It includes the work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to healthcare varies across countries and individuals, largely influenced by social and jurisdictions have different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies. Healthcare systems are organizations established to meet the needs of target populations. Their exact configuration varies between national and subnational entities, in some countries and jurisdictions, healthcare planning is distributed among market participants, whereas in others, planning occurs more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies. Healthcare can contribute to a significant part of a countrys economy. In 2011, the healthcare industry consumed an average of 9.3 percent of the GDP or US$3,322 per capita across the 34 members of OECD countries.1 years, a gain of 10 years since 1970. The USA ranges only on place 26 among the 34 OECD member countries, all OECD countries have achieved universal health coverage, except Mexico and the USA.
Healthcare is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health, an example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be completely eliminated by deliberate health care interventions. The delivery of health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. Healthcare can be defined as public or private. Primary care refers to the work of professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system. Depending on the nature of the condition, patients may be referred for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is used as the term for the health care services which play a role in the local community. It can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centres which provide services to patients same day with appointment or walk-in bases, consequently, a primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas.
The International Classification of Primary Care is a tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care by the reason for the patient visit. Common chronic illnesses usually treated in primary care may include, for example, diabetes, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, Primary care includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. Physicians in this model bill patients directly for services, either on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado, the World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy
Maine is the northernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 39th most extensive and the 41st most populous of the U. S. states and territories and it is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the north. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and it is known for its jagged, rocky coastline, rolling mountains, heavily forested interior, and picturesque waterways, and its seafood cuisine, especially clams and lobster. There is a continental climate throughout the state, even in areas such as its most populous city of Portland. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607, as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived.
Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maines territory during the American Revolution, Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become an independent state. On March 15,1820, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state under the Missouri Compromise, there is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name Maine, but the most likely origin is the name given by early explorers after a province in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English Kings Commissioners ordered that the Province of Maine be entered from on in official records. The state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivans 1795 History of the District of Maine. He made the allegation that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria.
MAINE appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, the view generally held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh maen, plural main or meini. Some early spellings are, MAINE1086, MEINE1200, MEINES1204, mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. Initially, several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine, Maine is the only state whose name has exactly one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Abenaki, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot, who had a loose confederacy. European contact with what is now called Maine started around 1200 CE when Norwegians interacted with the native Penobscot in present-day Hancock County, most likely through trade
Ronald Vernie Ron Dellums served as Oaklands forty-eighth mayor. Dellums was born into a family of labor organizers, and enlisted in the United States Marine Corps before serving on the Berkeley, Dellums was the first African American elected to Congress from Northern California and the first openly socialist successful non-incumbent Congressional candidate since World War II. His politics earned him a place on President Nixons enemies list, during his career in Congress, he fought the MX Missile project and opposed expansion of the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber program. Dellums was born in Oakland, California, to Verney and Willa Dellums and his uncle, C. L. Dellums, was one of the organizers and leaders of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He has a younger sister Theresa and his mother Willa died on August 17,2008, at the age of 89. Dellums attended Oakland Technical High School and McClymonds High School and he served in the United States Marine Corps from 1954 to 1956. Dellums received his A. A.
degree from the Oakland City College in 1958, his B. A. from San Francisco State University in 1960 and he became a psychiatric social worker and political activist in the African American community beginning in the 1960s. He taught at the San Francisco State University and the University of California, Dellums is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. Dellums has been married three times and he married his second wife, attorney Leola Roscoe Higgs, in 1961. He married his wife, Cynthia Lewis, in 2000. Dellums has eight children and stepchildren, One son, was convicted of a drug-related homicide in 1979, and remains in prison, being repeatedly denied parole due to bad behaviour. Dellums has been in politics for over forty years and he has held positions on the Berkeley City Council, in the US House of Representatives, and was the mayor of Oakland from 2007 to 2011. Dellums was elected to the Berkeley City Council, after prompting from Maudelle Shirek, Dellums defeated Cohelan in the Democratic primary and won the general election, serving without interruption for 27 years.
In 1972, Dellums was reelected to Congress,60 to 38 percent over his Republican opponent, Peter D. Hannaford and his politics earned him a place on the so-called Nixons Enemies List, where his notation stated Dellums had extensive EMK-Tunney support in his election bid. In January,1971, just weeks into his first term, Dellums set up an exhibit of Vietnam war crimes in an annex to his Congressional office, the exhibit featured four large posters depicting atrocities committed by American soldiers, embellished with red paint. The My Lai massacre was followed thereafter by a series of hearings on war crimes in Vietnam. Dellums had called for investigations into the allegations, but Congress chose not to endorse the proceedings. As such, the hearings were ad hoc and only informational in nature, as a condition of room use and camera presence were not permitted, the proceedings were transcribed
Massachusetts health care reform
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts passed a health care reform law in 2006 with the aim of providing health insurance to nearly all of its residents. The law was amended significantly in 2008 and twice in 2010 to make it consistent with the federal Affordable Care Act, major revisions related to health care industry price controls were passed in August 2012, and the employer mandate was repealed in 2013 in favor of the federal mandate. Among its many effects, the law established an independent public authority, the Connector acts as an insurance broker to offer free, highly subsidized and full-price private insurance plans to residents, including through its web site. As such it is one of the models of the Affordable Care Acts health insurance exchanges, relatively few Massachusetts residents used the Connector to buy full-priced insurance. In October 2006, January 2007, and November 2007, bills were enacted that amended, unless the waiver was extended or amended, a large number of people would lose Medicaid coverage as the state reverted to Federal regulations.
Reforms made in 1997 to the portion of the market that related to the individual purchase of insurance had failed. In 2000, over 100,000 Massachusetts residents were covered by individually purchased insurance, there was a widespread feeling that emergency rooms were misused for non-emergency medical care. Almost all people who did not have insurance could not afford it, Advocacy groups wanted a long list of non-traditionally covered or under-covered healthcare procedures and goods mandated. However, the drop in take-up rate actually accelerated after passage of the law there is no demonstrable relationship between the laws passage and the accelerated drop. Allegedly because of their lack of insurance, uninsured Massachusetts residents commonly utilize emergency rooms as a source of primary care. The United States Congress passed the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act in 1986, EMTALA requires hospitals and ambulance services to provide care to anyone needing emergency treatment regardless of citizenship, legal status or ability to pay. EMTALA applies to all hospitals in the U. S. EMTALA is therefore considered a safety net program for patients seeking care at the nations emergency rooms.
As a result of the 1986 EMTALA legislation, hospitals across the country faced unpaid bills, a much larger portion of the pool was used for non-ED hospital care for the uninsured and for other care at Community Health Centers. It was predicted that implementation of the 2006 Massachusetts healthcare insurance reform law would result in almost complete elimination of the need for this fund, in November 2004, political leaders began advocating major reforms of the Massachusetts health care insurance system to expand coverage. First, the Senate President Robert Travaglini called for a plan to reduce the number of uninsured by half, a few days later, Governor Romney announced that he would propose a plan to cover virtually all the uninsured. The Blue Cross Blue Shield Foundation sponsored a study, Roadmap to Coverage, at the forum, the Foundation issued a series of reports on reform options, all of which included an individual mandate. At the end of the month, the Joint Committee on Health Care Financing approved a proposal crafted by House Speaker DiMasi, Committee co-chair Patricia Walrath
Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s.
Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated.
Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an island
Willie Brown (politician)
Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. is an American politician of the Democratic Party. He served over 30 years in the California State Assembly, spending 15 years as its speaker, and served as the 41st mayor of San Francisco, the first African American to do so. Under the current California term-limits law, no Speaker of the California State Assembly will be permitted to have a longer tenure than Browns, the San Francisco Chronicle called Brown one of San Franciscos most notable mayors who had celebrity beyond the citys boundaries. Brown was born in Mineola and graduated from Mineola Colored High School in 1951 and he moved to San Francisco in 1951, attending San Francisco State University and graduating in 1955 with a degree in liberal studies. Brown earned a J. D. from University of California and he spent several years in private practice before gaining election in his second attempt to the California Assembly in 1964. Brown became the Democrats whip in 1969 and speaker in 1980 and he was known for his ability to manage people and maintain party discipline.
According to The New York Times, Brown became one of the countrys most powerful state legislators and his long tenure and powerful position were used as a focal point of Californias initiative campaign to limit the terms of state legislators, which passed in 1990. During the last of his three allowed post-initiative terms, Brown maintained control of the Assembly despite a slim Republican majority by gaining the vote of several Republicans, near the end of his final term, Brown left the legislature to become mayor of San Francisco. Brown served as San Francisco mayor from January 8,1996 until January 8,2004 and his tenure as mayor is marked by a significant increase in real estate development, public works, city beautification, and other large-scale city projects. He presided over the era at a time when San Franciscos economy was rapidly expanding. Brown presided over the city’s most diverse administration with more Asian Americans, Latinos, gays and he increased San Franciscos funding of Muni by tens of millions of dollars and ended the citys policy of punishing people for feeding the homeless.
The SF Board of Supervisors opposed Browns agenda and some of his initiatives, in particular office, Brown was restricted by term limits from running for mayor and was succeeded by a political protege, Gavin Newsom. Brown was born in Mineola, a segregated town in east Texas marked by racial tensions, to Minnie Collins Boyd. Brown was the fourth of five children, during Browns childhood, mob violence periodically erupted in Mineola, keeping African Americans from voting. His first job was as a boy in a whites-only barber shop. He worked as a janitor, fry cook, and field hand and he learned his work ethic at a young age from his grandmother. He graduated from MacFarland High School, a school he described as substandard. Brown originally wanted to attend Stanford University and his interviewer from Stanford taught at San Francisco State and was surprised by Brown’s ambition
Medicaid in the United States is a social health care program for families and individuals with limited resources. The Health Insurance Association of America describes Medicaid as a government insurance program for persons of all ages whose income, Medicaid is the largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with low income in the United States. States are not required to participate in the program, although all have since 1982, Medicaid recipients must be U. S. citizens or legal permanent residents, and may include low-income adults, their children, and people with certain disabilities. Poverty alone does not necessarily qualify someone for Medicaid, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act significantly expanded both eligibility for and federal funding of Medicaid. Under managed care, Medicaid recipients are enrolled in a health plan. The health plan is responsible for providing for all or most of the healthcare needs. Today, all but a few states use managed care to provide coverage to a significant proportion of Medicaid enrollees, as of 2014,26 states have contracts with managed care organizations to deliver long-term care for the elderly and individuals with disabilities.
The states pay a monthly capitulated rate per member to the MCOs that provide comprehensive care, roughly 80% of enrollees are enrolled in managed care plans. Because the service level costs vary depending on the care and needs of the enrolled, the annual cost of care will vary state to state depending on state approved Medicaid benefits, as well as the state specific care costs. 2008 average cost per senior was reported as $14,780, in a 2010 national report for all age groups, the per enrolled average cost was calculated to $5,563 and a listing by state and by coverage age is provided. As of 2013, Medicaid is a program intended for those with low income, the details of how each category is defined vary from state to state. People with disabilities who do not have a history and who receive Supplemental Security Income. Persons with a disability, including blindness or physical disability, however, in order to be enrolled, applicants must prove that they are disabled to the point of being unable to work.
Some states operate a program known as the Health Insurance Premium Payment Program and this program allows a Medicaid recipient to have private health insurance paid for by Medicaid. As of 2008 relatively few states had premium assistance programs and enrollment was relatively low, interest in this approach remained high, however. Included in the Social Security program under Medicaid are dental services and these dental services are optional for adults above the age of 21, this service is a requirement for those eligible for Medicaid and below the age of 21. Minimum services include pain relief, restoration of teeth, and maintenance for dental health and Periodic Screening and Treatment is a mandatory Medicaid program for children that aims to focus on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Oral screenings are not required for EPSDT recipients, and they do not suffice as a direct dental referral, the Social Security Amendments of 1965 created Medicaid by adding Title XIX to the Social Security Act,42 U. S. C. §§1396 et seq
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Indian Health Service
The Indian Health Service is an operating division within the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. IHS is responsible for providing medical and public health services to members of federally recognized Native American Tribes. IHS is the federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people. IHS provides health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives at 33 hospitals,59 health centers, thirty-four urban Indian health projects supplement these facilities with a variety of health and referral services. Many tribes operate their own health systems independent of IHS, the provision of health services to members of federally recognized tribes grew out of the special government-to-government relationship between the federal government and Indian tribes. The IHS currently provides services to approximately 1.8 million of the 3.3 million American Indians. The agencys annual budget is about $4.3 billion, the IHS employs approximately 2,700 nurses,900 physicians,400 engineers,500 pharmacists, and 300 dentists, as well as other health professionals totaling more than 15,000 in all.
The Indian Health Service is one of two federal agencies mandated to use Indian Preference in hiring and this law requires the agency to give preference hiring to qualified Indian applicants before considering non-Indian candidates for positions. IHS draws a number of its professional employees from the U. S. This is a service branch of the uniformed services of the United States. Professional categories of IHS Commissioned corps officers include physicians, physician assistants, dentists, engineers, environmental health officers, many IHS jobs are in remote areas as well as its headquarters in Rockville, and at Phoenix Indian Medical Center. In 2007, most IHS job openings were on the Navajo reservation, 71% of IHS employees are American Indian/Alaska Native. ExpectMore. gov lists four rated areas of IHS, federally administered activities, healthcare-facilities construction, resource- and patient-management systems, all federally recognized Native American and Alaska Natives are entitled to health care.
This health care is provided by the Indian Health Service, either through IHS-run hospitals, IHS-run hospitals and clinics serve any registered Indian/Alaska Native, regardless of tribe or income. Tribal-contract health care facilities serve only their tribal members, with other qualified Indians/Alaska Natives being offered care on a space-available basis and this policy makes it difficult for an Indian who leaves their tribal home for education or employment to receive health care services to which they are legally entitled. An IHS fact sheet clarifies that Indians are eligible to apply for health care coverage provided by state and local governments. IHS2007 third-party collections were $767 million, and estimated to be $780 million in 2008, some of those who are served by the system are not satisfied with the efficiency of IHS. A contributor to Indianz. com, a website for Native American news and she feels IHS is underfunded, and necessary services are unavailable
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Connecticut is often grouped along with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-State Area and it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital city is Hartford, and its most populous city is Bridgeport, the state is named for the Connecticut River, a major U. S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word Connecticut is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for long tidal river, Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 United States. It is known as the Constitution State, the Nutmeg State, the Provisions State, and it was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States. Connecticuts center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County, Connecticuts first European settlers were Dutch.
They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England, the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution, the Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the United States.
Landmarks and Cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital and third largest city is Hartford, and other cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich. Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro, there are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state, the highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront