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Hearing loss

Hearing loss known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear. A deaf person has little to no hearing. Hearing loss may occur in both ears. In children, hearing problems can affect the ability to learn spoken language and in adults it can create difficulties with social interaction and at work. In some people older people, hearing loss can result in loneliness. Hearing loss can be permanent. Hearing loss may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, certain medications or toxins. A common condition that results in hearing loss is chronic ear infections. Certain infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus and rubella, may cause hearing loss in the child. Hearing loss is diagnosed when hearing testing finds that a person is unable to hear 25 decibels in at least one ear. Testing for poor hearing is recommended for all newborns. Hearing loss can be categorized as mild, moderate-severe, severe, or profound.

There are three main types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, mixed hearing loss. About half of hearing loss globally is preventable through public health measures; such practices include immunization, proper care around pregnancy, avoiding loud noise, avoiding certain medications. The World Health Organization recommends that young people limit the use of personal audio players to an hour a day in an effort to limit exposure to noise. Early identification and support are important in children. For many hearing aids, sign language, cochlear implants and subtitles are useful. Lip reading is another useful skill. Access to hearing aids, however, is limited in many areas of the world; as of 2013 hearing loss affects about 1.1 billion people to some degree. It moderate to severe disability in 124 million people. Of those with moderate to severe disability 108 million live in middle income countries. Of those with hearing loss, it began during childhood for 65 million.

Those who use sign language and are members of Deaf culture see themselves as having a difference rather than an illness. Most members of Deaf culture oppose attempts to cure deafness and some within this community view cochlear implants with concern as they have the potential to eliminate their culture; the term "hearing impairment" is viewed negatively as it emphasises what people cannot do. Hearing loss exists when there is diminished acuity to sounds heard; the terms hearing impaired or hard of hearing are reserved for people who have relative inability to hear sound in the speech frequencies. The severity of a hearing loss is categorized according to the increase in intensity of sound above the usual level necessary before the listener can detect it. Deafness is defined as a degree of loss such that a person is unable to understand speech in the presence of amplification. In profound deafness the highest intensity sounds produced by an audiometer may not be detected. In total deafness, no sounds at all, regardless of amplification or method of production, are heard.

Speech perception – Another aspect of hearing involves the perceived clarity of a word rather than the intensity of sound made by the word. In humans, that aspect is measured by tests of speech discrimination; these tests measure one's ability to understand speech, not to detect sound. There are rare types of hearing loss which affect speech discrimination alone. One example is auditory neuropathy, a variety of hearing loss in which the outer hair cells of the cochlea are intact and functioning, but sound information is not faithfully transmitted to the auditory nerve and brain properly. Use of the terms "hearing impaired", "deaf-mute", or "deaf and dumb" to describe deaf and hard of hearing people is discouraged by many in the deaf community as well as advocacy organizations as they are offensive to many deaf and hard of hearing people. Human hearing extends in frequency from 20–20,000 Hz, in intensity from 0 dB to 120 dB HL or more. 0 dB does not represent absence of sound, but rather the softest sound an average unimpaired human ear can hear.

Sound is uncomfortably loud above 90 dB and 115 dB represents the threshold of pain. The ear does not hear all frequencies well. There are many qualities of human hearing besides frequency range and intensity that cannot be measured quantitatively, but for many practical purposes, normal hearing is defined by a frequency versus intensity graph, or audiogram, charting sensitivity thresholds of hearing at defined frequencies. Because of the cumulative impact of age and exposure to noise and other acoustic insults,'typical' hearing may not be normal. Difficulty using the telephone loss of directionality of sound difficulty understanding speech of children and women whose voices are of a higher frequency. Difficulty understanding speech in the presence of background noise sounds or speech becoming dull, muffled or attenuated need for increased volume on television, radio and other audio sourcesHearing loss is sensory, but may have accompanying symptoms: pain or pressure in the ears a blocked feelingThere may be accompanying secondary symptoms: hyperacusis, heightened sensitivity with accompanying auditory pain to certain intensities and frequencies of sound, sometimes defined as "auditory recruitment" tinnitus, ringi

2018 European heat wave

The 2018 European drought and heat wave was a period of unusually hot weather that led to record-breaking temperatures and wildfires in many parts of Europe during the spring and summer of 2018. It is part of a larger heat wave affecting the northern hemisphere, caused in part by the jet stream being weaker than usual, allowing hot high-pressure air to linger in the same place. According to the European Drought Observatory, most of the areas affected by drought are across northern and central Europe. Researchers at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and World Weather Attribution estimated that global warming more than doubled the overall likelihood of the heat wave, in some places like Denmark made it up to five times as likely; the heat has built up for weakened jet stream. One possible cause for the jet stream to be slow and weak relates to global warming. In the polar regions, the average surface temperature is rising more than at mid latitudes in a phenomenon called polar amplification.

Many researchers believe a strong polar amplification reduces the strength and changes the pattern of the jet stream, producing patterns like those occurring during the 2018 heat wave. Dr. Michael Mann opined that global warming may be making such heat waves more than the researchers estimated, because at the time of the study the climate models could not account for how the jet stream is affected by global warming; the extreme heat was blamed for forest fires and crop failures. According to the World Meteorological Organization, the severe heat waves across the northern hemisphere in the summer of 2018, are linked to climate change, as well as events of extreme precipitation. Results were increase in elderly mortality; the impacts were severe in the countries considered rich and well prepared to deal with the impacts of climate change. The west and the north of Austria were worst affected by drought. Insurance companies estimate the damage as high as 210 million euro. Belgium experienced the second hottest July since regular measurements started in 1833, with an average of 22 °C.

Precipitation during July was close to normal at the official weather station in Uccle. As a whole, 2 heat waves occurred: the first one between 13 and 27 July and the second one from 29 July until 7 August. Belgium's official weather service, the KMI, defines a heat wave as a period of at least 5 days with maximum temperatures of 25 °C or higher, of which 3 days require a maximum of 30 °C or more. Zagreb saw 19 nights in a row where temperature did not fall under 20 °C, breaking the previous record, set in the 2013 heat wave. Despite the lack of extreme temperatures seen the previous summer, the 2018 summer saw temperatures averaging 1.5 to 3.2 °C above the mean at all official weather stations and the year as a whole was the hottest on record in Zagreb, which has the tenth oldest contiguously monitoring weather station in the world, operating since 1861. The Danish summer was exceptionally dry and warm, several records were broken: According to the Danish Meteorological Institute, May 2018 had the highest average temperature recorded for the month, beating the old record by 1.2 °C, the highest number of sunny hours recorded in the month, the highest temperature recorded in Copenhagen in the month, it was the driest May in a decade.

June had the highest average temperature in 26 years and it was the third driest since recording began in 1920. July was the sunniest recorded, it was one of the driest and warmest recorded; the night between 30 and 31 July was the second-warmest on record. Heat increases other serious conditions in people with poor health. On 8 August, Statens Serum Institut released a report that showed an increase of about 250 deaths among elderly, in the summer of 2018 compared to the norm. A similar increase was seen in neighbouring countries affected by the heat wave, including other Scandinavian countries; the unusually low water-levels in the Gudenå, the longest Danish river, led to fears that the SS Hjejlen would run aground. Because of the drought, farmers experienced a reduced harvest. Outside fires and most types of barbecue grills were banned locally and throughout the country due to the risk of fire. A total of 845 wildfires, both small and large, were recorded from 1 May to 5 July, about 500 more than the usual.

In July alone there were more than 1,000 wildfires, or as many as typical of an entire year. Many foreign tourists unaware of the record-breaking weather, complained about the lack of air conditioning in hotels, unnecessary. Finland experienced high temperatures and drought, like its neighbouring Scandinavian countries, several wildfires occurred, its northernmost municipality of Utsjoki, north of the Arctic Circle, experienced a record-breaking temperature of 33.3 °C in July. The French utility company EDF made known that on the morning of 4 August 2018 it had to

Souls Harbor

Souls Harbor was an American heavy metal band based in Beaufort, South Carolina. The band originated on the USS John F. Kennedy, while Doug Marshall, Jonathan Fenin and Rob Cadiz were in the United States Marine Corps, they formed the band in late 1999 while on cruise in the Persian Gulf. The band won the 2003 South Carolina/Georgia Battle of the Bands, they released their first full-length album, Writing on the Wall, in 2006, signed under the record label Crash Music Inc. The album was produced by Eric Bass. Writing on the Wall was compared to material by the alternative metal band, Sevendust. "Sevendust are a definite influence. In 2008, the band released. A Tunelab review said it was "a new and different sound for Souls Harbor, one that works out victoriously six different times." The album was produced by Corey Lowery. The band spent ten months recording with Rick Beato, putting together the album Anxiety Society, which they hope to be a major label release. In the early months of 2011, Souls Harbor lost two of its key members, Jonathan Fenin and Tony Bigley.

Fenin left. In November 2011 it was announced that Tony Bigley had joined the metal band Defiler from East San Francisco, California. Doug Marshall – vocals Tony Bigley – guitar Jonathan Fenin – guitar Thomas Keneallybass Alan Price – bass Ryland Underwood – bass Rob Cadiz – drums Justin Long – drums


Env is a shell command for Unix and Unix-like operating systems. It is used to either print a list of environment variables or run another utility in an altered environment without having to modify the existing environment. Using env, variables may be added or removed, existing variables may be changed by assigning new values to them. In practice, env has another common use, it is used by shell scripts to launch the correct interpreter. In this usage, the environment is not changed; the version of env bundled in GNU coreutils was written by David MacKenzie. It first appeared in 4.4BSD, is a part of POSIX.1. GNU's env has been extended to handle the current directory. FreeBSD's env supports a custom search path. Extensions found in both versions include -u, for unsetting variables, -S, for splitting arguments. To print out a list of all environment variables run env without any arguments: To clear the environment for a new shell: To launch the X application xcalc and have it appear on a different display: Note that this use of env is unnecessary since most shells support setting environment variables in front of a command: env may be used in the hashbang line of a script to allow the interpreter to be looked up via the PATH.

For example, here is the code of a simple Python script: In this example, /usr/bin/env is the full path of the env command. The environment is not altered. Note that it is possible to specify the interpreter without using env, by giving the full path of the python interpreter. A problem with that approach is. By instead using env as in the example, the interpreter is searched for and located at the time the script is run; this makes the script more portable, but increases the risk that the wrong interpreter is selected because it searches for a match in every directory on the executable search path. It suffers from the same problem in that the path to the env binary may be different on a per-machine basis. Set env: set the environment for command invocation – Commands & Utilities Reference, The Single UNIX Specification, Issue 7 from The Open Group env—manual page from GNU coreutils. Env: run a program in a modified environment – OpenBSD General Commands Manual env: set and print environment – NetBSD General Commands Manual

Big Big Deal

"Big Big Deal" is a song by the British singer-songwriter Steve Harley, released as his debut, non-album solo single in 1974. It was written and produced by Harley, would be Harley's last release before his UK number one hit "Make Me Smile" in 1975. "Big Big Deal" preceded the formation of the second Cockney Rebel line-up. At the end of an extensive UK tour, the split of Cockney Rebel in July 1974 left Harley without a band. However, his label, EMI Records, were not dissuaded by the band's split, as Harley revealed in 2014: "The people at my record label, EMI, were right behind me, they believed I could find new band members without too much of a problem and continue on to a new level of success. They believed it wasn't a major stumbling block."During the period of auditioning new musicians and finalising a new line-up, Harley decided to keep the momentum of Cockney Rebel's recent hit releases going by releasing a solo single. With Cockney Rebel drummer Stuart Elliott, Harley recorded "Big Big Deal" at Air Studios, London during September 1974.

Released as a single in November 1974, "Big Big Deal" failed to enter the UK Top 50. However, it did enter the unnumbered BMRB UK Breakers Chart on 23 November 1974. Regardless, the single was successful in keeping Harley in the public eye, while the new line-up for Cockney Rebel was formed. In April 2016, the song was covered by the Papernut Cambridge, it was released as a double A-side 7" single, along with a cover of the Paul Jones' 1967 song "I've Been a Bad, Bad Boy". "Big Big Deal" was released by EMI Records on 7" vinyl in the UK, Ireland and Germany. The B-side, "Bed in the Corner", was written by Harley, produced by Harley and Alan Parsons, it was taken from the 1974 Cockney Rebel album The Psychomodo. No picture sleeve was included with the UK or Irish versions of the single, the German release featured a sleeve with a close-up photograph of Harley, while the Belgian version had different artwork, featuring a close-up of Harley performing on stage. A promotional 7" vinyl of the single was released in the UK.

Following its original release as a single, the track remained unavailable on any other release for a few years. It first appeared on the 1980 UK/European EMI compilation The Best of Steve Harley and Cockney Rebel, it next appeared as a bonus track on the 1992 EMI CD re-issue of The Psychomodo. It has appeared on 2006's The Cockney Rebel – A Steve Harley Anthology, on 2012's Cavaliers: An Anthology 1973-1974; the song appeared on disc two, while on disc three, the full version of the track was added, titled "Big Big Deal", a minute longer than the original version. This full version was unreleased. No music video was filmed to promote the single. On 24 October 1974, Harley performed the song, along with "Bed in the Corner", live on David Jensen's ITV show 45. A music advert to promote the single was released in Melody Maker on 9 November 1974, which highlighted the fact the single was Harley's "first solo single". During October 1974, the new Cockney Rebel line-up included the song within their set-list for the three concerts they performed that month.

In a December 1974 issue of Look-in magazine, an article on Harley commented: "The latest single, "Big Big Deal" is written and performed by Steve, the new group's not on it. It's a sign of his individuality and talent, he's worked hard to get where he is." Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic highlighted "Big Big Deal" as a standout track on the 2012 compilation Cavaliers: An Anthology 1973-1974 by labeling it an AMG Pick Track. "Big Big Deal" - 4:34 "Bed in the Corner" - 3:33 "Big Big Deal" - 4:34 "Bed in the Corner" - 3:33 Steve Harley - vocals, producer Stuart Elliott - drums Pete Swettenham - engineer on "Big Big Deal" Alan Parsons - producer on "Bed in the Corner"

Lloyd's Agency Network

The Lloyd's Agency Network was established in August 1811 by the Committee of Lloyd's of London. They resolved that it is important to the interests of Underwriters, that a regular and universal system of intelligence and superintendence should be established in all the Principal Ports and Places, both at home and abroad... and so the first Agents were appointed at Dover, Margate, Charleston and Madeira. The Agency Network developed from its inception in 1811 and by the middle of the 19th century over three hundred Agents had been established worldwide. Today, the network comprises over 300 Lloyd’s Agents and a similar number of Sub Agents in every major port and commercial centre in the world, their primary purpose is to provide a range of surveying and adjusting services to the global insurance market and its customers. To locate a Lloyd's Agent please visit the Lloyd's Agency Directory