Wreck of the RMS Titanic
The wreck of the RMS Titanic lies at a depth of about 12,500 feet, about 370 miles south-southeast off the coast of Newfoundland. It lies in two main pieces about a third of a mile apart; the bow is still recognizable with many preserved interiors, despite deterioration and damage sustained hitting the sea floor. In contrast, the stern is ruined. A debris field around the wreck contains hundreds of thousands of items spilled from the ship as she sank; the bodies of the passengers and crew would have been distributed across the sea bed, but have been consumed by other organisms. Titanic sank in 1912. Numerous expeditions tried using sonar to map the sea bed in the hope of finding it, but were unsuccessful. In 1985, the wreck was located by a joint French–American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; the wreck has been visited by numerous expeditions. Controversial salvage operations have recovered thousands of items, which have been conserved and put on public display.
Many schemes have been proposed to raise Titanic, including filling the wreck with ping-pong balls, injecting it with 180,000 tons of Vaseline, or using half a million tons of liquid nitrogen to encase it in an iceberg that would float to the surface. However, the wreck is now protected by a UNESCO convention. After Titanic sank on 15 April 1912, proposals were advanced to salvage her from her resting place in the North Atlantic Ocean, despite her exact location and condition being unknown; the families of several wealthy victims of the disaster – the Guggenheims and Wideners – formed a consortium and contracted the Merritt and Chapman Derrick and Wrecking Company to raise Titanic. The project was soon abandoned as impractical as the divers could not reach a significant fraction of the necessary depth, where the pressure is over 6,000 pounds per square inch; the lack of submarine technology at the time as well as the outbreak of World War I put off such a project. The company considered dropping dynamite on the wreck to dislodge bodies which would float to the surface, but gave up after oceanographers suggested that the extreme pressure would have compressed the bodies into gelatinous lumps.
In fact, this was incorrect. Whale falls, a phenomenon not discovered until 1987 – coincidentally, by the same submersible used for the first manned expedition to Titanic the year before – demonstrate that water-filled corpses, in this case cetaceans, can sink to the bottom intact; the high pressure and cold temperature of the water would have prevented significant quantities of gas forming during decomposition, preventing the bodies of Titanic victims from rising back to the surface. In years, numerous proposals were put forward to salvage Titanic. However, all fell afoul of practical and technological difficulties, a lack of funding and, in many cases, a lack of understanding of the physical conditions at the wreck site. Charles Smith, an architect from Denver, proposed in March 1914 to attach electromagnets to a submarine which would be irresistibly drawn to the wreck's steel hull. Having found its exact position, more electromagnets would be sent down from a fleet of barges which would winch Titanic to the surface.
An estimated cost of $1.5 million and its impracticality meant that the idea was not put into practice. Another proposal involved raising Titanic by means of attaching balloons to her hull using electromagnets. Once enough balloons had been attached, the ship would float to the surface. Again, the idea got no further than the drawing board. In the mid-1960s, a hosiery worker from Baldock named Douglas Woolley devised a plan to find Titanic using a bathyscaphe and raise the wreck by inflating nylon balloons that would be attached to her hull; the declared objective was to "bring the wreck into Liverpool and convert it to a floating museum". The Titanic Salvage Company was established to manage the scheme and a group of businessmen from West Berlin set up an entity called Titanic-Tresor to support it financially, it fell apart when its proponents found they could not overcome the problem of how the balloons would be inflated in the first place. Calculations showed that it could take ten years to generate enough gas to overcome the water pressure.
A variety of audacious but impractical schemes were put forward during the 1970s. One proposal called for 180,000 tons of molten wax to be pumped into Titanic, lifting her to the surface. Another proposal involved filling Titanic with ping-pong balls, but overlooked the fact that the balls would be crushed by the pressure long before reaching the depth of the wreck. A similar idea involving the use of Benthos glass spheres, which could survive the pressure, was scuppered when the cost of the number of spheres required was put at over $238 million. An unemployed haulage contractor from Walsall named Arthur Hickey proposed to turn Titanic into an iceberg, freezing the water around the wreck to encase it in a buoyant jacket of ice. This, being lighter than liquid water, could be towed to shore; the BOC Group calculated that this would require half a million tons of liquid nitrogen to be pumped down to the sea bed. In his 1976 thriller Raise the Titanic!, author Clive Cussler's hero Dirk Pitt repairs the holes in Titanic's hull, pumps it full of compressed air and succeeds in making it "leap out of the waves like a modern submarine blowing its ballast tanks", a scene depicted on the post
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital, he sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, André Charles Boulle, Molière, Boileau, La Fontaine, Marais, Le Brun, Bossuet, Le Vau, Charles, Claude Perrault, Le Nôtre. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished; the revocation forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis' long reign, France was the leading European power, it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Spanish Succession. There were two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Warfare defined the foreign policy of Louis XIV, his personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce and pique", Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war.
He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, he was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years, his mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, when Louis XIV was four years old. In defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his son's behalf, his lack of faith in Queen Anne's political abilities was his primary rationale. He did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time.
Contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed. Both were interested in food and theatre, it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother; this long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis' journal entries, such as: "Nature was responsible for the first knots which tied me to my mother. But attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed by blood." It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. In 1646, Nicolas V de Villeroy became the young king's tutor. Louis XIV became friends with Villeroy's young children François de Villeroy, divided his time between the Palais-Royal and the nearby Hotel de Villeroy. On 14 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris.
This action made Anne sole Regent of France. Anne exiled some of her husband's ministers, she nominated Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs. Anne nominated Saint Vincent de Paul as her spiritual adviser, which helped her deal with religious policy and the Jansenism question. Anne kept the direction of religious policy in her hand until 1661. Anne wanted to give her son a victorious kingdom, her rationales for choosing Mazarin were his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until 1653 when she was no longer regent. Anne protected Mazarin by arresting and exiling her followers who conspired against him in 1643: the Duke of Beaufort and Marie de Rohan, she left the direction of the daily administration of policy to Cardinal Mazarin. The best example of Anne's statesmanship and the partial change in her heart towards her native Spain is seen in her keeping of one of Richelieu's men, the Chancellor of France Pierre Séguier, in his post. Séguier was the pers
Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio is an American actor and film producer. He has been nominated for six Academy Awards, four British Academy Film Awards and nine Screen Actors Guild Awards, winning one of each award from them and three Golden Globe Awards from eleven nominations. DiCaprio began his career by appearing in television commercials in the late 1980s, he next had recurring roles in various television series, such as the soap opera Santa Barbara and the sitcom Growing Pains. He debuted in his film career by starring as Josh in Critters 3, he starred in the film adaptation of the memoir This Boy's Life, received acclaim and his first Academy Award nomination for his supporting role in What's Eating Gilbert Grape. He gained public recognition with leading roles in The Basketball Diaries and the romantic drama Romeo + Juliet, he achieved international fame as a star in James Cameron's epic romance Titanic, which became the highest-grossing film of all time to that point. Since 2000, DiCaprio has received critical acclaim for his work in a wide range of film genres.
DiCaprio's subsequent films include The Man in the Iron Mask, the biographical crime drama Catch Me If You Can, the epic historical drama Gangs of New York, which marked his first of many collaborations with director Martin Scorsese. He was acclaimed for his performances in the political war thriller Blood Diamond, the neo-noir crime drama The Departed, the espionage thriller Body of Lies, the drama Revolutionary Road, the psychological thriller Shutter Island, the science fiction thriller Inception, the biographical film J. Edgar, the western Django Unchained, the period drama The Great Gatsby. DiCaprio's portrayals of Howard Hughes in The Aviator and Hugh Glass in The Revenant won him the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, his performance as Jordan Belfort in The Wolf of Wall Street won him the Golden Globe award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. He won the Academy Award and BAFTA Award for Best Actor for his performance in The Revenant. DiCaprio is the founder of Appian Way Productions.
Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio was born on November 1974, in Los Angeles. He is the only child of Irmelin, a legal secretary, George DiCaprio, an underground comix artist and producer and distributor of comic books. DiCaprio's father is of German descent. DiCaprio's maternal grandfather, Wilhelm Indenbirken, was German, his maternal grandmother, Helene Indenbirken, was a Russian-born German citizen. In an interview in Russia, DiCaprio referred to himself as "half-Russian" and said that two of his late grandparents were Russian. DiCaprio's parents met while subsequently moved to Los Angeles, California. DiCaprio was named Leonardo because his pregnant mother was looking at a Leonardo da Vinci painting in the Uffizi museum in Florence, when he first kicked, his parents separated when he was a year old, he lived with his mother. The two lived in several Los Angeles neighborhoods, such as Echo Park and Los Feliz, while his mother worked several jobs. DiCaprio attended Seeds Elementary School and John Marshall High School a few blocks away, after attending the Los Angeles Center for Enriched Studies for four years.
He dropped out of high school following his third year earning his general equivalency diploma. DiCaprio spent part of his childhood in Germany with his maternal grandparents and Helene, he is conversant in Italian. In 1979, DiCaprio was removed, at the age of five, from the set of the children's television series Romper Room for being disruptive, he began his career by appearing in several commercials and educational films, following his older stepbrother Adam Farrar into television commercials, landing an ad at age 14 for Matchbox cars by Mattel, which he considered his first role. Throughout his teens he was seen in commercials for Kraft Foods, Bubble Yum, Apple Jacks, many more. In 1989, he played. In 1990, he started acting on television; this started with a role in the pilot of The Outsiders, one episode of the soap opera Santa Barbara, playing the young Mason Capwell. That same year, DiCaprio got a break on television. A series based on a successful comedy film by the same name, his works that year earned him two nomination at the Young Artist Award in Best Young Actor in a Daytime Series and Best Young Actor Starring in a New Television Series.
DiCaprio was a celebrity contestant on the children's game show Fun House. One of the stunts he performed on the show was going fishing in a small pool of water by catching the fish only with his teeth. In 1991, he played an un-credited role in one episode of Roseanne; that year, DiCaprio's debut film role was in the comedic science fiction horror film Critters 3, in which he played the stepson of an evil landlord, a role that DiCaprio described as "your average, no-depth, standard kid with blond hair." Released in March that year, the movie went direct-to-video. Shortly after, he became a recurring cast member on the successful ABC sitcom Growing Pains, playing Luke Brower, a homeless boy, taken in by the Seaver family. DiCaprio was nominated for the Young Artist Award for Best Young Actor Co-starring in a Television Series. In 1992, alongside Drew Barrymore, Sara Gilbert, Tom Skerritt, an
The Hope Diamond is one of the most famous jewels in the world, with ownership records dating back four centuries. Its much-admired rare blue color is due to trace amounts of boron atoms. Weighing 45.52 carats, its exceptional size has revealed new findings about the formation of gemstones. The jewel is believed to have originated in India, where the original stone was purchased in 1666 by French gem merchant Jean-Baptiste Tavernier as the Tavernier Blue; the Tavernier Blue was cut and yielded the French Blue, which Tavernier sold to King Louis XIV in 1668. Stolen in 1791, it was recut, with the largest section acquiring its "Hope" name when it appeared in the catalogue of a gem collection owned by a London banking family called Hope in 1839. After going through numerous owners, it was sold to Washington socialite Evalyn Walsh McLean, seen wearing it, it was purchased in 1949 by New York gem merchant Harry Winston, who toured it for a number of years before giving it to the National Museum of Natural History in 1958, where it has since remained on permanent exhibition.
The Hope Diamond has long been rumored to carry a curse due to agents trying to arouse interest in the stone. It was last reported to be insured for $250 million; the Hope Diamond known as Le Bijou du Roi, Le bleu de France, the Tavernier Blue, is a large, 45.52-carat, deep-blue diamond, now housed in the National Gem and Mineral collection at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D. C, it is blue to the naked eye because of trace amounts of boron within its crystal structure, exhibits a red phosphorescence under exposure to ultraviolet light. It is classified as a Type IIb diamond, has changed hands numerous times on its way from India to France to Britain and to the United States, where it has been on public display since, it has been described as the "most famous diamond in the world". Weight: In December 1988, the Gemological Institute of America's Gem Trade Lab determined that the diamond weighed 45.52 carats. Size and shape: The diamond has been compared in size and shape to a pigeon egg, walnut, a "good sized horse chestnut", "pear shaped."
The dimensions in terms of length and depth are 25.60 mm × 21.78 mm × 12.00 mm. Color: It has been described as being "fancy dark greyish-blue" as well as being "dark blue in color" or having a "steely-blue" color; as colored-diamond expert Stephen Hofer points out, blue diamonds similar to the Hope can be shown by colorimetric measurements to be grayer than blue sapphires. In 1996, the Gemological Institute of America's Gem Trade Lab examined the diamond and, using their proprietary scale, graded it fancy deep grayish blue. Visually, the gray modifier is so dark that it produces an "inky" effect appearing blackish-blue in incandescent light. Current photographs of the Hope Diamond use high-intensity light sources that tend to maximize the brilliance of gemstones. In popular literature, many superlatives have been used to describe the Hope Diamond as a "superfine deep blue" comparing it to the color of a fine sapphire, "blue of the most beautiful blue sapphire", describing its color as "a sapphire blue".
Tavernier had described it as a "beautiful violet". Emits a red glow: The stone exhibits an unusually intense and colored type of luminescence: after exposure to short-wave ultraviolet light, the diamond produces a brilliant red phosphorescence that persists for some time after the light source has been switched off, this strange quality may have helped fuel "its reputation of being cursed." The red glow helps scientists "fingerprint" blue diamonds, allowing them to "tell the real ones from the artificial." The red glow indicates that a different mix of boron and nitrogen is within the stone, according to Jeffrey Post in the journal Geology. People think of the Hope Diamond as a historic gem, but this study underscores its importance as a rare scientific specimen that can provide vital insights into our knowledge of diamonds and how they are formed in the earth. Clarity: The clarity was determined to be VS1, with whitish graining present. Cut: The cut was described as being "cushion antique brilliant with a faceted girdle and extra facets on the pavilion."
Chemical composition: In 2010, the diamond was removed from its setting in order to measure its chemical composition. According to Smithsonian curator Dr. Jeffrey Post, the boron may be responsible for causing the blue color of the stones after tests using infrared light measured a spectrum of the gems. Touch and feel: When Associated Press reporter Ron Edmonds was allowed by Smithsonian officials to hold the gem in his hand in 2003, he wrote that the first thought that had come into his mind was: "Wow!" It was described as "cool to the touch." He wrote:You cradle the 45.5-carat stone—about the size of a walnut and heavier than its translucence makes it appear—turning it from side to side as the light flashes from its facets, knowing it's the hardest natural material yet fearful of dropping it. Hardness: Diamonds in general, including the Hope Diamond, are considered to be the hardest natural mineral on the Earth, but because of diamond's crystalline structure, there are weak planes in the bonds which permit jewelers to slice a diamond and, in so doing, to cause it to sparkle by refracting light in different ways.
The Hope Diamond was formed deep within the Earth
Sinking of the RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic sank in the early morning of 15 April 1912 in the North Atlantic Ocean, four days into the ship's maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. The largest ocean liner in service at the time, Titanic had an estimated 2,224 people on board when she struck an iceberg at around 23:40 on Sunday, 14 April 1912, her sinking two hours and forty minutes at 02:20 on Monday, 15 April, resulted in the deaths of more than 1,500 people, making it one of history's deadliest marine disasters during peacetime. Titanic received six warnings of sea ice on 14 April but was travelling near her maximum speed when her lookouts sighted the iceberg. Unable to turn enough, the ship suffered a glancing blow that buckled her starboard side and opened six of her sixteen compartments to the sea. Titanic had been designed to stay afloat with four of her forward compartments flooded but no more, the crew soon realised that the ship would sink, they used distress flares and radio messages to attract help as the passengers were put into lifeboats.
In accordance with existing practice, Titanic's lifeboat system was designed to ferry passengers to nearby rescue vessels, not to hold everyone on board simultaneously. Compounding this, poor management of the evacuation meant many boats were launched before they were full; as a result, when Titanic sank, over a thousand passengers and crew were still on board. All those who jumped or fell into the water either drowned or died within minutes due to the effects of cold shock and incapacitation. RMS Carpathia arrived on the scene about an hour and a half after the sinking and rescued the last of the survivors by 09:15 on 15 April, some nine and a half hours after the collision; the disaster shocked the world and caused widespread outrage over the lack of lifeboats, lax regulations, the unequal treatment of the three passenger classes during the evacuation. Subsequent inquiries recommended sweeping changes to maritime regulations, leading to the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.
At the time of her entry into service on 2 April 1912, Royal Mail Ship Titanic was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liner sister ships, was the largest ship in the world. She and her sister, RMS Olympic, were one and a half times the gross register tonnage of Cunard's RMS Lusitania and RMS Mauretania, the previous record holders, were nearly 100 feet longer. Titanic could carry 3,547 people in speed and comfort, was built on an unprecedented scale, her reciprocating engines were the largest, built, standing 40 feet high and with cylinders 9 feet in diameter requiring the burning of 600 long tons of coal per day. Her passenger accommodation the First Class section, was said to be "of unrivalled extent and magnificence", indicated by the fares that First Class accommodation commanded; the Parlour Suites with private promenade cost over US$4,350 for a one-way transatlantic passage. Third Class, though less luxurious than Second and First Classes, was unusually comfortable by contemporary standards and was supplied with plentiful quantities of good food, providing her passengers with better conditions than many of them had experienced at home.
Titanic's maiden voyage began shortly after noon on 10 April 1912 when she left Southampton on the first leg of her journey to New York. A few hours she called at Cherbourg in northern France, a journey of 80 nautical miles, where she took on passengers, her next port of call was Queenstown in Ireland. She left in the afternoon after taking on more stores. By the time she departed westwards across the Atlantic she was carrying 892 crew members and 1,320 passengers; this was only about half of her full passenger capacity of 2,435, as it was the low season and shipping from the UK had been disrupted by a coal miners' strike. Her passengers were a cross-section of Edwardian society, from millionaires such as John Jacob Astor and Benjamin Guggenheim, to poor emigrants from countries as disparate as Armenia, Italy, Sweden and Russia seeking a new life in America; the ship was commanded by 62-year-old Captain Edward John Smith, the most senior of the White Star Line's captains. He had four decades of seafaring experience and had served as captain of RMS Olympic, from which he was transferred to command Titanic.
The vast majority of the crew who served under him were not trained sailors, but were either engineers, firemen, or stokers, responsible for looking after the engines. The six watch officers and 39 able seamen constituted only around five percent of the crew, most of these had been taken on at Southampton so had not had time to familiarise themselves with the ship; the ice conditions were attributed to a mild winter that caused large numbers of icebergs to shift off the west coast of Greenland. A fire had begun in one of Titanic's coal bins 10 days prior to the ship's departure, continued to burn for several days into the voyage, but it was over on 14 April; the weather improved during the course of the day, from brisk winds and moderate seas in the morning to a crystal-clear calm by evening, as the ship's path took her beneath an arctic high pressure system. The waning crescent moon had set a few seconds after 15:00 on 14 Apri
Kate Elizabeth Winslet, is an English actress. She is known for her work in period dramas and tragedies, is drawn to portraying troubled women. Winslet is the recipient of several accolades, including three British Academy Film Awards, is among the few performers to have won Academy and Grammy Awards. Born in Reading, Winslet studied drama at the Redroofs Theatre School, her first screen appearance, at the age of 15, was in the British television series Dark Season. She made her film debut playing a teenage murderess in Heavenly Creatures, received her first BAFTA Award for playing Marianne Dashwood in Sense and Sensibility. Global stardom followed soon after with her leading role in the epic romance Titanic, it was the highest-grossing film of all time to that point, after which she eschewed parts in blockbusters in favour of critically acclaimed period pieces, including Quills and Iris, which were not seen. The science fiction romance Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, in which Winslet was cast against type in a contemporary setting, proved to be a turning point in her career, she gained further recognition for her performances in Finding Neverland, Little Children, Revolutionary Road, The Reader.
For playing a Nazi camp guard in the last of these, she won the BAFTA Award and Academy Award for Best Actress. In the 2010s, Winslet played a single mother in 1930s America in the miniseries Mildred Pierce, joined the Divergent film series, portrayed Joanna Hoffman in Steve Jobs, she won a Primetime Emmy Award for a third BAFTA Award for the latter. For her narration of a short story in the audiobook Listen to the Storyteller, Winslet won a Grammy Award, she performed the song "What If" for the soundtrack of her film Christmas Carol: The Movie. A co-founder of the charity Golden Hat Foundation, which aims to create autism awareness, she has written a book on the topic, The Golden Hat: Talking Back to Autism. Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2009, in 2012, she was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Divorced from the film directors Jim Threapleton and Sam Mendes, Winslet has been married to the businessman Ned Rocknroll since 2012.
She has a child from each marriage. Kate Winslet was born on 5 October 1975 in Reading, England, to Sally Anne and Roger John Winslet, her mother worked as a nanny and waitress, her father, a struggling actor, took labouring jobs to support the family. Her maternal grandparents ran the Reading Repertory Theatre Company. Winslet has two sisters and Beth, both of whom are actresses, a younger brother, Joss; the family had limited financial means. When Winslet was 10, her father injured his foot in a boating accident and found it harder to work, leading to more financial hardships for the family. Winslet has said that her parents always made them feel cared for and that they were a supportive family. Winslet attended All Saints' Church of England primary school. Living in a family of actors inspired her to pursue acting from a young age, she and her sisters participated in amateur stage shows at school and at a local youth theatre, named Foundations. When she was five, Winslet made her first stage appearance as Mary in her school's production of the Nativity.
She has described herself as an overweight child. She said. At 11, Winslet was accepted into the Redroofs Theatre School in Maidenhead; the school functioned as an agency and took students to London to audition for acting jobs. She dubbed for foreign films. At school, she was made head girl and took part in productions of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, played the lead role of Wendy Darling in Peter Pan, she worked with the Starmaker Theatre Company in Reading. She participated in over 20 of their stage productions, but was selected as the lead due to her weight. Nonetheless, she played key roles as Miss Agatha Hannigan in Annie, the Mother Wolf in The Jungle Book, Lena Marelli in Bugsy Malone. In 1991, within two weeks of finishing her GCSE examinations, Winslet made her screen debut as one of the main cast members of the BBC science fiction television series Dark Season, her part was that of Reet, a schoolgirl who helps her classmates fight against a sinister man distributing free computers to her school.
She did not earn much from the job, at 16, a lack of funds forced Winslet to leave Redroofs. To support herself, she worked at a delicatessen. In 1992, she had a small part in the television film Anglo-Saxon Attitudes, an adaptation of Angus Wilson's satirical novel. Winslet, who weighed 13 stone 3 pounds at the time, played the daughter of an obese woman in it. While filming, an off-hand comment from the director Diarmuid Lawrence about the likeness between her and the actress who played her mother prompted Winslet to lose weight, she next took on the role of the young daughter of a bankrupt middle-aged man in the television sitcom Get Back. She had a guest role in a 1993 episode of the medical drama series Casualty. Winslet was among 175 girls to audition for Peter Jackson's psychological drama Heavenly Creatures, was cast after impressing Jackson with the intensity she brought to her part; the New Zealand-based production is base
Titanic (1943 film)
Titanic is a 1943 German propaganda film made during World War II in Berlin by Tobis Productions for UFA, depicting the catastrophic sinking of RMS Titanic in 1912. Despite the fact that there was a German silent film produced in 1912 just four weeks after the sinking and a British company had released a German-language film about the disaster in 1929, the film was commissioned by Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels with the intent of showing not only the superiority of German filmmaking, but as a propaganda vehicle which would show that British and American capitalism was responsible for the disaster; the addition of an fictional heroic German officer to the ship's crew was intended to demonstrate the superior bravery and selflessness of German men as compared to the British officers. The film's original director, Herbert Selpin, was arrested during production after speaking out against the Nazi regime – he was found hanged in prison – and the film was completed by Werner Klingler, not credited.
Although the film had a brief theatrical run in parts of German-occupied Europe starting in November 1943, it was not shown within Germany by order of Goebbels, who feared that it would weaken the German citizenry's morale instead of improving it. Goebbels banned the playing of the film and it did not have a second run; the film was the first on the subject, titled Titanic, the first to combine various fictional characters and subplots with the true events of the sinking. A proclamation to the stockholders of the White Star Line declares the value of their stock is falling; the president of the Line, J. Bruce Ismay, promises to reveal a secret during the maiden voyage of the line's new RMS Titanic that will change that, he alone knows she can break the speed record and receive the Blue Riband, he believes this will raise the stock's value. Ismay and the board of the White Star Line plan to manipulate the stock by selling short their own stock in order to buy it back at a lower price just before the news about the ship's record speed is revealed to the press.
On Titanic's maiden voyage in 1912, First Officer Petersen, German, begs the ship's rich and sleazy owners to slow the ship down, but they refuse, Titanic hits an iceberg and sinks. The passengers in First Class act like cowards, while Petersen, his impoverished Russian aristocrat ex-lover Sigrid Olinsky, other German passengers in steerage behave bravely and with dignity. Petersen manages to rescue many passengers, convinces Sigrid to get into a lifeboat, saves a young girl, left to die in her cabin by her uncaring capitalist parents. In the ship's final death throes, Petersen leaps from the deck with the little girl still in his arms, is pulled aboard Sigrid's lifeboat, where the two are reunited. At the British Inquiry into the disaster, Petersen testifies against Ismay, condemning his actions, but Ismay is cleared of all charges and the blame is placed squarely on the deceased Captain Smith's shoulders. An epilogue states that "the deaths of 1,500 people remain un-atoned, eternal condemnation of Britain's endless quest for profit."
Most of the film was shot at the German-occupied Polish Baltic Sea port of Gdynia, on board SS Cap Arcona, a passenger liner which shared Titanic's fate. The ship had been turned into a prison ship and filled with Jewish inmates that the Nazis had put there in hopes that the ship would be destroyed by the British; the scenes with the lifeboats were filmed on the Baltic Sea. Titanic endured many production difficulties, including a clash of egos, massive creative differences and general war-time frustrations; as filming progressed, more extravagant sets were demanded by Selpin, as well as additional resources from the German Navy – these demands were all approved by Goebbels, despite the mounting costs and the drain on the wartime German economy. After one week of troubled shooting on Cap Arcona, with the Allies bombing not far away, Herbert Selpin called a crisis meeting where he made unflattering comments about the Kriegsmarine officers who were supposed to be marine consultants for the film, but were more interested in molesting female cast members.
Selpin's close friend and the co-writer of the script, Walter Zerlett-Olfenius, reported him to the Gestapo, Selpin was promptly arrested and questioned by Joseph Goebbels, the driving force behind the Titanic project. Selpin, did not retract his statement – infuriating Goebbels, since the Propaganda Minister had chosen Selpin to direct his propaganda epic. Within 24 hours of his arrest, Selpin was found hanged in his jail cell, ruled a suicide. However, in reality, Goebbels had arranged for Selpin to be hanged and the hanging framed as a suicide; the cast and crew were angry at the attempt to cover up Selpin's obvious murder and attempted to retaliate, but Goebbels countered them by issuing a proclamation stating that anyone who shunned Zerlett-Olfenius, who had reported Selpin, would answer to him personally. The unfinished film, on which the production costs were spiraling wildly out of control, was in the end completed by an uncredited Werner Klingler; the film cost 4 million Reichsmarks.
It is said to be the most expensive film of its time. The faults of capitalism and the stock market play a