Sacred Reich is an American thrash metal band based in Phoenix, that was formed in 1985. Singer/songwriter Phil Rinds interest was in conscious and political speed metal. After several albums on Metal Blade Records, they signed to Hollywood Records for a short stint, former drummer Dave McClain went on to join Machine Head in 1995. Lead guitarist Wiley Arnett went on to form The Human Condition with St. Madness vocalist Prophet in July 2000, in November 2006, the band announced they would play several shows in the summer of 2007 in Europe, including Wacken Open Air. However, according to an interview with bassist/vocalist Phil Rind, there are no plans to record a new Sacred Reich album
Lee Altus, born 13 May 1966 in Odessa, Ukrainian SSR, is an American heavy metal guitarist. Altus first came to attention in the mid-1980s with his original band, Heathen. He is principal songwriter and founding member of Heathen as well, after Heathen broke up in 1992 Altus moved to Germany along with his fellow ex-Heathen members Doug Piercy and Darren Minter. Altus and Minter played in the metal group Die Krupps for much of the remainder of the 1990s. He participated in a version of Angel Witch. Returning to America around 2001, Altus reunited Heathen along with Minter, vocalist Dave White, bassist Mike Jastremski and guitarist Ira Black. The band put out an EP entitled Recovered, made up of material and, with a new second guitarist and bassist. Altus is currently working on a new album with Heathen, Lee currently endorses ESP Guitars, though he used to play Jackson King V guitars. Altus was a long time user of Mesa/Boogie Amplifiers as well, interview with Lee Altus and his mother from CBS News,1987
Hellfest (French music festival)
Hellfest, called Hellfest Summer Open Air, is a French music festival specializing in heavy metal, held annually in June in Clisson in Loire-Atlantique. Its high attendance makes it one of the greatest French music festivals and it is one of the biggest festivals of metal in Europe and the first in France. The festival was the successor of Fury Fest, which was held in 2002 and 2003 in Clisson and Nantes respectively, in June 2009, numerous groups concerned about the concert name asked the festival sponsors to disengage from Hellfest. Coca-Cola announced a few days that they no longer support the festival. The same month, former minister and leader of the Parti chrétien-démocrate Christine Boutin wrote to Kronenbourg asking them to supporting the festival. The 30 March, questioned by deputy Patrick Roy, the minister Frédéric Mitterrand declared to the Assemblée Nationale that the detractors of the festival should calm down, during the 2011 edition an homage was paid to Patrick Roy who died two months before.
On June 9,2010, the AFC sued the Hellfest, asking not to allow people under 18 years old to attend the festival. On June 14, the judge refused their demand, the first association was created in 2000 in Clisson as CLS CREW, in order to organize concerts of hardcore and punk in the region of Nantes. It allows to program groups like Arkangel or Poison the Well, the success of these concerts makes possible the launch the first festival in June 2002, named Fury Fest. It gathers 400 people to attend Agnostic Front, in Clisson, the festival continued the following years. It attracts 7,000 people to attend concerts of Sick of It All, the format changes to two days. Because no room was available in Clisson, Hall of Trocardière hosts this second edition, the organization of the festival changes, the MAN. IN. FEST association was created to take charge of the organization. The 2003 has reached €30,000 profit, allowing Benjamin Barbaud, one of the founders, in 2004, the festival moved to Le Mans and stands in the halls of the 24 Hours circuit where it attracts 21,000 spectators to Slipknot and Soulfly.
After a deficit in 2004, the 2005 inheriting liabilities, the team decided to give the rights of the festival to others promoters. This time 30,000 entries are recorded at Le Mans in three days, to concerts of Slayer, Motörhead and Anthrax on three stages. But financial problems worsen, with the disappearance of promoters with €600000 recipe, official website Pictures of Hellfest 2009
Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its fast tempo and overall aggression. The songs usually use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, the lyrics often deal with social issues and reproach for The Establishment, using direct and denunciatory language, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk. The genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the fast drum beats and attitude of hardcore with the double bass drumming and complex guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal. It emerged partially as a reaction to the conventional and widely acceptable glam metal. Thrash metal was an inspiration for subsequent extreme genres such as death metal, Four American bands—Anthrax, Megadeth and Slayer—are credited with pioneering and popularizing the genre. The Clash of the Titans tour, which featured Megadeth, thrash metal has seen a resurgence in recent times, with many of the older bands returning to their roots with their new releases. A new generation of metal bands emerged in the early 2000s.
Thrash metal generally features fast tempos, low-register, complex riffs, high-register guitar solos. The genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the drum beats of hardcore punk with the style of the new wave of British heavy metal. It emerged partially as a reaction to the conventional and widely acceptable glam metal. The rhythm guitar parts are played with distortion and often palm muted to create a tighter. Vocally, thrash metal can employ anything from singing to shouted vocals. The guitar riffs often use chromatic scales and emphasize the tritone and diminished intervals, for example, the intro riff of Metallicas Master of Puppets is a chromatic descent, followed by a chromatic ascent based on the tritone. Speed and time-changes define thrash metal, thrash tends to have an accelerating feel which may be due in large part to its aggressive drumming style. For example, drummers often use two drums, or a double-bass pedal, in order to create a relentless, driving beat. Cymbal stops/chokes are often used to transition from one riff to another or to precede an acceleration in tempo, to keep up with the other instruments, many bassists use a plectrum.
However, some prominent thrash metal bassists have used their fingers, such as Frank Bello, Greg Christian, Steve DiGiorgio, Robert Trujillo, several bassists use a distorted bass tone, an approach popularized by Burton and Motörheads Lemmy. Lyrical themes in thrash metal include warfare, injustice, suicide, alienation, addiction, in addition, particularly pessimism and dissatisfaction towards politics, are common themes among thrash metal bands
New wave of British heavy metal
The new wave of British heavy metal was a nationwide musical movement that started in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and achieved international attention by the early 1980s. The DIY attitude of the new metal bands led to the spread of raw-sounding, self-produced recordings, song lyrics were usually about escapist themes such as mythology, fantasy and the rock lifestyle. The NWOBHM began as an underground phenomenon growing in parallel to punk and it was only through the promotion of rock DJ Neal Kay and Sounds campaigning that it reached the public consciousness and gained radio airplay and success in the UK. The movement involved mostly young, white and working-class musicians and fans, as a reaction to their bleak reality, they created a community separate from mainstream society to enjoy each others company and their favourite loud music. The NWOBHM was heavily criticised for the hype generated by local media in favour of mostly talentless musicians. The movement spawned perhaps a metal bands, but only a few survived the advent of MTV.
Among them, Iron Maiden and Def Leppard became international stars, other groups, such as Diamond Head and Raven, remained underground, but were a major influence on the successful extreme metal subgenres of the late 1980s and 1990s. Many bands from the NWOBHM reunited in the 2000s and remained active through live performances, as a consequence of deindustrialization, the unemployment rate was exceptionally high, especially among working class youth. It continued to rise in the early 1980s, peaking in February 1983, the discontent of so many people caused social unrest with frequent strikes, and culminated in a series of riots. These self-proclaimed punks were politically militant, relishing their anarchic attitude and they wore short and spiked hairstyles or shaved heads, often with safety pins and ripped clothes, and considered musical prowess unimportant as long as the music was simple and loud. The UK was a cradle of the first wave of heavy metal, of the many British bands that came to prominence during that period, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple achieved worldwide success and critical acclaim.
The success of the genre, usually called heavy rock at the time, generated a community of UK fans with strong ties to psychedelia, hippie doctrines. Some writers even declared the premature demise of heavy metal altogether, foreign hard rock acts, such as Blue Öyster Cult and Kiss from the US, Rush from Canada, Scorpions from Germany, and especially AC/DC from Australia, climbed the British charts in the same period. The band Motörhead was founded in 1975 by already experienced musicians and their leader Ian Lemmy Kilmister was a former member of the space rock band Hawkwind, Larry Wallis had played with Pink Fairies, and Eddie Clarke had been a member of Curtis Knights Zeus. Their previous experience is one element which divides critics and fans over whether the band belongs to the new wave of British heavy metal, didnt do us much good, because Motörhead came along a bit too early for it. Other critics view Motörhead as the first significant exponent of the movement and their fast music, the renunciation of technical virtuosity in favour of sheer loudness, and their uncompromising attitude were welcomed equally by punks and heavy metal fans.
Motörhead were supported by many NWOBHM bands on tour, and they shared the stage with Lemmys friends punk band The Damned. Motörheads musical style became popular during the NWOBHM, making them a fundamental reference for the nascent movement
Charles Michael Chuck Schuldiner was an American singer and guitarist. He founded the pioneering band Death in 1983, Schuldiner is often referred to as The Godfather of Death metal, and his obituary in the January 5,2002 issue of UKs Kerrang. Magazine said that Chuck Schuldiner was one of the most significant figures in the history of metal, Schuldiner himself was modest about his part in the history of death metal, noting, I dont think I should take the credits for this death metal stuff. Im just a guy from a band, and I think Death is a metal band, Schuldiner was ranked No.10 in Joel McIvers book The 100 Greatest Metal Guitarists in 2009 and No.20 in March 2004 Guitar Worlds The 100 Greatest Metal Guitarists. Schuldiner founded the publishing company Mutilation Music in 1987, affiliated with performance rights organization BMI, Chuck Schuldiner was born on May 13,1967 on Long Island, New York to a Jewish father of Austrian descent and a mother from the American South, a convert to Judaism.
Both of his parents were teachers, in 1968, his family moved to Florida. Schuldiner was the youngest of three children, he had a brother named Frank and an older sister named Bethann. He started playing guitar at the age of 9, his 16-year-old brother had died and his parents bought him a guitar, the young Schuldiner immediately took to the instrument. After getting amps, he never stopped playing and teaching himself, Schuldiner was known to spend the weekend in the garage or his room playing his guitar, but was limited to three hours on weekdays when school was in session. Schuldiner first played in public in his early teens, Schuldiner was originally inspired by Metallica, Iron Maiden and classical jazz, among others. He was particularly interested in the movement known as NWOBHM – New Wave of British Heavy Metal –. He frequently cited French band Sortilège as his favorite metal group. Slayer, Celtic Frost, Mercyful Fate/King Diamond and Metallica were influences he would apply more to his own band, in his career, Schuldiner frequently cited progressive metal bands such as Watchtower and Queensrÿche as influences.
The official Schuldiner website, Empty Words, quotes Schuldiners mother making the claim that he enjoyed all forms of music except country and he enjoyed jazz and classical music in addition to metal and British alternative acts such as Lush. Schuldiner performed well in school before becoming bored with education, and he has stated that if he had not become a musician, he would have liked to have become a veterinarian or a cook. Schuldiner formed Death as Mantas in 1983 when he was just 16 years old, original members were Schuldiner, Rick Rozz and Kam Lee. In January 1986, Schuldiner moved to Toronto and temporarily joined the Canadian band Slaughter, however, he quickly returned to continue the formation of Death. With Chris Reifert, Schuldiner eventually released the first Death album, titled Scream Bloody Gore and this earned Schuldiner something of a perfectionist reputation in the metal community
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
The Dispossessed, An Ambiguous Utopia is a 1974 utopian science fiction novel by Ursula K. Le Guin, set in the fictional universe as that of The Left Hand of Darkness. The book won the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 1974 and it features the development of the mathematical theory underlying the fictional ansible, an instantaneous communications device that plays a critical role in Le Guins Hainish Cycle. The invention of the places the novel first in the internal chronology of the Hainish Cycle. The Dispossessed is set on Anarres and Urras, the inhabited worlds of Tau Ceti. Cetians are mentioned in other Ekumen novels and short stories, an Anarresti appears in the short story The Shobies Story. Urras before the settlement of Anarres is the setting for the short story The Day Before the Revolution, in The Dispossessed, Urras is divided into several states and dominated by the two largest ones, which are rivals. Other parties represent various dissident visions of socialism, beyond that, there is a third major, though underdeveloped, area called Benbili—when a revolution supported by Thu breaks out there, A-Io invades, generating a proxy war.
Although there are a variety of parties in A-Io, there are no political parties on Anarres. The chapters alternate between the worlds, and time—even-numbered chapters are set on Anarres and earlier in time, odd-numbered chapters are set on Urras, the only exceptions are the first and the last chapters which include both worlds and are, chapters of transition. In chapter one, we are basically in the middle of the story, with Shevek leaving Anarres, the penultimate chapter is the last one set in Anarres, and ends at a point before the first chapter begins. Shevek, a physicist working on a new theory of time finds his work blocked by a jealous superior and his physics work is further disrupted by the need for him to perform manual labor during a drought in this anarchist society. He arranges to go to Urras to finish and publish his theory, arriving on Urras, Shevek is feted. Shevek soon finds himself digusted with the social and political conventions of the hierarchical capitalist society he is in and he joins in a labor protest that is violently suppressed and he escapes to safety.
Finally he is sponsored by ambassadors of Earth who provide him safe passage back to Anarres, the story takes place on the fictional planet Urras and its habitable twin Anarres. Before this, Anarres had had no permanent settlements apart from some mining facilities, the economic and political situation of Anarres and its relation to Urras is ambiguous. The ambiguity of Anarres situation is symbolically manifested in the low wall surrounding Anarres single spaceport, signs may be seen - where the book begins and ends. The protagonist Shevek is a physicist attempting to develop a General Temporal Theory, the physics of the book describes time as having a much deeper, more complex structure than we understand it
Thrash of the Titans
Thrash of the Titans was a benefit concert held on August 11,2001 at the Maritime Hall in San Francisco, CA. The concert was a co-benefit for Testament vocalist Chuck Billy, who was diagnosed with germ cell seminoma, and Chuck Schuldiner, leader of the metal band Death. The Master of Ceremonies for the evening was S. O. D, the concert was organized by Walter Morgan. The show was announced in May 2001, and all 2300 tickets quickly sold out, as a result of the show, Exodus and Death Angel all officially reunited and released new albums. Forbidden would reunite again in 2007 and released a new three years later. Also appearing at the concert were Anthrax, along with S. O. D. and Sadus, who are all friends of Chuck Billys. Lääz Rockit were scheduled to appear, but had to pull out at the last minute, due to singer Michael Coons being admitted to a rehabilitation center, beginning with Heathen at 3 pm, the show featured ten bands, with Legacy taking the stage just after 2am. Legacy, a precursor to Testament, featured Steve Zetro Souza on vocals, John Tempesta on drums, skolnicks appearance marked his first playing thrash metal since quitting Testament in 1993, and eventually led to his rejoining the band.
Also appearing with Legacy were Paul Bostaph, the drummer of Forbidden Evil and Steve DiGiorgio, bassist for Sadus and formerly of Death, Autopsy. Chuck Billy himself joined Legacy for the last song of the night, the show featured many other guest appearances, including Steve Souza joining Exodus and Paul Baloff for a duet on Brain Dead. Thrash of the Titans marked one of the last live appearances of Exodus frontman Paul Baloff, deaths Chuck Schuldiner died of brain cancer four months after the benefit, on December 13,2001. In order of appearance, Heathen Flotsam and Jetsam Sadus Forbidden Evil Death Angel Exodus S. O. D, Anthrax Vio-Lence Legacy Bay Area thrash metal Testament Chuck Billy Chuck Schuldiner RockHard Magazine article on Thrash of the Titans
Glam artists drew on diverse sources ranging from bubblegum pop and 50s rock and roll to cabaret theatrics, science fiction, and complex art rock. The flamboyant clothing and visual styles of performers were often camp or androgynous, the UK charts were inundated with glam rock acts from 1971 to 1975, with glam manifesting in all areas of British popular culture during this period. British glam rock artists include Marc Bolan and T. Rex, David Bowie, Slade, Roxy Music, in the US the scene was much less prevalent, with Alice Cooper and Lou Reed the only American artists to score a hit. Other US glam artists include New York Dolls, Iggy Pop and it declined after the mid-1970s, but influenced other musical genres including punk rock, glam metal, New Romanticism, and gothic rock and has sporadically revived since the 1990s. Glam rock can be seen as a fashion as well as musical subgenre, Glam artists rejected the revolutionary principles of the late 1960s rock scene, instead glorifying decadence and the simple structures of earlier pop music.
Musically it was diverse, varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art rock of Roxy Music. Glam is most noted for its sexual and gender ambiguity and representations of androgyny and it was prefigured by the showmanship and gender identity manipulation of American acts such as the Cockettes and Alice Cooper, the latter of which combined glam with shock rock. Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art scenes of the late 1960s. Its origins are associated with Marc Bolan, who had renamed his folk duo T, Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. Often cited as the moment of inception is his appearance on the UK TV programme Top of the Pops in March 1971 wearing glitter and satins, to perform what would be his second UK Top 10 hit, Hot Love. In 1973, a few months after the release of the album Tanx, from late 1971, already a minor star, David Bowie developed his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional makeup and performance into his act.
These performers were soon followed in the style by acts including Roxy Music, Slade, Mott the Hoople, Glam was not only a highly successful trend in UK popular music, it became dominant in all other aspects of British popular culture during the 1970s. In the UK, the glitter rock was most often used to refer to the extreme version of glam pursued by Gary Glitter. The Glitter Band and Gary Glitter had between them eighteen top ten singles in the UK between 1972 and 1976, a second wave of glam rock acts, including Suzi Quatro, Roy Woods Wizzard and Sparks, dominated the British single charts from about 1974 to 1976. Quatro directly inspired the pioneering Los Angeles based all-girl group the Runaways. Existing acts, some not usually considered central to the genre, adopted glam styles, including Rod Stewart, Elton John, Queen and, for a time, in Japan in the 1980s, visual kei was strongly influenced by glam rock aesthetics. Glam has since enjoyed continued influence and sporadic modest revivals in R&B crossover act Prince, and bands such as Marilyn Manson, Placebo, Chainsaw Kittens, movies that reflect glam rock aesthetics include, T. D.
An Eyewitness Account Omnibus Press,2005 ISBN 1-84609-149-7 A Biased History of UK Glam Rock
Testament is an American thrash metal band from Berkeley, California. Formed in 1983 under the name Legacy, the bands current line-up comprises vocalist Chuck Billy, guitarists Eric Peterson and Alex Skolnick, bassist Steve Di Giorgio and drummer Gene Hoglan. In the 34 years since its inception, Testament has had numerous lineup changes, Billy replaced former singer Steve Souza in 1986, prior to the recording of their first studio album, The Legacy, and has been a member of the band since. Billy and Peterson are the band members to appear on every album. To date, the band has released studio albums, four live albums, six compilation albums. Shortly after the release of The Ritual and drummer Louie Clemente left the band and were replaced by James Murphy and John Tempesta on guitar and they gained critical recognition for embarking on the European Clash of the Titans tour with Slayer and Suicidal Tendencies. To this day, the continues to record and perform live. Testament was formed in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1983 by guitarist Eric Peterson and his cousin, vocalist Derrick Ramirez, a guitarist, the band soon recruited bassist Greg Christian and drummer Mike Ronchette.
Ramirez subsequently passed lead guitar duties to Alex Skolnick, who had studied under Bay Area guitarist Joe Satriani, Ramirez eventually departed and was replaced on vocals by Steve Souza before the band released one self-titled four-song demo in 1985. Ronchette left shortly after the recording and was replaced by Louie Clemente, Souza subsequently left the band to join Exodus, and suggested Chuck Billy to replace him on lead vocals. While recording their first album, the band was forced to change their name to Testament, Testaments first album, The Legacy, was released in April 1987 on Megaforce Records. Testament received instant fame within thrash circles and were compared with fellow Bay Area thrash pioneers Metallica. The band quickly managed to increase their exposure by heading out on successful American and European tours with Anthrax, on this tour, the Live at Eindhoven EP was recorded. Testament opened for their labelmates Overkill, and Megadeth on their Peace Sells, Testaments second album, The New Order, was released in May 1988, and found the band continuing in a similar vein.
The album was a success, peaking at number 136 on the Billboard 200. In support of The New Order, Testament opened for Megadeth on their So Far, Tour in Europe, and toured the United States with the likes of Death Angel, Vio-Lence and Raven. After touring in support of The New Order, the band headed back into the studio to record their studio album Practice What You Preach. Released in August 1989, the album minimized the occult and gothic themes found in the content of their first two albums, instead focusing on real-life issues such as politics and corruption