Mechanix Illustrated was an American printed magazine, published by Fawcett Publications and its title was founded in 1928 to compete against the older Popular Science and Popular Mechanics. Billed as "The How-To-Do Magazine," Mechanix Illustrated aimed to guide readers through various projects from home improvements and advice on repairs to "build-your-own." It was headquartered in New York City. From its debut in 1928, it went through a number of permutations over the years, being called at various points in its life, Modern Mechanics and Inventions, Modern Mechanix and Inventions, Modern Mechanix, Mechanix Illustrated, Home Mechanix, and, in its final incarnation, Today's Homeowner. Although it featured many how-to articles, the most eagerly awaited and read features were Tom McCahill's monthly automobile tests which ran from the late 1940s to the early 1970s. McCahill's feisty opinions were delivered in a prose laced with similes that are still quoted today among car enthusiasts: "As anyone brighter than a rusty spike must know...".
McCahill died in 1974, three years CBS bought Fawcett Publications, the company which published MI, continued publishing the magazine, renaming it Home Mechanix starting in January 1985. In August, 1996, it was again renamed as Today's Homeowner, ceased publication with the March/April issue in 2001, being merged into sister publication This Old House. In the 1980s, the magazine featured more and more home repair and woodworking projects while featuring fewer articles on general technology and automotive projects. A long-running feature of Mechanix Illustrated was "Mimi," a shapely young woman dressed in skimpy overalls with blue and white vertical stripes, she was in a picture holding, standing beside, sitting on, lying on or just in the picture with a new product each month. Each "Mimi" held the job for a year, their names were never given except for the announcement of a new "Mimi" in the January issue. One Mimi did, hold the job for a few years in the sixties. An actress from Southern California, she left to live in Hawaii, a readers' poll was conducted to choose a replacement from a short list.
The readers' choice only lasted a short while, was replaced by one of the runners-up. "Mimi" was discontinued with the change to Home Mechanix. A long-running cartoon feature, Roy Doty's "Wordless Workshop," is appearing in "The Family Handyman" magazine. John August Media, LLC acquired the Mechanix Illustrated trademark and revived the magazine as part of TechnicaCuriosa.com, along with sister titles Popular Electronics and Popular Astronomy. Online archive of the covers from Mechanix Illustrated under its various titles
New England Air Museum
The New England Air Museum is an aerospace museum located at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, U. S. A.. The museum has additional storage-only hangars, it houses 66 aircraft, 26 helicopters, a variety of missiles, ejection seats, other pieces of flight-related equipment. The museum conducts tours, children's activities, hosts special events. Exhibits include the history of Sikorsky Aircraft, computer-based flight simulators, the 58th Bombardment Wing Memorial's B-29. Additionally, there are exhibits on early French aviation, the Tuskegee Airmen, the Kosciuszko Squadron, the 57th Fighter Group; the museum library has books, technical manuals and National Air and Space Museum photographs. Additional materials such as photographs and movies are cataloged by the Museum; the museum restores aircraft on a regular basis, including a Lockheed Model 10 Electra, a Boeing B-29 Superfortress, a Gee Bee Model R. In previous years, the museum was home to an annual flight simulation conference.
However, it has since moved to the nearby Sheraton Hotel at the airport. In 1981, the first current building was built after a tornado destroyed the museum's previous location by Route 75 in 1979; the museum has since added a restoration hangar in 1989, a storage building in 1991, a military hangar in 1992, a 58th Bomb Wing Hangar in 2003, a storage hangar in 2010. The New England Air Museum has many one-of-a-kind exhibits, including: The last remaining Sikorksky VS-44A flying boat; the Silas Brooks Balloon Basket, the oldest surviving aircraft in the U. S; the Sikorsky S-39, the oldest surviving Sikorsky aircraft. A Kaman K-225 helicopter, the oldest surviving Kaman-built aircraft; the only Burnelli CBY-3 Loadmaster built, under restoration in the Museum's workshops. In 2017 work was begun on major improvements at the museum; the $1.9 million project aims to enhance the visitor experience. The project will create lofty mezzanines in two of the massive aircraft hangars, which will provide vistas over the museum's aircraft collections.
The renovations were unveiled on 13 September 2017. The mission of the New England Air Museum is "committed to presenting the story of aviation, the human genius that made it possible and the profound effects that it has had on the way in which we live"; as of 2013, the permanent collection includes: FlightSimCon List of aerospace museums NEAM Official Site and information New England Air Museum Photos of aircraft and aviation related exhibits at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, CT
Homebuilt aircraft known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. These aircraft may be constructed from "scratch," from assembly kits. In the United States, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, homebuilt aircraft may be licensed Experimental under FAA or similar local regulations. With some limitations, the builder of the aircraft must have done it for their own education and recreation rather than for profit. In the U. S. the primary builder can apply for a repairman's certificate for that airframe. The repairman's certificate allows the holder to perform and sign off on most of the maintenance and inspections themselves. Alberto Santos-Dumont was the first to offer for free construction plans, publishing drawings of his Demoiselle in the June 1910 edition of Popular Mechanics; the first aircraft to be offered for sale as plans, rather than a completed airframe, was the Baby Ace in the late 1920s. Homebuilt aircraft gained in popularity in the U.
S. in 1924 with the start of the National Air Races, held in Ohio. These races required aircraft with useful loads of 150 lb and engines of 80 cubic inches or less and as a consequence of the class limitations most were amateur-built; the years after Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight brought a peak of interest between 1929 and 1933. During this period many aircraft designers and pilots were self-taught and the high accident rate brought public condemnation and increasing regulation to amateur building; the resulting federal standards on design, stress analysis, use of aircraft-quality hardware and testing of aircraft brought an end to amateur building except in some specialized areas, such as racing. In 1946 Goodyear restarted the National Air Races, including a class for aircraft powered by 200 cubic inch and smaller engines; the midget racer class spread nationally in the U. S. and this led to calls for acceptable standards to allow recreational use of amateur-built aircraft. By the mid-1950s both the U.
S. and Canada once again allowed amateur-built aircraft to specified limitations. Homebuilt aircraft are small, one to four-seat sportsplanes which employ simple methods of construction. Fabric-covered wood or metal frames and plywood are common in the aircraft structure, but fiberglass and other composites as well as full aluminum construction techniques are being used, techniques first pioneered by Hugo Junkers as far back as the late World War I era. Engines are most the same as, or similar to, the engines used in certified aircraft. A minority of homebuilts use converted automobile engines, with Volkswagen air-cooled flat-4s, Subaru-based liquid-cooled engines, Mazda Wankel and Chevrolet Corvair six-cylinder engines being most common; the use of automotive engines helps to reduce costs, but many builders prefer dedicated aircraft engines, which are perceived to have better performance and reliability. Other engines that have been used include motorcycle engines. A combination of cost and litigation in the mid-1980s era, discouraged general aviation manufacturers from introducing new designs and led to homebuilts outselling factory built aircraft by five to one.
In 2003, the number of homebuilts produced in the U. S. exceeded the number produced by any single certified manufacturer. The history of amateur-built aircraft can be traced to the beginning of aviation. If the Wright brothers, Clément Ader, their successors had commercial objectives in mind, the first aircraft were constructed by passionate enthusiasts whose goal was to fly. Aviation took a leap forward with the industrialization that accompanied World War I. In the post-war period, manufacturers needed to find new markets and introduced models designed for tourism. However, these machines were affordable only by the rich. Many U. S. aircraft designed and registered in the 1920s onward were considered "experimental" by the CAA, the same registration under which modern homebuilts are issued Special Airworthiness Certificates. Many of these were prototypes, but designs such as Bernard Pietenpol's first 1923 design were some of the first homebuilt aircraft. In 1928, Henri Mignet published plans for his HM-8 Pou-du-Ciel.
Pietenpol constructed a factory, in 1933 began creating and selling constructed aircraft kits. In 1936, an association of amateur aviation enthusiasts was created in France. Many types of amateur aircraft began to make an appearance, in 1938 legislation was amended to provide for a Certificat de navigabilité restreint d'aéronef. 1946 saw the birth of the Ultralight Aircraft Association which in 1952 became the Popular Flying Association in the United Kingdom, followed in 1953 by the Experimental Aircraft Association in the United States and the Sport Aircraft Association in Australia. The term "homebuilding" became popular in the mid-1950s when EAA founder Paul Poberezny wrote a series of articles for the magazine Mechanix Illustrated where he explained how a person could buy a set of plans and build their own aircraft at home; the articles gained the concept of aircraft homebuilding took off. Until the late 1950s, builders had kept to wood-and-cloth and steel tube-and-cloth design. Without the regulatory restrictions faced by production aircraft manufacturers, homebuilders introduced innovative designs and construction techniques.
Burt Rutan introduced the canard design to the homebuilding world and pioneered the use of composite construction. Metal construction in kitplanes was taken to a new level by Richard VanGrunsv
The Bristol Cherub is a British two-cylinder, air-cooled, aircraft engine designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company. Introduced in 1923 it was a popular engine for ultralight and small aircraft in the 1930s. Cherub I Initial direct drive version introduced in 1923. Bore and stroke of 3.35 by 3.8 inches for a displacement of 67 cu in. 32 horsepower at 2,500 rpm. Cherub II Geared down version of the Cherub I. Cherub III An improved and larger direct drive version introduced in 1925. An airworthy Messerschmitt M17 replica is owned and operated by the EADS Heritage Flight at Manching and is powered by an original Bristol Cherub III. A preserved Bristol Cherub is on static display at the Shuttleworth Collection, Old Warden, Bedfordshire. Data from Lumsden. Type: 2-cylinder air-cooled, horizontally opposed, left-hand tractor Bore: 3.54 in Stroke: 3.8 in Displacement: 75 in³ Width: 25.6 in Dry weight: 98 lb Valvetrain: Overhead valve Oil system: Dry sump Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 36 hp at 3,200 rpm Compression ratio: 5.75:1 Fuel consumption: 2.5 imp. gallons per hour Power-to-weight ratio: 0.36 hp/lb Comparable engines ABC Scorpion Aeronca E-113 Armstrong Siddeley Ounce Walter AtomRelated lists List of aircraft engines The Bristol Cherub - Flight, March 1923
De Havilland DH.60 Moth
The de Havilland DH.60 Moth is a 1920s British two-seat touring and training aircraft, developed into a series of aircraft by the de Havilland Aircraft Company. The DH.60 was developed from the larger DH.51 biplane. The first flight of the Cirrus powered prototype DH.60 Moth was carried out by Geoffrey de Havilland at the works airfield at Stag Lane on 22 February 1925. The Moth was a two-seat biplane of wooden construction, it had a plywood covered fuselage and fabric covered surfaces, a standard tailplane with a single tailplane and fin. A useful feature of the design was its folding wings which allowed owners to hangar the aircraft in much smaller spaces; the Secretary of State for Air Sir Samuel Hoare became interested in the aircraft and the Air Ministry subsidised five flying clubs and equipped them with Moths. The prototype was modified with a horn-balanced rudder, as used on the production aircraft, was entered into the 1925 King's Cup Race flown by Alan Cobham. Deliveries commenced to flying schools in England.
One of the early aircraft was fitted with an all-metal twin-float landing gear to become the first Moth seaplane. The original production Moths were known as Cirrus I Moths. Three aircraft were modified for the 1927 King's Cup Race with internal modifications and a Cirrus II engine on a lowered engine mounting; the original designation of DH.60X was soon changed to Cirrus II Moth. The production run for the DH.60X Moth was short as it was replaced by variants, but it was still available to special order. Although the Cirrus engine was reliable, its manufacture was not, it depended on components salvaged from World War I–era 8-cylinder Renault engines and therefore its numbers were limited by the stockpiles of surplus Renaults. Therefore, de Havilland decided to replace the Cirrus with a new engine built by his own factory. In 1928 when the new de Havilland Gipsy I engine was available a company DH.60 Moth G-EBQH was re-engined as the prototype of the DH.60G Gipsy Moth. Next to the increase in power, the main advantage of this update was that the Gipsy was a new engine available in as great a number as the manufacture of Moths necessitated.
The new Gipsy engines could be built in-house on a production-line side by side with the production-line for Moth airframes. This enabled de Havilland to control the complete process of building a Moth airframe and all, streamline productivity and in the end lower manufacturing costs. While the original DH.60 was offered for a modest £650, by 1930 the price of a new Gipsy-powered Moth was still £650, this in spite of its state-of-the-art engine. A metal-fuselage version of the Gipsy Moth was designated the DH.60M Moth and was developed for overseas customers Canada. The DH.60M was licence-built in Australia, the United States and Norway. In 1931 a variant of the DH.60M was marketed for military training as the DH.60T Moth Trainer. In 1931 with the upgrade of the Gipsy engine as the Gipsy II, de Havilland inverted the engine and re-designated it the Gipsy III; the engine was fitted into a Moth aircraft, re-designated the DH.60G-III Moth Major. The sub-type was intended for the military trainer market and some of the first aircraft were supplied to the Swedish Air Force.
The DH.60 T was re-designated the DH.60 T Tiger Moth. The DH.60T Tiger Moth was modified with swept back mainplanes. The changes were considered great enough that the aircraft was re-designated the de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth. Apart from the engine, the new Gipsy Moth was still a standard DH.60. Except for changes to accommodate the engine the fuselage remained the same as before, the exhaust still ran alongside the left side of the cockpits and the logo on the right side still read'De Havilland Moth'; the fuel tank was still housed in the bulging airfoil that formed the centre section of the upper wing. The wings could still be folded alongside the fuselage and still had de Havilland's patented differential ailerons on the bottom mainplanes and no ailerons on the top ones. Colour options still remained as simple as before: wings and tail in "Moth silver", fuselage in the colour the buyer chose; as there was no real comparison between the original DH.60 and the new DH.60G, the Gipsy Moth became the mainstay of British flying clubs as the only real recreational aircraft in the UK.
By 1929 it was estimated that of every 100 aeroplanes in Britain, 85 were Moths of one type or another, most of them Gipsy Moths. This in spite of the fact that with de Havilland switching from the Cirrus to its own Gipsy engine, surplus Cirrus engines were now pouring into the'free' market and a trove of Cirrus powered aircraft like the Avro Avian, the Klemm Swallow or the Miles Hawk started fighting for their share of the flying club and private market. Although replaced in production by the DH.60G-III Moth Major and by the DH.82 Tiger Moth, the Gipsy Moth remained the mainstay of the British flying scene up to the start of WWII. The war however marked the end of the Gipsy Moth and post-war it was replaced by ex-RAF Tiger Moths pouring into the civilian market. In retrospect one can say. Next to the Moth's maiden flight, 1925 marked the birth of the first five Royal Aero Club flying schools and because of its simplicity and reliable powerplant, the Moth was the aircraft of choice to equip the clubs.
Vice versa, the clubs gave de Havilland a secure supply of orders. De Havilland could use this aspect
The Aerotique Parasol is an American parasol-wing, strut-braced, conventional landing gear, single-seat, open cockpit, single engine in tractor configuration, ultralight aircraft, designed as an ultralight version of the 1926 vintage Heath Parasol. It was produced by Yesteryear Aviation and by Aerotique Aviation; the aircraft was supplied as factory-built only. The aircraft was designed to comply with the US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles rules, including the category's maximum empty weight of 254 lb; the Parasol's factory standard empty weight was 242 lb. The aircraft's fuselage is built with an aluminium tube structure, with wooden wings, all covered with doped aircraft fabric covering. Early production models used wooden wing ribs, while models transitioned to aluminium ribs, its 32 ft span wing uses parallel lift struts supported by flying wires. The wings are take about an hour to remove; the factory installed engine was the Rotax 277, single cylinder, two-stroke powerplant of 28 hp. Other than the engine and the wheels, all parts are certified aircraft parts.
The Parasol has conventional three-axis controls, including half-span ailerons. The main landing gear is bungee-suspended and the tail has a steerable skid. Brakes were optional and taxiing the aircraft without them was described as "a little tricky"; as is the case with many parasol designs where the pilot sits directly underneath the wing on the aircraft's center of gravity, the cockpit access is restricted by the close proximity of the wing. Data from ClicheGeneral characteristics Crew: one Wingspan: 32 ft 0 in Wing area: 144 sq ft Aspect ratio: 7.1 Empty weight: 242 lb Gross weight: 520 lb Fuel capacity: 5 U. S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 277 single cylinder, two-stroke, 28 hp Propellers: 2-bladed woodenPerformance Maximum speed: 63 mph Cruise speed: 58 mph Stall speed: 24 mph Never exceed speed: 78 mph g limits: +6/-2.5 Rate of climb: 700 ft/min Aircraft of comparable role and era Fisher FP-505 Skeeter Loehle Sport Parasol Pietenpol Air Camper Pop's Props Cloudster Pop's Props Zing RagWing RW5 Heath Replica
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti