Promiscuity is the practice of having sex with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners. The term can carry a moral judgment if the social ideal for sexual activity is monogamous relationships. A common example of behavior viewed as promiscuous by many cultures is the one-night stand, its frequency is used by researchers as a marker for promiscuity. What sexual behavior is considered promiscuous varies between cultures, as does the prevalence of promiscuity. Different standards are applied to different genders and civil statutes. Feminists have traditionally argued a significant double standard exists between how men and women are judged for promiscuity. Stereotypes of the promiscuous woman have tended to be negative, such as "the slut" or "the harlot", while male stereotypes have been more varied, some expressing approval, such as "the stud" or "the player", while others imply societal deviance, such as "the womanizer" or "the philanderer". A scientific study published in 2005 found that promiscuous men and women are both prone to derogatory judgment.
Promiscuity is common in many animal species. Some species have promiscuous mating systems, ranging from polyandry and polygyny to mating systems with no stable relationships where mating between two individuals is a one-time event. Many species still mate with other individuals outside the pair. In biology, incidents of promiscuity in species that form pair bonds are called extra-pair copulations. Assessing people's sexual behavior is difficult, since strong social and personal motivations occur, depending on social sanctions and taboos, for either minimizing or exaggerating reported sexual activity. American experiments in 1978 and 1982 found the great majority of men were willing to have sex with women they did not know, of average attractiveness, who propositioned them. No woman, by contrast, agreed to such propositions from men of average attractiveness. While men were in general comfortable with the requests, regardless of their willingness, women responded with shock and disgust; the number of sexual partners people have had in their lifetimes varies within a population.
A 2007 nationwide survey in the United States found the median number of female sexual partners reported by men was seven and the median number of male partners reported by women was four. The men exaggerated their reported number of partners, women reported a number lower than the actual number, or a minority of women had a sufficiently larger number than most other women to create a mean higher than the median, or all of the above. About 29% of men and 9% of women reported to have had more than 15 sexual partners in their lifetimes. Studies of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases demonstrate a small percentage of the studied population has more partners than the average man or woman, a smaller number of people have fewer than the statistical average. An important question in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections is whether or not these groups copulate at random with sexual partners from throughout a population or within their social groups. A 2006 systematic review analyzing data from 59 countries worldwide found no association between regional sexual behavior tendencies, such as number of sexual partners, sexual-health status.
Much more predictive of sexual-health status are socioeconomic factors like mobility. Other studies have suggested that people with multiple casual sex partners are more to be diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections. Severe and impulsive promiscuity, along with a compulsive urge to engage in illicit sex with attached individuals is a common symptom of borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder but some promiscuous individuals do not have these disorders. In 2008, a U. S. university study of international promiscuity found that Finns have had the largest number of sex partners in the industrialized world, British people have the largest number among big western industrial nations. The study measured one-night stands, attitudes to casual sex, number of sexual partners. A 2014 nationwide survey in the United Kingdom named Liverpool the country's most promiscuous city. Britain's position on the international index "may be linked to increasing social acceptance of promiscuity among women as well as men".
Britain's ranking was "ascribed to factors such as the decline of religious scruples about extramarital sex, the growth of equal pay and equal rights for women and a sexualised popular culture". The top-10-ranking OECD nations with a population over 10 million on the study's promiscuity index, in descending order, were the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, the United States, Turkey and Canada. A nonscientific survey conducted in 2007 by condom-maker Durex measured promiscuity by a total number of sexual partners; the survey found Austrian men had the highest number of sex partners of males globally with 29.3 sexual partners on average. New Zealand women had the highest number of sex partners for females in the world with an average of 20.4 sexual partners. In all of the countries surveyed, except New Zealand, men reported more sexual partners than women; the data can differ quite drastically between studies due to the small number of people that participate. A study funded by Durex, published in 2009 shows in all counties surveyed, except New Zealand, men reported fewer sexual partners than women.
In this case, New Zealand women were the only country to report a lower average number of partners than men. One review found the people from developed Western countries had more sex partners tha
Mercedes J. Ruehl is an American theater and film actor, she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1992 for The Fisher King, the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play in 1991 for Lost in Yonkers. She received Tony Award nominations for The Shadow Box and The Goat, or Who is Sylvia?. Her other film appearances include Big, Married to the Mob, Lost in Yonkers, Last Action Hero. Ruehl was born in Jackson Heights, New York City, the daughter of Mercedes J. Ruehl, a schoolteacher, Vincent Ruehl, an FBI agent, she was raised Catholic. Her father was of German and Irish descent and her mother was of Cuban and Irish ancestry. Ruehl attended College of New Rochelle and graduated in 1969, she is married to painter David Geiser, with whom she adopted Jake. She had another son, whom she gave up for adoption in 1976 when she was 28, she reunited in the late 1990s with Christopher when he turned 21, he became Jake's godfather. Her brother, Peter Ruehl, moved to Australia in 1987 where he was a popular newspaper columnist until his death in 2011.
Ruehl began her career in regional theatre with the Denver Center Theatre Company, taking odd jobs between engagements. Her first starring role on Broadway came in 1984's, she went on to win the 1984 Obie Award for her performance in The Marriage of Bette and Boo and twenty years an Obie for Woman Before a Glass. She received a 1991 Tony Award as Best Actress for Neil Simon's Lost in Yonkers and continued her role in the show during its tour with co-star Mercedes McCambridge, her performances in two other plays earned her two other Tony nominations: in 1995, as Best Actress for a revival of The Shadow Box. Her most acclaimed film role was in The Fisher King. Earlier she had won the 1989 National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in Married to the Mob, she played KACL station manager Kate Costas in five episodes of Frasier, had a major role in the made-for-TV film All-American Girl: The Mary Kay Letourneau Story. She is the first Cuban-American female Academy Award winner.
In 2005, she received the Rita Moreno HOLA Award for Excellence from the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors. She played the mother of main character Vincent Chase in HBO's Entourage. In 2009, Ruehl returned to the Broadway stage in Manhattan Theater Club's production of Richard Greenberg's The American Plan playing the role of Eva Adler; the production opened at the Samuel J. Friedman Theatre and the limited engagement ran From January 22 until March 22. In his rave review in The New York Times, Ben Brantley called Ruehl's performance "masterly". Ruehl next appeared in the drama/horror film What Ever Happened to Barker Daniels?, released in 2009. In January 2012, Ruehl starred in Sarah Treem's play The How and The Why, directed by Emily Mann at McCarter Theatre of Princeton University. Ruehl appeared in the role of Ma in Harvey Fierstein's revamped and renamed revival of his play Torch Song Off-Broadway at Second Stage Theater; the play began previews on September 26, opened on October 19, 2017.
The production transferred to Broadway. Ruehl is on the faculty of HB Studio in New York City. Though not a singer herself, Ruehl was involved in the production of the album Haunted by Poe. Mercedes Ruehl at the Internet Broadway Database Mercedes Ruehl at Internet Off-Broadway Database Mercedes Ruehl on IMDb Mercedes Ruehl at the TCM Movie Database Ruehl Rules, a May 2005 Playbill article Brief Encounter with Mercedes Ruehl, a May 2002 Playbill interview
Mike Nichols was an American film and theater director, producer and comedian. He was noted for his ability to work across a range of genres and an aptitude for getting the best out of actors regardless of their experience. Nichols began his career in the 1950s with the comedy improvisational troupe The Compass Players, predecessor of The Second City, in Chicago, he teamed up with his improv partner, Elaine May, to form the comedy duo Nichols and May. Their live improv act was a hit on Broadway, the first of their three albums won a Grammy Award. After Nichols and May disbanded in 1961, he began directing plays, became known for his innovative productions and ability to elicit polished performances, his Broadway directing debut was Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park in 1963, with Robert Redford and Elizabeth Ashley. He next directed Luv in 1964, in 1965 directed another Neil Simon play, The Odd Couple, he received a Tony Award for each of those plays. In 2012, he won his sixth Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play with a revival of Death of a Salesman.
Nichols produced more than twenty-five Broadway plays. In 1966, Warner Brothers invited Nichols to direct his first film, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. The groundbreaking film inspired some critics to declare Nichols the "new Orson Welles", it won five Academy Awards, was the top-grossing film of 1966. Nichols's next film, The Graduate starred unknown actor Dustin Hoffman, alongside Anne Bancroft and Katharine Ross, it was another critical and financial success, became the highest-grossing film of the year, received seven Academy Award nominations, winning Nichols the Academy Award for Best Director. Among the other films Nichols directed were Catch-22, Carnal Knowledge, Working Girl, The Birdcage and Charlie Wilson's War. Along with an Academy Award, Nichols won a Grammy Award, four Emmy Awards, nine Tony Awards, three BAFTA Awards, his other honors included the Lincoln Center Gala Tribute in 1999, the National Medal of Arts in 2001, the Kennedy Center Honors in 2003 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2010.
His films received a total of 42 Academy Award nominations, seven wins. He is one of the few people who have won Academy, Emmy and Tony Awards. Nichols was born Mikhail Igor Peschkowsky on November 6, 1931, in Berlin, the son of Brigitte and Pavel Peschkowsky, a physician, his father was born in Austria, to a Russian Jewish immigrant family. Nichols' father's family had been wealthy and lived in Siberia, leaving after the Russian Revolution, settling in Germany around 1920. Nichols' mother's family were German Jews, his maternal grandparents were Gustav Landauer, a leading theorist on anarchism, author Hedwig Lachmann. Nichols was a third cousin twice removed of scientist Albert Einstein, through Nichols' mother. In April 1939, when the Nazis were arresting Jews in Berlin, seven-year-old Mikhail and his three-year-old brother Robert were sent alone to the United States to join their father, who had fled months earlier, his mother joined the family, escaping through Italy in 1940. The family moved to New York City on April 28, 1939.
His father, whose original Russian name was Pavel Nikolaevich Peschkowsky, changed his name to Paul Nichols, Nichols derived from his Russian patronymic. Before Dr. Paul Nichols had received his U. S. medical license, he was employed by a union on X-raying union members. He had a successful medical practice in Manhattan, enabling the family to live near Central Park. "Before he established his practice, he was a union doctor, part of his job was X-raying union members, they didn't know about shielding X-ray machines. And he died of leukemia at 44." – Mike Nichols Nichols' youth was difficult because by age 4, following an inoculation for whooping cough, he had lost his hair, wore wigs for the rest of his life. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1944 and attended public elementary school in Manhattan. After graduating from the Walden School, a private progressive school on Central Park West, Nichols attended New York University before dropping out. In 1950, he enrolled in the pre-med program at the University of Chicago.
He described this college period as "paradise," recalling how "I never had a friend from the time I came to this country until I got to the University of Chicago."While in Chicago in 1953, Nichols joined the staff of struggling classical music station WFMT, 98.7 FM, as an announcer. Co-owner Rita Jacobs asked Nichols to create a folk music program on Saturday nights, which he named The Midnight Special, he hosted the program for two years before leaving for New York City. Nichols invited musicians to perform live in the studio and created a unique blend of "folk music and farce and satire, odds and ends," along with his successor Norm Pellegrini; the program endures today in the same time slot. Nichols first saw Elaine May when she was sitting in the front row while he was playing the lead in a Chicago production of Miss Julie, they made eye contact. Weeks he ran into her in a train station where he started a conversation in an assumed accent, pretending to be a spy, she played along, using another accent.
They hit it off which led to a brief romance. In his career, he said "Elaine was important to me from the moment I saw her."In 1953, Nichols left Chicago for New York City to study method acting under Lee Strasberg, b
Pauline Kael was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1968 to 1991. Kael was known for her "witty, biting opinionated and focused" reviews, her opinions contrary to those of her contemporaries, she was one of the most influential American film critics of her era. She left a lasting impression on many other prominent film critics. Roger Ebert argued in an obituary that Kael "had a more positive influence on the climate for film in America than any other single person over the last three decades." The critic, he said, "had no rules, no guidelines, no objective standards. You couldn't apply her'approach' to a film. With her it was all personal." Owen Gleiberman said. She reinvented the form, pioneered an entire aesthetic of writing." Kael was born on a chicken farm in Petaluma, California, to Isaac Paul Kael and Judith Kael, Jewish emigrants from Poland. Her parents lost their farm when Kael was eight, the family moved to San Francisco. In 1936 she matriculated at the University of California, where she studied philosophy and art, but dropped out in 1940.
Kael had intended to go on to law school, but fell in with a group of artists and moved to New York City with the poet Robert Horan. Three years Kael returned to San Francisco and "led a bohemian life," writing plays, working in experimental film. In 1948, Kael and the filmmaker James Broughton had a daughter, whom Kael would raise alone. Gina had a serious illness through much of her childhood. In 1953, the editor of City Lights magazine overheard Kael arguing about films in a coffeeshop with a friend and asked her to review Charlie Chaplin's Limelight. Kael dubbed the film "Slimelight" and began publishing film criticism in magazines. Kael explained her writing style: "I worked to loosen my style—to get away from the term-paper pomposity that we learn at college. I wanted the sentences to breathe, to have the sound of a human voice." Kael disparaged the supposed critic's ideal of objectivity, referring to it as "saphead objectivity," and incorporated aspects of autobiography into her criticism.
In a review of Vittorio De Sica's 1946 neorealist film Shoeshine, ranked among her most memorable, Kael described seeing the film... after one of those terrible lovers' quarrels that leave one in a state of incomprehensible despair. I came out of the theater, tears streaming, overheard the petulant voice of a college girl complaining to her boyfriend, "Well I don't see what was so special about that movie." I walked up the street, crying blindly, no longer certain whether my tears were for the tragedy on the screen, the hopelessness I felt for myself, or the alienation I felt from those who could not experience the radiance of Shoeshine. For if people cannot feel Shoeshine, what can they feel?... I learned that the man with whom I had quarreled had gone the same night and had emerged in tears, yet our tears for each other, for Shoeshine did not bring us together. Life, as Shoeshine demonstrates, is too complex for facile endings. Kael broadcast many of her early reviews on the alternative public radio station KPFA, in Berkeley, gained further local profile as the Berkeley Cinema Guild manager from 1955 to 1960.
Kael programmed the films at the two-screen theater, "unapologetically repeat her favorites until they became audience favorites." She wrote "pungent" capsule reviews of the films, which her patrons began collecting. Kael continued to juggle writing with other work until she received an offer to publish a book of her criticism. Published in 1965 as I Lost It at the Movies, the collection sold 150,000 paperback copies and was a surprise bestseller. Coinciding with a job at the high-circulation women's magazine McCall's, Kael "went mass"; that same year, she wrote a blistering review of the phenomenally popular The Sound of Music in McCall's. After mentioning that some of the press had dubbed it "The Sound of Money," Kael called the film's message a "sugarcoated lie that people seem to want to eat." Although according to legend this review led to her being fired from McCall's, both Kael and the magazine's editor, Robert Stein, denied this. According to Stein, he fired her "months after she kept panning every commercial movie from Lawrence of Arabia and Dr. Zhivago to The Pawnbroker and A Hard Day's Night."Her dismissal from McCall's led to a stint from 1966 to 1967 at The New Republic, whose editors continually altered Kael's writing without her permission.
In October 1967, Kael wrote a lengthy essay on Bonnie and Clyde, which the magazine declined to publish. William Shawn of The New Yorker obtained the piece and ran it in the New Yorker issue of October 21. Kael's rave review was at odds with prevailing opinion, that the film was controversial. According to critic David Thomson, "she was right about a film that had bewildered many other critics". A few months after the essay ran, Kael quit The New Republic "in despair." In 1968, Kael was asked by Shawn to join The New Yorker staff. Many considered her colloquial, brash writing style an odd fit with the sophisticated and genteel New Yorker. Kael remembered "getting a letter from an eminent New Yorker writer suggesting that I was trampling through the pages of the magazine with cowb
Richard Masur is an American actor who has appeared in more than 80 movies. From 1995 to 1999, he served two terms as president of the Screen Actors Guild. Masur sits on the Corporate Board of the Motion Picture & Television Fund. Masur was born in New York City, to a high school counselor mother, Claire Masur and a pharmacist father, he attended P. S. 28, Walt Whitman Junior High School, Roosevelt High School in Yonkers. He is the husband of Eileen Henry. Masur is Jewish. Masur studied acting at The Yale School of Drama and appeared on stage before acting in movies and television shows during the 1970s, he appeared on an episode of The Waltons as well as in an episode of All in the Family in late 1974 and had recurring roles in Rhoda from 1974 to 1978. In 1981, Masur played the role of a child molestor armed with a camera in the television film Fallen Angel, his next project was the 1982 horror/sci-fi The Thing, as Clark. The film has acquired a significant cult following in the years since its release, Masur reunites with former The Thing cast members for Q&A panels at fan conventions.
Masur played the father to Corey Haim's character in 1988's License to Drive and was part of the ensemble cast of the 1990 TV miniseries adaptation of Stephen King's It. Masur played the role of a character modeled after Jewish-American spy Jonathan Pollard in the film Les Patriotes, by French director Éric Rochant. In January 2006, Masur began appearing, he has appeared in guest spots on many TV shows, including M*A*S*H, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Hawaii Five-O, Happy Days, Picket Fences, Murphy Brown, Law & Order, Kevin Saves the World, Transparent. Masur played the role of Martin Stone in the off-Broadway play Dust. Richard Masur on IMDb Richard Masur at the TCM Movie Database Richard Masur at the Internet Broadway Database Richard Masur at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Richard Masur
Mary Louise "Meryl" Streep is an American actress. Described as the "best actress of her generation", Streep is known for her versatility and accent adaptation. Nominated for a record 21 Academy Awards, she has won three. Streep has received 31 Golden Globe nominations, winning eight - more nominations, wins, than any other actor, she has won three Primetime Emmy Awards and has been nominated for fifteen British Academy Film Awards, seventeen Screen Actors Guild Awards, winning two each. Streep made her stage debut in Trelawny of the Wells in 1975. In 1976, she received a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actress in a Play for 27 Wagons Full of Cotton and A Memory of Two Mondays. In 1977, she made her screen debut in the television film The Deadliest Season, made her film debut in Julia. In 1978, she won an Emmy Award for her role in the mini-series Holocaust, received her first Academy Award nomination for The Deer Hunter. Streep went on to win the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Kramer vs. Kramer, the Academy Award for Best Actress for Sophie's Choice and The Iron Lady.
Streep's other Oscar-nominated roles were in The French Lieutenant's Woman, Out of Africa, Evil Angels, Postcards from the Edge, The Bridges of Madison County, One True Thing, Music of the Heart, The Devil Wears Prada, Julie & Julia, August: Osage County, Into the Woods, Florence Foster Jenkins, The Post. She returned to the stage for the first time in over 20 years in The Public Theater's 2001 revival of The Seagull, won a second Emmy Award and a Golden Globe in 2004 for the HBO mini-series Angels in America. Streep was awarded the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2004, Gala Tribute from the Film Society of Lincoln Center in 2008, Kennedy Center Honor in 2011 for her contribution to American culture, through performing arts. President Barack Obama awarded her the 2010 National Medal of Arts, in 2014, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 2003, the government of France made her a Commander of the Order of Letters, she was awarded the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 2017. Mary Louise Streep was born on June 1949, in Summit, New Jersey.
She is the daughter of a commercial artist and art editor. She has two younger brothers: Harry William Streep III and Dana David Streep, who are actors. Streep's father Harry was of Swiss ancestry, her father's lineage traces back to Loffenau, from where her second great-grandfather, Gottfried Streeb, immigrated to the United States, where one of her ancestors served as mayor. Another line of her father's family was from Switzerland, her mother had English and Irish ancestry. Some of Streep's maternal ancestors lived in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, were descended from 17th-century immigrants from England, her eighth great-grandfather, Lawrence Wilkinson, was one of the first Europeans to settle in Rhode Island. Streep is the second cousin 7 times removed of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. Streep's maternal great-great-grandparents, Manus McFadden and Grace Strain, the latter the namesake of Streep's second daughter, were natives of the Horn Head district of Dunfanaghy, Ireland. Streep's mother, whom she has compared in both appearance and manner to Dame Judi Dench encouraged her daughter, instilled confidence in her from a young age.
Streep has said: "She was a mentor because she said to me,'Meryl, you're capable. You're so great.' She was saying, ` You can do. If you're lazy, you're not going to get it done, but if you put your mind to it, you can do anything.' And I believed her." Although Streep was more introverted than her mother, at times, when she needed an injection of confidence in adulthood, she would consult her mother, asking her for advice. Streep was raised as a Presbyterian in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, attended Cedar Hill Elementary School and the Oak Street School, a Junior High school back then. In her Junior High debut, she starred as Louise Heller in the play "The Family Upstairs". In 1963, the family moved to New Jersey, where she attended Bernards High School. Author Karina Longworth described her as a "gawky kid with glasses and frizzy hair", yet noted that she liked to show off in front of the camera in family home movies from a young age. At the age of 12, Streep was selected to sing at a school recital, leading to her having opera lessons from Estelle Liebling.
However, despite her talent, she has remarked that, "I was singing something I didn't feel and understand. That was an important lesson—not to do that. To find the thing that I could feel through." She quit after four years. Streep had many Catholic school friends, attended mass. Meryl was a high school cheerleader for the Bernards High School Mountaineers and was chosen as the homecoming queen her senior year, her family lived on Old Fort Road. Although Streep appeared in numerous school plays during her high school years, she was uninterested in serious theater until acting in the play Miss Julie at Vassar College in 1969, in which she gained attention across the campus. Vassar drama professor Clinton J. Atkinson noted, "I don't think anyone taught Meryl acting, she taught herself." Streep demonstrated an early ability to mimic accents and