"Heart of Oak" is the official march of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom. It is the official march of several Commonwealth navies, including the Royal Canadian Navy and the Royal New Zealand Navy, it was the official march of the Royal Australian Navy, but has now been replaced by the new march, "Royal Australian Navy". The music of "Heart of Oak" was composed by William Boyce, the words were written by the 18th-century English actor David Garrick. "Heart of Oak" was written as part of an opera. It was first played publicly on New Year's Eve of 1760, sung by Samuel Thomas Champnes, one of Handel's soloists, as part of Garrick's pantomime Harlequin's Invasion, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane; the "wonderful year" referenced in the first verse was the Annus Mirabilis of 1759, during which British forces were victorious in several significant battles: the Battle of Minden on 1 August 1759. The last battle foiled a French invasion project planned by the Duc de Choiseul to defeat Britain during the Seven Years' War, hence the reference in the song to'flat-bottom' invasion barges.
These victories were followed a few months by the Battle of Wandiwash in India on 22 January 1760. Britain's continued success in the war boosted the song's popularity; the oak in the song's title refers to the wood from which British warships were made during the age of sail. The "Heart of oak" is the strongest central wood of the tree; the phrase "hearts of oak" appears in James Rhoades' 1921 English translation for Oxford University Press of the Aeneid. The reference to "freemen not slaves" echoes the refrain of Rule, Britannia!, written and composed two decades earlier. The song was written for the London stage in 1759 by William Boyce with words by David Garrick: Come cheer up, my lads!'tis to glory we steer, To add something more to this wonderful year. Chorus: Heart of oak are our ships, heart of oak are our men. We'll fight and we'll conquer again and again; this version of the song is heard in Star Trek - The Next Generation, sung in Ten Forward by Patrick Stewart, in-character as Captain Jean-Luc Picard.
Come, cheer up, my lads,'t is to glory To add something more to this wonderful year. Chorus: Heart of Oak are our ships, Jolly Tars are our men, We always are ready: Steady, Steady! We'll fight and we'll conquer again and again. We ne'er see our foes but we wish them to stay, They never see us, they say they'll invade us, these terrible foes, They frighten our women, our children, our beaus, But if they in their flat-bottoms, in darkness set oar, Still Britons they'll find to receive them on shore. We still make them fear and we still make them flee, And drub them ashore as we drub them at sea, Then cheer up me lads with one heart let us sing, Our soldiers and sailors, our statesmen and king. Alternative first verse: Come, cheer up, my lads,'tis to glory we steer, With heads carried high, we will banish all fear. Alternative last verse: Britannia triumphant her ships rule the seas, Her watchword is'Justice' her password is'Free', So come cheer up my lads, with one heart let us sing, Our soldiers, our sailors, our statesmen, our King.
A new version was published by Reverend Rylance. When Alfred, our King, drove the Dane from this land, He planted an oak with his own royal hand. Chorus: Heart of oak are our ships, Hearts of oak are our men, We always are ready, steady boys, steady, To charge and to conquer again and again; the sapling stuck firm to the ground. But the worms of corruption had eaten their way Through its bark. Yon tyrant, whose rule abject Europe bemoans — Yon brood of usurpers who sit on her thrones — Shall look on our country, tremble with awe,Where a son of the Monarch has bow'd to the law, Now long live the Briton, who dar'd to revive The spirit which Britons scarce felt was alive; the song made an appearance in the Disney movie Blackbeard's Ghost sung by Peter Ustinov who played Blackbeard. The version used is unique to the film. Come cheer up my lads,'tis to glory we steer. With heads bearing high, we will banish all fear. To honour, we call. You are free men, not slaves. For who are more free than the sons of the waves?
Hearts of oak are our ships, jolly tars are our men. We'll always be ready. Steady boys steady. We'll fight and we'll conquer again and again; this is not accurate, as Edward "Blackbeard" Teach/Thatch died in 1718 - more than 40 years before "Heart of Oak" was written. Royal Air Force March Past "Heart of Oak" at Sounds of the Stadacona Band "Heart of Oak" at Canadian Historical Sound Recordings
Brian L. Mizer is a United States Navy JAG officer, he is from the State of Nebraska. He attended Creighton University in Omaha, for his undergraduate degree and Case Western Reserve University for his juris doctorate, he is notable for serving as one the chief defense counsel for Salim Ahmed Hamdan, a former driver of Osama bin Laden, when he faced charges before a Guantánamo military commission. On 23 April 2008 attorneys working on behalf of Salim Ahmed Hamdan requested permission to meet with Abdulmalik Mohammed and Mustafa al-Hawsawi. Hamdan's attorneys had requested permission to get the "high-value detainees" to answer written questions, which would confirm whether Hamdan played a role in al Qaeda, and, if so, if it had been a peripheral one. Abdulmalik Mohammed and Mustafa al-Hawsawi declined to answer the questions, because they said they had no way to know that the questions purporting to be from Hamdan's attorneys was not a ruse. Andrea J. Prasow requested permission for Lieutenant Commander Brian Mizer to meet in person with the two men to try to assure them that the questions were not a ruse, would not be shared with their interrogators.
Hamdan was convicted in August 2008. His Presiding Officer's decision that he should be credited with the time he had served, left him with a scheduled release date of December 31, 2008—just over four months later. Chief Prosecutor Lawrence Morris filed an appeal, asserting that Presiding Officers didn't have the authority to credit time served; the Wall Street Journal quoted Mizer's response: "I am at a loss for words. The government, having stacked the deck, is now complaining about the hand it was dealt." In November 2008 The New Republic quoted Mizer explaining why the use of torture would complicate the prosecution of other suspects. Mizer told reporters that he was surprised to learn that Hamdan had been transferred to Yemen on 1 December 2008, calling it "welcome news". In the fall of 2008 chief prosecutor Colonel Morris Davis resigned after a conflict of authority with Brigadier General Thomas W. Hartmann. Davis felt that Hartmann had inappropriately usurped his own role in designating which captives should face charges, when Hartmann's role as Legal Advisor to the Convening Authority for the Guantánamo Military Commissions required neutrality.
Davis became a critic of the operation of the Military Commission system, on December 8, 2008, The New York Times reported that Mizer planned to call upon Davis to testify on undue command influence in Hamdan's case. In early January 2009 the Office of Military Commissions dismissed all charges against all the suspects, with plans to re-initiate those charges later. Commentators described the state of the cases against the captives as "chaotic". According to Peter Finn, reporting in The Washington Post, Mizer greeted the news with disbelief, stating: "This is military justice 101." When President Barack Obama ordered the closure of Guantánamo base on January 22, 2009 Mizer commented: Mizer was one of the individuals who appeared in Laura Poitras 2010 documentary film The Oath. A The New York Times review of the film described Mizer as a "compelling figure"....his American lawyers Lt. Cmdr. Brian Mizer, emerge as compelling figures, arguing with startling force against the legitimacy of the Bush administration’s military commissions and questioning the possibility of their client’s receiving a fair trial.
Commander Mizer deserves a film of his own. Mizer appeared in PBS interviews on multiple occasions
Transition management is a governance approach that aims to facilitate and accelerate sustainability transitions through a participatory process of visioning and experimenting. In its application, transition management seeks to bring together multiple viewpoints and multiple approaches in a'transition arena'. Participants are invited to structure their shared problems with the current system and develop shared visions and goals which are tested for practicality through the use of experimentation and reflexivity; the model is discussed in reference to sustainable development and the possible use of the model as a method for change. Key principles to transition management as a form of governance: seeks to widen participation by taking a multi-actor approach in order to encompass societal values and beliefs takes a long-term perspective creating a basket of visions in which short-term objectives can be identified focused on learning at the niche level, experiments are used to identify how successful a particular pathway could be and uses the concept of "Learn by doing, doing by learning" a systems thinking approach which identifies that problems will span multiple domains and actors.
There have been numerous societal transitions in the past, studied examples include the transition from horse-drawn carriage to motorised cars and the change from physical telegraphy to the electric telephone. There are a number of theories. One school of thought identifies the sociological aspect of transition as rooted within population dynamics and the evolution of society from high birth rate/high death rate to low birth rate/low death rate. Other theorists consider that transition management has its basis within systems theory and the co-evolution of social and technical factors within the system. Most agree that the shift in the political landscape, from a centralised government to a more liberal, market-based structure has allowed new forms of bottom-up governance styles to rise to prominence and a break from dominant approaches; the most notable use of Transition Management can be established through its development into a practical tool by the Dutch Government to manage the radical transformation of their energy systems in the early 2000s.
It was introduced into national policy in the Netherlands in the fourth National Environmental Policy Plan based on a report by Jan Rotmans, Rene Kemp, Frank Geels, Geert Verbong and Marjolein van Asselt. Transition management is an approach for tackling the complex issue of sustainable development. Sustainable development in itself is a dynamic, multi-dimensional, multi-actor and multi-level problem, in a constant state of flux. Critics consider that the current political system is insufficiently equipped to deal with the complexity of the issue and that incremental changes will not address the fundamental system failures that underpin the issue; as an alternative to traditional politics, Transition Management will seek to steer development in a more sustainable direction by identifying and fundamentally restructuring the unsustainable systems that underpin our society. The goal of transition management is geared towards enabling and guiding the social and political transformations required by embedded societal systems to bring about sustainability.
The need for such a model of governance has arisen through the persistence of problems which have developed to span multi-actors, multi-levels and multi-domains. The inherent complexity of society added to the intricacy of modern-day issues requires a new form of governance. Therefore, transition management recognises the need to address this problem on the multiple levels and dimensions in which it manifests; the approach seeks to widen participation by encouraging bottom-up approaches that are supported in a top-down manner. The synergy gained from utilising transition management to provide a novel approach to the complex issue of Sustainable Development could be essential if progress is to be made on the issue. Unlike traditional forms of regulation that use command and control techniques, transition management does not seek to control the uncertainties of change but steer, indirectly influence and redirect the choices of actors towards sustainability. In the long-term, transition management will seek to transform the system through the process of creative destruction, much of the literature considers that only the radical rebuilding of our society's systems will be able to transcend the stable lock-in to unsustainable systems, systematically reinforced by aspects of the landscape and regime levels.
Most literature recognises that there are three separate levels that transition management must work within. Landscape refers to the overall socio-technical setting that encompasses both the intangible aspects of social values, political beliefs and world views and the tangible facets of the built environment including institutions and the functions of the marketplace such as prices, trade patterns and incomes; these processes occur within the wider political and economic background termed the socio-technical landscape. The landscape is an external backdrop to the interplay of actors at the niche level. Changes can occur in the landscape but much more than regime level. One such change is the increase in environmental awareness; this socio-cultural process is leading to pressure on numerous regimes whilst providing openings for new technologies to establish themselves. Regime refers to the dominant practices and technologies that provide stability and reinforcement to