Star's End is a 1974 album by British composer David Bedford and a 1982 novel by Glen Cook. Star's End is a weekly, five-hour-long new-age music radio show broadcast by 88.5 WXPN, the University of Pennsylvania's radio station, in Philadelphia. It is the second longest-running show of its type in the world, after Hearts of Space. Star's End was started in 1976 by Steve Pross and John Diliberto as a five-hour-long evening program. Diliberto went on to host the syndicated nightly ambient music show Echoes. In 1977 Gino Wong began sharing duties with Diliberto when Steve Pross entered the recording industry. At that point the concept was solidified and the opening theme, still used today was produced. Gordon Danis joined for a short time in 1978 bringing his passion for early ambient music to the mix. In 1979 Wong began producing records and concerts, creating an opening for guest hosts including Janet Quigley and Kimberly Haas. Beginning in the early 1980s Star's End went through an extended rotation of several different DJ's.
Original programmers Diliberto left in 1986 and Wong in 1988. The current host is Chuck Van Zyl. Star's End is broadcast late Saturday nights / Sunday mornings from 1:00 AM through 6:00 AM. In the late 1980's an earlier edition was added on Friday nights from 11:00 PM to 2:00 AM; this "matinee" edition lasted for 4 years. The show features uninterrupted; the show's website lists a variety of ambient genres and related styles as present in its playlist, including space music, new-age, electronic music, world music, avant-garde and spoken word performances. In the past, Star's End has featured guest DJ's mixing ambient music, has broadcast live in-studio performances by Robert Rich, Jonn Serrie, 302 Acid, Steve Roach, Radio Massacre International and others. In recent years Chuck van Zyl has organised a number of live concert performances in Philadelphia by various ambient artists, under the Star's End banner. Known as "The Gatherings" series, performers have included Steve Roach, Robert Rich, Radio Massacre International, Jeff Greinke, Erik Wøllo and van Zyl's own group, The Ministry of Inside Things along with numerous others.
Several independent CD recordings of performances recorded at these concerts have subsequently been released by van Zyl under his Synkronos label. Echoes, a nightly ambient music show produced by music critic John Diliberto Hearts of Space, a US-based ambient radio programme produced since 1973 by Stephen Hill Musical Starstreams, a US-based commercial radio program produced and hosted by Forest since 1981 Ultima Thule Ambient Music, a weekly ambient music radio show broadcast on community radio in Australia since 1989 Drone Zone Official website The Gatherings concert series website
Ultima Thule Ambient Music
Ultima Thule Ambient Music is a long-running, specialist ambient music radio show, broadcast on Australian community radio since 1989. The show has been described as one of the leading alternative music programmes on Australian radio, it is available as a webcast and as a podcast. As at December 2007, Ultima Thule was the number one ambient music podcast on the iTunes Store; each broadcast is uninterrupted by back-announcing other than near the beginning and end of the show, consists of a 90-minute musical soundscape created by segue mixing tracks from a number of different artists. The musical content of each show is eclectic and diverse, can embrace ancient, contemporary classical, ethnic/world, cool jazz, film soundtracks and even popular idioms, in addition to mainstream ambient, new age and electronic music; the duration of Ultima Thule has varied over the years. Launched as a 90-minute programme, the duration was expanded progressively to two, three hours, until settling back into a 90-minute slot from March 2001.
The project was conceived by George Cruickshank, the first show aired on 1 February 1989, from the Narwee studios of 2NBC-FM. In early 1990 the show was moved to Australia's oldest and biggest community station, 2MBS-FM, where it has been based since. From the show's foundation until late 1998, George Cruickshank was Ultima Thule's sole programmer and presenter. Towards the end of 1998, David Bassin, Candace Cappe, Victor Kay and Nev Dorrington joined Cruickshank as co-producers, although that arrangement proved impractical, was terminated early in 1999. Dorrington subsequently rejoined the show's on-air lineup late in 2001, along with Mike Watson, a.k.a. Mike G, creator of the Ambient Music Guide reference website. Watson remained with the show for five years, before departing in late 2006. Watson's position in the Ultima Thule roster was taken by Marc "Kundalini" Cottee. Jon Shapiro joined the show in 2009; the show has been presented on a fortnightly cycle since late 2001, with Cruickshank presenting every second broadcast, while each of the other presenters take turns hosting the show in the alternate weeks.
Ultima Thule is broadcast live by 2MBS-FM in Sydney, Australia, on Sunday evenings between 10.30 and midnight. In June 2003 Ultima Thule was networked to Adelaide by 2MBS' sister station, 5MBS-FM, it is broadcast there on Sunday evenings from 10.30pm to midnight. A third station in the Fine Music Network, Artsound FM, began to carry the show in November 2006, broadcasting it on Tuesday evenings from 10.00pm. In March 2008 it was announced on the Ultima Thule blog that the show had been picked up for nationwide distribution via the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia's Community Radio Network satellite service - which delivers shared programming to over 180 radio stations in all states and territories; that arrangement commenced on 2 May. Ultima Thule has been available as a podcast since May 2005, at any given time 8 shows are available for download in MP3 form through the programme's website, it can be streamed live from the 2MBS-FM website. Chasing the Dawn: Ultima Thule Ambient Volume 01, a branded compilation album produced by George Cruickshank, was released as a fund-raiser for 2MBS in early 2006.
It features original and unreleased compositions by thirteen ambient artists, including Steve Roach, Tim Story, Robert Rich, Numina. The recording reached #41 on the New Age Reporter music chart in August 2006. Echoes, a nightly ambient music show produced by music critic John Diliberto Hearts of Space, an ambient music programme broadcast on NPR in the US since the late 1970s. Hosted by Stephen Hill Musical Starstreams, a US-based commercial radio program produced and hosted by Forest since 1981 Star's End, a weekly ambient music programme broadcast on public radio in Philadelphia since 1976, hosted by Chuck van Zyl "Ambient Visions Presents an Interview with George Cruickshank". Ambient Visions. Frank Joseph. "In the chillzone". Fine Music. Judy Adamson. "Ambient anniversary on the airwaves". The Northern Herald. Marius Webb. "Ultima Thule". The Sydney Morning Herald Guide.. Official website
A radio personality or radio presenter is a person who has an on-air position in radio broadcasting. A radio personality who hosts a radio show is known as a radio host, in India and Pakistan as a radio jockey. Radio personalities who introduce and play individual selections of recorded music are known as disc jockeys or "DJs" for short. Broadcast radio personalities may include talk radio hosts, AM/FM radio show hosts, satellite radio program hosts. Notable radio personalities include pop music radio hosts Martin Block, Dick Clark, Casey Kasem, Delilah Luke, Alan Freed, Ameen Sayani, Herb Kent, Wolfman Jack. A radio personality can be someone who discusses genres of music; the radio personality may broadcast use voice-tracking techniques. In the 2010s, radio personalities are expected to supplement their on-air work by posting information online, such as on a blog or on another web forum; this may be either to connect with listeners. With the exception of small or rural radio stations, much of music radio broadcasting is done by broadcast automation, a computer-controlled playlist airing MP3 audio files which contain the entire program consisting of music, a radio announcer's pre-recorded comments.
In the past, the term "disc jockey" was used to describe on-air radio personalities who played recorded music and hosted radio shows that featured popular music. Unlike the modern club DJ who uses beatmatching to mix transitions between songs to create continuous play, radio DJs played individual songs or music tracks while voicing announcements, comments and commercials in between each song or short series of songs. During the 1950s,'60s and'70s, radio DJs exerted considerable influence on popular music during the Top 40 radio era, because of their ability to introduce new music to the radio audience and promote or control which songs would be given airplay. Although radio personalities who specialized in news or talk programs such as Dorothy Kilgallen and Walter Winchell existed since the early days of radio, exclusive talk radio formats emerged and multiplied in the 1960s, as telephone call in shows, interviews and public affairs became more popular. In New York, WINS switched to a talk format in 1965, WCBS followed two years later.
Early talk radio personalities included Sally Jesse Raphael. The growth of sports talk radio began in the 1960s, resulted in the first all-sports station in the US, WFAN that would go on to feature many sports radio personalities such as Marv Albert and Howie Rose. FM/AM radio – AM/FM personalities play music, talk, or both; some examples are Elvis Duran, Big Boy, Kidd Kraddick, John Boy and Billy, The Bob and Tom Show, The Breakfast Club, Rickey Smiley. Talk radio – Talk radio personalities discuss social and political issues from a particular political point of view; some examples are Rush Limbaugh, Art Bell, George Noory, Brian Kilmeade, Brian Lehrer, Don Geronimo and John Gibson. Sports talk radio – Sports talk radio personalities are former athletes, sports writers, or television anchors and discuss sports news; some examples are Dan Patrick, Tony Kornheiser, Dan Sileo, Colin Cowherd, Mike Francesa. Satellite radio – Satellite radio personalities are not subject to government broadcast regulations and are allowed to play explicit music.
Howard Stern and Anthony, Dr. Laura, Chris "Mad Dog" Russo are some of the notable personalities who have made the move from terrestrial radio to satellite radio. Internet radio - Internet radio personalities appear on internet radio stations that offer news, sports and various genres of music that are carried by streaming media outlets such as AccuRadio, Pandora Radio, Slacker Radio and Jango. Radio personality salaries are influenced by years of education. In 2013, the median salary of a radio personality in the US was $28,400. 1–4 years: $15,200–39,400, 5–9 years: $20,600–41,700, 10–19 years: $23,200–51,200, 20 or more years: $26,300–73,000. A radio personality with a bachelor's degree had a salary range of $19,600–60,400; the salary of a local radio personality will differ from a national radio personality. National personality pay can be in the millions because of the increased audience size and corporate sponsorship. For example, Rush Limbaugh was paid $38 million annually as part of the eight-year $400 million contract he signed with Clear Channel Communications.
Due to radio personalities' vocal training, opportunities to expand their careers exist. Over time a radio personality could be paid to do voice-overs for commercials, television shows, movies. Universities offer classes in radio broadcasting and have a college radio station, where students can obtain on-the-job training and course credit. Prospective radio personalities can intern at radio stations for hands-on training from professionals. Training courses are available online. Many radio personalities do not have a post-high school education, but some do hold degrees in audio engineering. If a radio personality has a degree it's a bachelor's degree level qualification in radio-television-film, mass communications, journalism, or English. A radio personality position has the following requirements: Good clear voice with excellent tone and modulation Great communication skills and creativity to interact with listeners
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after philosopher George Berkeley, it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills; the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. Berkeley is home to the oldest campus in the University of California system, the University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, managed and operated by the University, it has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. Berkeley is considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States; the site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, a shellmound, now leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.
Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley; the De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio"; the primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were pursued. Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente.
No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant; the Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U. S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes; the rest of the land was parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County; the area that became Berkeley was the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County.
During this period, "Berkeley" was a mix of open land and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay. In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site, it settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley,'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee. The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.
To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California; as construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along; the first post office opened in 1872. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound into what is now downtown Berkeley; that same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View.
There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkel
Mystery Science Theater 3000
Mystery Science Theater 3000 is an American television comedy series created by Joel Hodgson and produced by Alternaversal Productions, LLC. The show premiered on KTMA in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on November 24, 1988, it aired on The Comedy Channel/Comedy Central for seven seasons until its cancellation in 1996. Thereafter, it was picked up by The Sci-Fi Channel and aired for three seasons until another cancellation in August 1999. A 60-episode syndication package titled The Mystery Science Theater Hour was produced in 1995. In 2015, Hodgson led a crowdfunded revival of the series with 14 episodes in its eleventh season, first released on Netflix on April 14, 2017, with another six-episode season following on November 22, 2018; as of 2019, 217 episodes and a feature film have been produced. The show starred Hodgson as Joel Robinson, a janitor trapped against his will by two mad scientists on the Satellite of Love, forced to watch a series of B movies as a part of the scientists' plot to take over the world.
To keep his sanity, Joel crafts a number of robot companions—including Tom Servo, Crow T. Robot, Gypsy—to keep him company and help him humorously comment on each movie as it plays, a process known as riffing; each two-hour episode would feature a single movie in its entirety, sometimes with various shorts and educational films, with Joel and Crow watching in silhouette from a row of theater seats at the bottom of the screen. These scenes were framed with interstitial sketches; the show's cast changed over its duration. Other cast members, most of whom were writers for the show, include Trace Beaulieu, Josh Weinstein, Jim Mallon, Kevin Murphy, Frank Conniff, Mary Jo Pehl, Bill Corbett, Paul Chaplin, Bridget Jones Nelson; the revival features a new cast, including Jonah Ray as the new human test subject, Jonah Heston, along with Felicia Day and Patton Oswalt as the mads and Baron Vaughn, Hampton Yount, Rebecca Hanson as the bots. MST3K's original run did not garner high viewership numbers, but the show's popularity spread through word-of-mouth over the Internet from its fans known as MSTies, frequent repeats and syndication, home media offerings produced by Rhino Entertainment and Shout!
Factory, who along with Hodgson now own the rights to the show and supported the revived series. MST3K was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME" in 2007, TV Guide has noted MST3K as one of the top cult television shows; the show won a Peabody Award in 1993, was nominated for two Emmy Awards in 1994 and 1995, for the CableACE Award from 1992 to 1997. The show was considered influential, contributing towards the practice of social television, former cast members launched similar projects based on the riffing of films, including The Film Crew, RiffTrax, Cinematic Titanic. MST3K brought to light several older movies that had fallen into obscurity or had received little or no public attention when released. Many of these films were subsequently identified as among the worst movies made, most notably Manos: The Hands of Fate. While the cast of MST3K has changed throughout its history, the premise of the show remains unchanged: a human test subject—first Joel Robinson Mike Nelson, most Jonah Heston —has been imprisoned aboard the spacecraft Satellite of Love by mad scientists and their henchmen and is forced to watch a series of bad movies in order to find one that will drive the test subject insane.
To keep his sanity, Joel built himself a series of sentient robots from parts aboard the Satellite, who subsequently remain aboard with the other test subjects. The'bots include Tom Servo, Crow T. Robot and Cambot, the silent recorder of the experiments. Crow and Servo join the human as they watch the film in the Satellite's theater, to keep from going mad, the trio comment and wisecrack atop it, a process known as "riffing". At regular intervals throughout the movie, the hosts leave the theater and return to the bridge of the Satellite to perform sketches that satirize the film being watched; the general format of an MST3K episode has remained the same throughout the series' run. Episodes are 90 minutes in running time and begin with a short introductory segment in which the human host and the'bots interact with the Mads before being sent the movie. During Joel Hodgson and Jonah Ray's tenures as hosts, the hosts and the Mads engage in an "invention exchange" in which they each show off their latest inventions.
Sirens and flashing lights signal the characters to enter the theater. In the theater, the human host and'bots' Tom and Crow sit in a row of theater seats, shown in silhouette along the bottom of the screen, an approach Hodgson called "Shadowrama." The three riff on the film as it plays for both them and the audience. The silhouette format is used as a source of humor or as a means of creating unobtrusive censor bars for scenes containing nudity; the show transitions into and out of the theater via a "door sequence", a series of six doors that open or close as the camera passes through them. At regular intervals throughout the episode, the characters leave the theater and perform sketches inspired by the events of the film/short being shown, frequen
Sirius XM Satellite Radio
Sirius XM Holdings, Inc. doing business as Sirius XM Satellite Radio, is a broadcasting company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City that provides three satellite radio and online radio services operating in the United States: Sirius Satellite Radio, XM Satellite Radio, Sirius XM Radio. The company has a minor interest in SiriusXM Canada, an affiliate company that provides Sirius and XM service in Canada. At the end of 2013, Sirius XM reorganized their corporate structure, which made Sirius XM Radio Inc. a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Sirius XM Holdings, Inc. Sirius XM Radio was formed after the U. S. Federal Communications Commission approved the acquisition of XM Satellite Radio Holding, Inc. by Sirius Satellite Radio, Inc. on July 29, 2008, 17 months after the companies first proposed the merger. The merger brought the combined companies a total of more than 18.5 million subscribers based on current subscriber numbers on the date of merging. The deal was valued at $3.3 billion, not including debt.
Through Q2 2017, Sirius XM has more than 32 million subscribers. The proposed merger was opposed by those. Sirius and XM argued. In September 2018, the company agreed to purchase the competing streaming music service and this transaction was completed on the 1st of February 2019. Sirius Satellite Radio was founded by Martine Rothblatt, David Margolese, Robert Briskman. In 1990, Rothblatt founded Satellite CD Radio in Washington, DC; the company was the first to petition the FCC to assign unused frequencies for satellite radio broadcast, which "provoked a furor among owners of both large and small radio stations." In April 1992, Rothblatt resigned as CEO to start a medical research foundation. Former NASA engineer Briskman, who designed the company's satellite technology, was appointed chairman and CEO. Six months in November 1992, Rogers Wireless co-founder Margolese, who had provided financial backing for the venture, acquired control of the company and succeeded Briskman. Margolese renamed the company CD Radio, spent the next five years lobbying the FCC to allow satellite radio to be deployed, the following five years raising $1.6 billion, used to build and launch three satellites into elliptical orbit from Kazakhstan in July 2000.
In 1997, after Margolese had obtained regulatory clearance and "effectively created the industry," the FCC sold a license to XM Satellite Radio, which followed Sirius' example. In November 1999, marketing chief Ira Bahr convinced Margolese to again change the name of the company, this time to Sirius Satellite Radio, in order to avoid association with the soon-to-be-outdated CD technology. Having secured installation deals with automakers, including BMW, Chrysler and Ford, Sirius launched the initial phase of its service in four cities on February 14, 2002, expanding to the rest of the contiguous United States on July 1, 2002. In November 2001, Margolese stepped down as CEO, remaining as chairman until November 2003, with Sirius issuing a statement thanking him "for his great vision and dedication in creating both Sirius and the satellite radio industry." Joe Clayton, former CEO of Global Crossing, followed as CEO from November 2001 until November 2004. Mel Karmazin, former president of Viacom, became CEO in November 2004 and remained in that position through the merger, until December 2012.
The origin of XM Satellite Radio was a Petition for Rulemaking filed at the Federal Communications Commission by regulatory attorney and Founder of Satellite CD Radio Martine Rothblatt, to establish frequencies and licensing rules for the world's first-ever Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service. On May 18, 1990, Satellite CD Radio, Inc. filed a Petition for Rule Making in which it requested spectrum to offer Compact Disc quality digital audio radio service to be delivered by satellites and complementary radio transmitters. Following the Allocation NPRM, the FCC established a December 15, 1992 cut-off date for applications proposing satellite DARS to be considered in conjunction with CD Radio's application. One such application came from American Mobile Radio Corporation, the predecessor company to XM Satellite Radio. XM Satellite Radio was founded by Gary Parsons, it has its origins in the 1988 formation of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation, a consortium of several organizations dedicated to satellite broadcasting of telephone and data signals.
In 1992, AMSC established a unit called the American Mobile Radio Corporation, dedicated to developing a satellite-based digital radio service. Its planned financing was complete by July 2000, at which point XM had raised $1.26 billion and secured installation agreements with General Motors and Toyota. Scheduled for September 12, 2001, XM's service start date was postponed due to the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon. XM Satellite Radio's first broadcast was on September 2001, nearly four months before Sirius. Gary Parsons served as chairman of XM Satellite Radio from its inception through the merger, resigned from the position in November 2009. Hugh Panero served as XM's CEO from 1998 until July 2007, shortly after the merger with Sirius was proposed. Nate Davis was appointed interim CEO until the merger was completed, at which point Sirius CEO Mel Karmazin took over as CEO of the newly merged company, Sirius XM. After years of speculation and three months of serious negotiations, the $13 b
San Rafael, California
San Rafael is an affluent city and the county seat of Marin County, United States. The city is located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area; as of the 2010 census the city's population is 57,713. What is now San Rafael was once the site of several Coast Miwok villages: Awani-wi, near downtown San Rafael, near Terra Linda and Shotomko-cha, in Marinwood. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was founded in what is now downtown San Rafael as the 20th Spanish mission in the colonial Mexican province of Alta California by three priests—Father Narciso Durán from Mission San José, Father Abella from Mission San Francisco de Asís, Father Luis Gíl y Taboada from La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles—on Dec. 14, 1817, four years before Mexico gained independence from Spain. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was located a donkey's day walk to the mission below it; the mission and the city are named after the Angel of Healing. The mission was planned as a hospital site for Central Valley American Indians who had become ill at the cold San Francisco Mission Dolores.
Father Luis Gil, who spoke several Native American languages, was put in charge of the facility. In part because of its ideal weather, San Rafael was upgraded to full mission status in 1822; the mission had 300 converts within its first year, 1,140 converts by 1828. The Mexican government took over the California missions in 1834, Mission San Rafael was abandoned in 1844 falling into ruin; the current mission was built in 1949 in the style of the original, but faces at right angles to the alignment of the original. The San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad reached San Rafael in 1879 and was linked to the national rail network in 1888; the United States Navy operated a San Pablo Bay degaussing range from San Rafael through World War II. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles. 16.5 square miles of it is land and 6.0 square miles of it is water. South of the county is San Francisco. Notable landmarks include: Mission San Rafael Arcángel, around which the city developed the Marin County Civic Center building, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright the Rafael Film Center China Camp State Park, Kerner Studios.
Peacock Gap Golf Course, open to the public. There are several public parks in the city; the San Rafael shoreline has been filled to a considerable extent to accommodate land development, with underlying bay mud of up to 90 feet in thickness. At certain locations such as Murphys Point, the sandstone or shale rock outcrops through the mud. San Rafael has a wide diversity of natural habitats from forests at the higher elevations to marshland and estuarine settings, its marshes are home to the endangered species Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse. There are riparian areas including the San Rafael Creek and Miller Creek corridors. San Rafael has a Mediterranean climate, with mild winter lows reaching the freezing mark; the National Weather Service reports that August is the warmest month with a high of 80.1 °F or 26.7 °C and a low of 55.0 °F or 12.8 °C. December, the coldest month, has an average high of 55.1 °F or 12.8 °C and an average low of 41.0 °F or 5.0 °C. The highest temperature on record is 110 °F, recorded in June 1961.
The highest temperature in recent years, 108 °F, occurred on July 23, 2006. The record lowest temperature was 20 °F on December 22, 1990. There are an average of 17.9 afternoons annually with a high of 90 °F or 32.2 °C or more and 1.2 afternoons with a high of 100 °F or 37.8 °C or more. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of 3.6 mornings. Total annual precipitation averages 32.16 inches or 816.9 millimetres, with an average of 64.3 days with measurable rain. The rainy season is from November to early April: rain is rare outside of this period and it is normal to receive no rain in June, July and September; the wettest “rain year” was from July 1994 to June 1995 with 61.45 inches and the driest from July 1975 to June 1976 with 13.62 inches. The most rain in one month was 24.11 inches in January 1995, the heaviest 24-hour rainfall was 8.74 inches on December 11, 1995. A trace of snow was recorded on January 30, 1976; the 2010 United States Census reported that the city of San Rafael had a population of 57,713.
This figure does not, include portions of the Santa Venetia and Lucas Valley-Marinwood CDPs, nor various other unincorporated areas, all of which have San Rafael postal addresses. The following statistics refer to the incorporated limits of San Rafael only; the population density was 2,573.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Rafael was 40,734 White, 1,154 African American, 709 Native American, 3,513 Asian, 126 Pacific Islander, 8,513 from other races, 2,964 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17,302 persons; the Census reported that 55,594 people lived in households, 1,314 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 805 were institutionalized. There were 22,764 households, out of which 6,358 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 9,845 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,004 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,133 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,450 unmarried opp