The Women's Institute, a community-based organisation for women, was founded in Stoney Creek, Canada, by Adelaide Hoodless in 1897. It was based on the British concept of Women's Guilds, created by Rev Archibald Charteris in 1887 and confined to the Church of Scotland. From Canada the organisation spread back to the motherland, throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth, thence to other countries. Many WIs belong to the Associated Country Women of the World organization; the WI movement began at Stoney Creek, Ontario in Canada in 1897 when Adelaide Hoodless addressed a meeting for the wives of members of the Farmers' Institute. WIs spread throughout Ontario and Canada, with 130 branches launched by 1905 in Ontario alone, the groups flourish in their home province today; as of 2013, the Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario had more than 300 branches with more than 4,500 members. Madge Watt, a founder member of the first WI in British Columbia, organised the first WI meeting in Great Britain, which took place on 16 September 1915 at Llanfairpwll on Anglesey, Wales.
The organisation had two aims: to revitalise rural communities and to encourage women to become more involved in producing food during the First World War. Since the organisation's aims have broadened and it is now the largest women's voluntary organisation in the UK; the organisation celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2015 and as of 2017 had 220,000 members in 6,300 WIs. Today it plays a unique role in enabling women to gain new skills, take part in wide-ranging activities, campaign on issues that matter to them and their communities; the WI is a diverse organisation open to all women, there are now WIs in towns and cities as well as villages. Women's Institutes were formed in Scotland and Northern Ireland independently of those in England and Wales; the first Women's Rural Institute started in Scotland on 26 June 1917, Madge Watt travelled up from London to speak to a meeting at Longniddry. After the end of the Great War, Watt returned to Canada where she continued as an activist for the interests of rural women.
In 1930 she founded the Associated Country Women of the World. After the end of the First World War, the Board of Agriculture withdrew its sponsorship, although the Development Commission financially supported the work of the forming of new WIs and gave core funding to the National Federation until it could become financially independent. By 1926 the Women's Institutes were independent and became an essential part of rural life. One of their features was an independence from political parties or institutions, or church or chapel, which encouraged activism by non-establishment women, which helps to explain why the WI has been reluctant to support anything that can be construed as war work, despite their wartime formation. During the Second World War, they limited their contribution to such activities as looking after evacuees, running the Government-sponsored Preservation Centres where volunteers canned or made jam of excess produce. Women's Institutes in England, Jersey and the Isle of Man are affiliated with the National Federation of Women's Institutes.
In Scotland and Northern Ireland there are similar organisations tied to the WI through the Associated Country Women of the World: the Scottish Women's Rural Institutes and the Women's Institutes of Northern Ireland. Each individual WI is a separate charitable organisation, run by and for its own members with a constitution agreed at national level but the possibility of local bye-laws. WIs are grouped into Federations corresponding to counties, which each have a local office and one or more paid staff; the National Federation of Women's Institutes is the overall body of the WI in England, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, with headquarters in London. There is an office in Cardiff, NFWI-Wales, a residential college in Oxfordshire, Denman College. WI Enterprises is the trading arm of the organisation and exists to raise funds and provide benefits for members; as of January 2019 there were 220,000 members of 6,300 Women's Institutes in England and the islands, linked through the Associated Country Women of the World to other WIs worldwide.
The WI is a women-only organisation, has clarified in a 2017 statement Transgender WI membership that "Anyone, living as a woman is welcome to join the WI and to participate in any WI activities in the same way as any other woman". Colonel Richard Stapleton-Cotton and his dog Tinker are the only two males to be accepted as paid-up WI members: the Colonel, a "highly influential man locally", played a major part in setting up the first WI meeting in Anglesey in 1915; the WI campaigns on a wide range of issues affecting women, based on resolutions agreed at each year's national Annual Meeting. Its first resolution, passed in 1918, called for "sufficient supply of convenient and sanitary houses, being of vital importance to women in the country". In 1943 they called for "Equal Pay for Equal Work" and continued to argue for this until the Equal Pay Act 1970 was passed. 1954's resolution to "‘preserve the countryside against desecration by litter" lead to the formation of the Keep Britain Tidy group, which became a registered charity in 1960.
The WI discussed HIV/AIDS in 1986, agreeing to "to inform the general public of the true facts concerning the disease AIDS" and subsequently working with the Terence Higgins Trust to produce a leaflet on "Women and AIDS". The 2017 meeting passed a motion on microplastics pollution or "Plastic soup", in 2018 the WI agreed to "Make Time for Mental Health", "calling on members to take action to make it as acceptable to t
Shrove Tuesday is the day in February or March preceding Ash Wednesday, celebrated in some countries by consuming pancakes. In others those where it is called Mardi Gras or some translation thereof, this is a carnival day, the last day of "fat eating" or "gorging" before the fasting period of Lent; this moveable feast is determined by Easter. The expression "Shrove Tuesday" comes from the word shrive, meaning "absolve". Shrove Tuesday is observed by many Christians, including Anglicans, Lutherans and Roman Catholics, who "make a special point of self-examination, of considering what wrongs they need to repent, what amendments of life or areas of spiritual growth they need to ask God's help in dealing with."As this is the last day of the liturgical season known as Shrovetide, before the penitential season of Lent, related popular practices, such as indulging in food that one gives up for the upcoming forty days, are associated with Shrove Tuesday celebrations. The term Mardi Gras is French for "Fat Tuesday", referring to the practice of the last night of eating richer, fatty foods before the ritual fasting of the Lenten season, which begins on Ash Wednesday.
The tradition of marking the start of Lent has been documented for centuries. Ælfric of Eynsham's "Ecclesiastical Institutes" from around 1000 AD states: "In the week before Lent everyone shall go to his confessor and confess his deeds and the confessor shall so shrive him as he may hear by his deeds what he is to do ". By the time of the late Middle Ages, the celebration of Shrovetide lasted until the start of Lent, it was traditional in many societies to eat pancakes or other foods made with the butter and fat that would be given up during the Lenten season. Similar foods are pączkis; the specific custom of British Christians eating pancakes on Shrove Tuesday dates to the 16th century. Along with its emphasis on feasting, another theme of Shrove Tuesday involves Christians repenting of their sins in preparation to begin the season of Lent in the Christian calendar. In many Christian parish churches, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, a popular Shrove Tuesday tradition is the ringing of the church bells "to call the faithful to confession before the solemn season of Lent" and for people to "begin frying their pancakes".
The word shrove is a form of the English word shrive, which means to obtain absolution for one's sins by way of Confession and doing penance. Thus Shrove Tuesday was named after the custom of Christians to be "shriven" before the start of Lent. In the United Kingdom and parts of the Commonwealth, Shrove Tuesday is known as "Pancake Day" or "Pancake Tuesday", as it became a traditional custom to eat pancakes as a meal. In Irish the day is known as Máirt Inide, from the Latin initium, "beginning of Lent." Elsewhere, the day has been called "Mardi Gras", meaning "Fat Tuesday", after the type of celebratory meal that day. In Germany, the day is known as Fastnachtsdienstag, Faschingsdienstag, Karnevalsdienstag or Veilchendienstag, it is celebrated with a partial school holiday. In German American areas, such as Pennsylvania Dutch Country, it is known as Fastnacht Day. In the Netherlands, it is known as "vastenavond", or in Limburgish dialect "vastelaovend", though the word "vastelaovend" refers to the entire period of carnival in the Netherlands.
In some parts of Switzerland, the day is called Güdisdienstag, preceded by Güdismontag. According to the Duden dictionary, the term derives from "Güdel", which means a fat stomach full of food Güdeldienstag. In Portuguese-, Spanish- and Italian-speaking countries, among others, it is known as Carnival; this derives from Medieval Latin carnelevamen and thus to another aspect of the Lenten fast, to abstain from eating meat. It is celebrated with street processions or fancy dress; the most famous of these events has become the Brazilian Carnival in Rio de Janeiro. Venetians have long celebrated carnival with a masquerade; the use of the term "carnival" in other contexts derives from this celebration. In Spain, the Carnival Tuesday is named "día de la tortilla": an omelette made with some sausage or pork fat is eaten. On the Portuguese island of Madeira, malasadas are eaten on Terça-feira Gorda, the last day of the Carnival of Madeira. Malasadas were cooked in order to use up all the lard and sugar in the house, in preparation for Lenten restrictions.
This tradition was taken to Hawaii, where Shrove Tuesday is known as Malasada Day, which dates back to the days of the sugar plantations of the 1800s. The resident Catholic Portuguese workers used up butter and sugar prior to Lent by making large batches of malasadas. In Denmark and Norway, the day is marked by eating fastelavnsboller. Fastelavn is the name for Carnival in Denmark, either the Sunday or Monday before Ash Wednesday. Fastelavn developed from the Roman Catholic tradition of celebrating in the days before Lent, but after Denmark became a Protestant nation, the holiday became less religious; this holiday occurs seven weeks before Easter Sunday, with children dressing up in costumes and gathering treats for the Fastelavn feast. The holiday is considered to be a time for children's fun and family games. In Iceland, the day is known as Sprengidagur and is marked
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Woburn Abbey occupying the east of the village of Woburn, England, is a country house, the family seat of the Duke of Bedford. Although it is still a family home to the current duke, it is open on specified days to visitors, along with the diverse estate surrounding it, including the historic landscape gardens and deer park, as well as more added attractions including Woburn Safari Park, a miniature railway and a garden/visitor centre. Woburn Abbey, comprising Woburn Park and its buildings, was set out and founded as a Cistercian abbey in 1145. Taken from its monastic residents by Henry VIII and given to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, in 1547, it became the seat of the Russell family and the Dukes of Bedford; the Abbey was rebuilt starting in 1744 by the architects Henry Flitcroft and Henry Holland for the 4th Duke. Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, originated the afternoon tea ritual in 19th-century England. In April 1786 John Adams visited other notable houses in the area. After visiting them he wrote in his diary "Stowe and Blenheim, are superb.
Wotton is both great and elegant, though neglected". However in his diary he was damning about the means used to finance the large estates, he did not think that the embellishments to the landscape, made by the owners of the great country houses, would suit the more rugged American countryside. From 1941 Woburn Abbey was the headquarters of the secretive Political Warfare Executive which had its London offices at the BBC's Bush House. Following World War II, dry rot was discovered and half the Abbey was subsequently demolished; when the 12th Duke died in 1953, his son the 13th Duke was exposed to heavy death duties and the Abbey was a half-demolished, half-derelict house. Instead of handing the family estates over to the National Trust, he kept ownership and opened the Abbey to the public for the first time in 1955, it soon gained in popularity as other amusements were added, including Woburn Safari Park on the grounds of the Abbey in 1970. Asked about the unfavourable comments by other aristocrats when he turned the family home into a safari park, the 13th Duke said, "I do not relish the scorn of the peerage, but it is better to be looked down on than overlooked."
The 13th Duke moved to Monte Carlo in 1975. His son Robin, who enjoyed the courtesy title Marquess of Tavistock, ran the Abbey with his wife in his father's absence. In the early 1990s, the Marquess and The Tussauds Group planned to turn the Abbey into a large theme park with the help of John Wardley, creator of the roller coasters "Nemesis" and "Oblivion". However, Tussauds built one there instead. From 1999 to 2002, the Marquess and the Marchioness, the former Henrietta Joan Tiarks, were the subjects of the Tiger Aspect Productions reality series Country House in three series, totalling 29 episodes, which aired on BBC Two, it detailed the business of running the Abbey. It inspired several Monarch of the Glen storylines; the Marquess of Tavistock became the 14th Duke on the death of his father in November 2002 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States. The 14th Duke was the briefest holder of the Dukedom and died in June 2003. On the death of the 14th Duke, his son Andrew became the 15th Duke, he continues his father's work in running the Woburn Abbey Estate.
The building is listed in the highest category of architecture at Grade I. The art collection of the Duke of Bedford is amongst the finest in private hands, encompasses a wide range of western artwork; the holdings comprise some 250 paintings, including works by Rubens, Van Dyck and Velasquez. Moreover, the collection encompasses examples of the most expensive manufacturers of furniture and English in many periods, a diverse collection of porcelain and silverware. Dutch School Asselyn, Jan – 1 painting Cuyp, Aelbert Jacobsz – 5 paintings Delen, Dirk van – 1 painting Flinck, Govert – 1 painting Goyen, Jan van – 1 painting Potter, Paulus – 2 paintings Rembrandt, Harmenszoon van Rijn – 2 paintings Ruisdael, Jacob van – 2 paintings Steen, Jan – 2 paintings Velde, Willem van de Velde – 1 painting Werff, Adrian van der – 1 paintingEnglish School Gainsborough, Thomas – 1 painting Gheeraerts, Marcus – 2 paintings Hayter, Sir George – 4 paintings Hoppner, John – 2 paintings Knapton, George – 1 painting Landseer, Edwin Henry – 2 paintings Reynolds, Joshua – 12 paintings George Gower – Flemish School Critz, John de – 1 painting Dyck, Anthony van – 10 paintings Eworth, Hans – 1 paintingFrench School Bercham, Nicholas – 1 painting Lorrain, Claude – 2 paintings Lefebvre, Claude – 1 painting Loo, Carl van – 1 painting Poussin, Nicolas – 2 paintings Vernet, Claude Joseph – 2 paintingsGerman School Holbein, Hans – 1 paintingItalian School Batoni, Pompeo – 1 painting Canaletto – 24 paintings Ricci, Sebastiano – 1 painting Salvi, Giovanni – 2 paintingsSpanish School Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban – 1 painting Velázquez, Diego – 1 painting CFF produced the film "Five Clues To Fortune" aka "The Treasure At Woburn Abbey" in 1957, starring David Hemmings and David Cameron who married German actress Hildegard
Leighton Buzzard is a town in Bedfordshire, near the Chiltern Hills and lying between Luton and Milton Keynes. It adjoins Linslade and the name Leighton Linslade is sometimes used to refer to the combination of the two towns. For local government purposes, the town is part of the Central Bedfordshire district and is administered jointly with Linslade as the civil parish of Leighton-Linslade. There are a number of theories concerning the derivation of the town's name, but the most is that "Leighton" came from Old English Lēah-tūn, meaning'farm in a clearing in the woods'; the "Buzzard" was added by the Dean of Lincoln, in whose diocese the town lay in the 12th century Having two communities called "Leighton" and seeking some means of differentiating them, he added the name of his local Prebendary or representative to that of the town. At that time it was a Theobald de Busar and so over the years the town became known as Leighton Buzzard; the other Leighton became Leighton Bromswold. Leighton Buzzard is famous as the Grand Union Canal was opened there.
More Leighton Buzzard station was the location for part of the film Robbery, based on the so-called "Great Train Robbery", whereas the actual robbery took place just outside the town, at Bridego bridge, Ledburn. In the Domesday Book, Leighton Buzzard and Linslade were both called Leestone. Leighton Buzzard contains All Saints' Church, an Early English parish church dating from 1277; the church has a 190 ft spire and has been described as the'cathedral of South Bedfordshire'. The church has since undergone restoration; the town is known for the Leighton Buzzard Light Railway, a narrow gauge heritage railway. The town has a combined library and theatre where both live events and film screenings are held. Stockgrove Country Park is in nearby Reach. After the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 Leighton Buzzard became the centre of a poor law union that consisted of 15 surrounding parishes with the union workhouse being sited in Grovebury Road. A network of historic tunnels exists under the High Street; the tunnels have not been investigated, but one is accessible from the cellarage of Wilkinson Estate Agents at the top of Market Square.
The cellar an ice house, extends under the road by some 16 feet and is in good condition. The tunnel is sealed for safety reasons, it goes in a southerly direction towards the former Market Tavern public house some 100 yards and legend has it that other tunnels from the church and other public houses link up under the street in network that covers some 500 yards. Leighton Buzzard Children's Theatre, run by Sally and David Allsopp, has been based in Heath and Reach since 1992; the group has raised over £90,000 for various charities through musical theatre and drama productions starring local children aged 4 - 18 who perform at the local Library Theatre and School Theatres. Leighton Buzzard is represented by the sporting teams of Leighton Town F. C. who play football in the Spartan South Midlands Football League. At the Bell Close Site are Leighton Buzzard Tennis Club who have been a part of the town since the 1930s. Leighton Buzzard Hockey Club established in 1901, play field hockey and run 4 Men's and 4 Ladies teams of all ability.
The Men's teams play in the South Hockey League and the Ladies teams play in the 5 Counties Hockey League. Leighton Buzzard Hockey Club have junior sides. Leighton Buzzard R. F. C. Play rugby union in South West 1 East and the Ladies rugby team play in NC South East North 2. Leighton Buzzard Golf Club was established in 1905 and there is an active running club, Leighton Buzzard Athletics Club. Established in 2011 Leighton Buzzard Road Cycling Club is a cycling club for riders of all abilities, their race team LBRCC-Solgar compete in local, as well as national, cycling events. Established in 2000, Leighton Linslade Croquet Club, a member of the Croquet Association, have three croquet lawns in Pages Park next to the pavilion; the club takes part in many national croquet competitions and is a member of the East Anglian Croquet Association. Leighton Buzzard experiences an oceanic climate similar to all of the United Kingdom. Beaudesert Lower School – Apennine Way Clipstone Brook Lower School – Brooklands Drive Greenleas School – Derwent Road Greenleas School, Sandhills – Kestrel Way Dovery Down Lower School – Heath Road Heathwood Lower School – Heath Road Leedon Lower School – Highfield Road Linslade Lower School Mary Bassett Lower School – Bassett Road Pulford VA C of E Lower School – Pulford Road St George's Lower School – East Street St Leonard's V A Lower School Stanbridge Lower School Southcott Lower School – Bideford Green Brooklands Middle School – a school near the south east edge of the town.
Gilbert Inglefield Academy – next door to Vandyke Upper School. Leighton Middle School – in the centre of the town, Mary Norton, who wrote'The Borrowers' books, lived there in her childhood. Linslade Middle School – Situated over the road from Cedars. Cedars Upper School – Located on the west edge of town, adjoined to Tiddenfoot Leisure Centre. Cedars was once a grammar school. Vandyke Upper School – Situated on the east edge of town, on Vandyke Road; as of late 2006, the school has been undergoing a £2½ million refurbishment. Oak Bank School – located on Sandy Lane. Central Bedfordshire College has a campus near the town centre of Leighton Buzzard called the Learning Wareho