Heisman Trophy winners. Fourteen winners were both played high school football in the Golden State. Seven played collegiately at USC and one each at UCLA, Army, Colorado, Notre Dame, Miami. 1946 Glenn Davis from Bonita High School in La Verne 1964 John Huarte from Mater Dei High School in Santa Ana 1965 Mike Garrett from Roosevelt High School in Los Angeles 1967 Gary Beban from Sequoia High School in Redwood City 1968 O. J. Simpson from Galileo High School in San Francisco 1970 Jim Plunkett from William C.
Overfelt High School James Lick High School, in East San Jose 1979 Charles White from San Fernando High School in San Fernando 1981 Marcus Allen from Abraham Lincoln High School in San Diego 1992 Gino Torretta from Pinole Valley High School in Pinole 1994 Rashaan Salaam from La Jolla Country Day School in La Jolla 1998 Ricky Williams from Patrick Henry High School in San Diego 2002 Carson Palmer from Santa Margarita Catholic High School in Rancho Santa Margarita 2004 Matt Leinart from Mater Dei High School in Santa Ana 2005 Reggie Bush from Helix High School in La Mesa The following California universities are members of NCAA Division I, or have announced plans to upgrade from Division II to Division I: California has hosted the Olympic Games three times. Los Angeles, the largest city in the state, hosted both 1984 Summer Olympics. Squaw Valley, California hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles and San Francisco were in the race for the United States Olympic Committee nomination to host the 2016 Summer Olympics, but lost to Chicago.
Los Angeles will host the Olympic Games for a third time in 2028. Besides the Olympics, California has hosted several major international soccer events: Two of the venues for the 1994 FIFA World Cup were in the state—Stanford Stadium at Stanford University, with San Francisco serving as the official host city, the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, with Los Angeles as the host city; the Rose Bowl hosted the final, won by Brazil in a penalty shootout with Italy. Both stadiums were used for the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, along with Spartan Stadium in San Jose; the Rose Bowl again hosted the final, in which a crowd of over 90,000—the largest to witness a women's sporting event to this day—saw the USA defeat China in another penalty shootout, capped off by Brandi Chastain's famous shirt-stripping moment. The 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup used The Home Depot Center in Carson, it hosted the final of that competition, won by Germany over Sweden. The Rose Bowl and Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara hosted matches in the Copa América Centenario, which celebrated the 100th anniversary of South America's international competition and was hosted by the U.
S. in 2016. Most city municipals house a variety of sports activities; the available sports are listed on their city websites. Additionally, there are a variety of California Sports activities listed on FindSportsNow's California database. California has long been a hub for motorsports and auto racing; the city of Long Beach holds an event every year in the month of April, host to IndyCar Series racing through the streets of downtown. Long Beach has hosted Formula One events there in the past, currently hosts an event on the United SportsCar Championship schedule. Auto Club Speedway is a speedway in Fontana and h
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the