Neopaganism in the United Kingdom
The Neo-pagan movement in the United Kingdom is represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions and Heathenry. According to the 2011 UK Census, there are 53,172 people who identify as Pagan in England, 3,448 in Wales, as well as 11,026 Wiccans in England and 740 in Wales. A study conducted by Ronald Hutton compared a number of different sources, used standard models for calculating numbers of Pagans within the United Kingdom; this estimate accounted for multiple membership overlaps as well as the number of adherents represented by each attendee of a Neo-pagan gathering. Hutton estimated that there are 250,000 Neo-pagan adherents in the United Kingdom equivalent to the national Hindu community. A smaller number is suggested by the results of the 2001 Census, in which a question about religious affiliation was asked for the first time. Respondents were able to write in an affiliation not covered by the check-list of common religions, a total of 42,262 people from England and Wales declared themselves to be Pagans by this method.
These figures were not released as a matter of course by the Office for National Statistics, but were released after an application filed by the Pagan Federation. With a population of around 59 million, this gives a rough proportion of 7 Pagans per 10,000 inhabitants of the United Kingdom; the 2001 UK Census figures did not allow an accurate breakdown of traditions within the Pagan heading, as a campaign by the Pagan Federation before the census encouraged Wiccans, Heathens and others all to use the same write-in term'Pagan' in order to maximise the numbers reported. The 2011 census however made it possible to describe oneself as Pagan-Wiccan, Pagan-Druid and so on; the figures for England and Scotland are as follows: The overall numbers of people reporting Pagan or one of the other categories in the table above rose between 2001 and 2011. In 2001 about seven people per 10,000 UK respondents identified as pagan. Research conducted by Dr Leo Ruickbie suggested that the south-east of England had the highest concentration of Neo-pagans in the country.
Neopaganism in the UK is dominated by Wicca, the modern movement of Druidry, forms of Germanic Neopaganism. Wicca was developed in England in the first half of the 20th century, it is a duotheistic religion which worships the Horned God and Moon Goddess. Although it had various terms in the past, from the 1960s onward the name of the religion was normalised to Wicca. Germanic Heathenism in Britain is present in two forms: Odinism, an international Germanic movement and Anglo-Saxon Heathenry, Esetroth or Fyrnsidu, a movement represented by independent kindreds characterised by a focus on local folklore as the source for the reconstruction of the ethnic religion of the English people. Both Odinism and Esetroth draw inspiration from the Anglo-Saxon identity and culture of England, with no difference between them, other than in terminology and organisation, with Esetroth movements having experienced a recent prominence and motivation; the Odinic Rite was founded in 1973 under the influence of Else Christensen's Odinist Study Group.
In 1988 the Odinic Rite became the first polytheistic religious organisation to be granted "Registered Charity" status in the United Kingdom. Various independent Anglo-Saxon faith's kindreds exist such as the Wuffacynn of Suffolk and Northern Essex, the England-wide "English Esetroth" community organization, the Fealu Hlæw Þeod based in Hathersage and Peak District and the Þunorrad Þeod covering the Kingdom of Mercia. Folkish Anglo-Saxon kindreds have been organising through "English Esetroth" since 2014 in a series of private gatherings. All the listed groups operate private moots and sumbels. During the Iron Age, Celtic polytheism was the predominant religion in the area now known as England. Neo-Druidism grew out of the Celtic revival in 18th century Romanticism, its first organised group was the Ancient Order of Druids, founded in London in 1781 along Masonic lines as a mutual benefit society and still extant today. It is not a neo-Pagan group, it was followed in 1792 by the Gorsedd of Bards of the Isle of Britain founded in London.
This was the brainchild of Welsh stonemason, student of Welsh language and heritage, literary forger, Edward Williams, better known by his assumed name, Iolo Morganwg. It survives to this day, its rituals forming an important part of the annual Welsh National Eisteddfod, its members include Queen Elizabeth II and former Archbishop of Rowan Williams. It is a cultural institution, not a neo-Pagan one. Inasmuch as it has a religious element, that element is Christian; the Ancient Druid Order, founded circa 1909, was the first that could be characterised as neo-Pagan, its founder being influenced by the occult movement of the late 19th century. The Order of Bards and Druids, which split from the Ancient Druid Order in 1964, began to develop a more neo-Pagan style of Druidry through the friendship between its founder, Ross Nichols, the founder of modern Wicca, Gerald Gardner. Nichols, was a Christian. More overtly Pagan Druid groups began to develop in the UK from the late 1970s onwards; these include The Druid Network and numerous other smaller groups.
Neo-pagan organisations in Great Britain: Germanic neopaganism Odinic Rite Odinist Fellowship Neo-dr
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism. Neo-Nazis seek to employ their ideology to promote hatred and attack minorities, or in some cases to create a fascist political state, it is a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries and international networks. It borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, xenophobia, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, anti-communism and initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. In some European and Latin American countries, laws prohibit the expression of pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic, or homophobic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism; the term neo-Nazism describes any post-World War II militant, social or political movements seeking to revive the ideology of Nazism in whole or in part.
The term neo-Nazism can refer to the ideology of these movements, which may borrow elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, anti-communism, ableism, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, antisemitism, up to initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. Neo-Nazism is considered a particular form of right-wing extremism. Neo-Nazi writers have posited a spiritual, esoteric doctrine of race, which moves beyond the Darwinian-inspired materialist scientific racism popular in the Anglosphere during the 20th century. Figures influential in the development of neo-Nazi racism, such as Miguel Serrano and Julius Evola, claim that the Hyperborean ancestors of the Aryans were in the distant past, far higher beings than their current state, having suffered from "involution" due to mixing with the "Telluric" peoples. Within this theory, if the "Aryans" are to return to the Golden Age of the distant past, they need to awaken the memory of the blood.
An extraterrestrial origin of the Hyperboreans is claimed. These theories draw influence from Tantrism, building on the work of the Ahnenerbe. Within this racist theory, Jews are held up as the antithesis of nobility and beauty. Neo-Nazism aligns itself with a blood and soil variation of environmentalism, which has themes in common with deep ecology, the organic movement and animal protectionism; this tendency, sometimes called "ecofascism", was represented in the original German National Socialism by Richard Walther Darré, the Reichsminister of Food from 1933 until 1942. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, the political ideology of the ruling party, was in complete disarray; the final leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party was Martin Bormann. He died on 2 May 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, but the Soviet Union did not reveal his death to the rest of the world, his ultimate fate remained a mystery for many years. Conspiracy theories emerged about Hitler himself, that he had secretly survived the war and fled to South America or elsewhere.
The Allied Control Council dissolved the NSDAP on 10 October 1945, marking the end of "Old" National Socialism. A process of denazification began, the Nuremberg trials took place, where many major leaders and ideologues were condemned to death by October 1946, others committed suicide. In both the East and West, surviving ex-party members and military veterans assimilated to the new reality and had no interest in constructing a "neo-Nazism." However, during the 1949 elections a number of National Socialist advocates such as Fritz Rössler had infiltrated the national conservative Deutsche Rechtspartei, which had 5 members elected. Rössler and others left to found the more radical Socialist Reich Party under Otto Ernst Remer. At the onset of the Cold War, the SRP favoured the Soviet Union over the United States. In Austria national independence had been restored, the Verbotsgesetz 1947 explicitly criminalised the NSDAP and any attempt at restoration. West Germany adopted a similar law to target parties.
As a consequence some members of the nascent movement of German neo-Nazism joined the Deutsche Reichspartei of which Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the most prominent figure. Younger members founded the Wiking-Jugend modeled after the Hitler Youth; the Deutsche Reichspartei stood for elections from 1953 until 1961 fetching around 1% of the vote each time. Rudel befriended French-born Savitri Devi, a proponent of Esoteric Nazism. In the 1950s she wrote a number of books, such as Pilgrimage, which concerns prominent Third Reich sites, The Lightning and the Sun, in which she claims that Adolf Hitler was an avatar of the God Vishnu, she was not alone in this reorientation of National Socialism towards its Thulean-roots. In the German Democratic Republic a former member of SA, Wilhelm Adam, founded the National Democratic Party of Germany, it reached out to those attracted by the Nazi Party before 1945 and provide them with a political outlet, so that they would not be tempted to support the far-right again or turn to the anti-communist Western Allies.
Stalin wanted to use them to create a new pro-Soviet and anti-West
USS John C. Stennis
USS John C. Stennis is the seventh Nimitz-class nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy, named for Senator John C. Stennis of Mississippi, she was commissioned on 9 December 1995. Her home port is Washington; the mission of John C. Stennis and her air wing is to conduct sustained combat air operations while forward-deployed; the embarked air wing consists of eight to nine squadrons. Attached aircraft are Navy and Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornet, EA-18G Growler, MH-60R, MH-60S, E-2C Hawkeye; the air wing can engage enemy aircraft and land targets, or lay mines hundreds of miles from the ship. John C. Stennis's aircraft are used to conduct strikes, support land battles, protect the battle group or other friendly shipping, implement a sea or air blockade; the air wing provides a visible presence to resolve in a crisis. The ship operates as the centerpiece of a carrier battle group commanded by a flag officer embarked upon John C. Stennis and consisting of four to six other ships. John C. Stennis's two nuclear reactors give her unlimited range and endurance and a top speed in excess of 30 knots.
The ship's four catapults and four arresting gear engines enable her to launch and recover aircraft and simultaneously. The ship carries 3 million US gallons of fuel for her aircraft and escorts, enough weapons and stores for extended operations without replenishment. John C. Stennis has extensive repair capabilities, including a equipped Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department, a micro-miniature electronics repair shop, numerous ship repair shops. For defense, in addition to her air wing and accompanying vessels, John C. Stennis has NATO RIM-7 Sea Sparrow and Rolling Airframe Missile surface-to-air missile systems, the Phalanx Close-in Weapons System for cruise missile defense, the AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare System; the nuclear-powered USS John C. Stennis was contracted on 29 March 1988, the keel was laid on 13 March 1991 at Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia; the ship was christened on 11 November 1993, in honor of Senator John Cornelius Stennis who served in the Senate from 1947 to 1989.
The daughter of the ship’s namesake, Mrs. Margaret Stennis-Womble, was the ship’s sponsor. John C. Stennis was commissioned on 9 December 1995 at Naval Station Norfolk, Va, she conducted flight deck certification in January 1996; the first arrested landing was by a VX-23 F-14B. The ship conducted numerous carrier qualifications and independent steaming exercises off the East Coast throughout the next two years. Included among these events was the first carrier landing of an F/A-18E/F Super Hornet on 18 January 1997. On 26 February 1998 with Carrier Air Wing Seven embarked, John C. Stennis left Norfolk for her maiden deployment, transiting the Suez Canal on 7 March and arriving in the Persian Gulf on 11 March 1998; the ship traveled 8020 nm in 274 hours, an average speed of 29.4 knots to relieve USS George Washington in conducting Operation Southern Watch missions. John C. Stennis departed the Persian Gulf on 19 July 1998 for her new home port of Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego, arriving on 26 August 1998.
In October 1998, she entered a six-month maintenance and upgrade period at North Island, returning to sea in April 1999. During the maintenance period, a jet blast deflector collapsed injuring two sailors. On 30 November 1999, the ship ran aground in a shallow area adjacent to the turning basin near North Island. Silt clogged the intake pipes to the steam condensing systems for the nuclear reactor plants, causing the carrier's two nuclear reactors to be shut down for a period of 45 minutes, she was towed back to her pier for observation for the next two days. The cleanup cost was about $2 million. On 7 January 2000, John C. Stennis deployed to the Persian Gulf to relieve USS John F. Kennedy in Operation Southern Watch. During the deployment, the ship made port visits to South Korea, Hong Kong, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Australia and Pearl Harbor, before returning to San Diego on 3 July 2000. Following the September 11 attacks, John C. Stennis conducted Noble Eagle missions off the U. S.
West Coast. In 2000 and 2001, John C. Stennis was part of Carrier Group 7. On 12 November 2001, two months earlier than scheduled, the ship left on her third deployment to the U. S. Fifth Fleet area of responsibility in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, returning to San Diego on 28 May 2002. From June 2002 to January 2003, JCS underwent a seven-month Planned Incremental Availability. From 24 May to 1 November 2004, John C. Stennis conducted her fourth major overseas deployment, participating in Exercise Northern Edge 2004 in the Gulf of Alaska, Rim of the Pacific Exercise off Hawaii, exercises with Kitty Hawk off Japan and goodwill visits to Japan and Western Australia. Shortly after returning from deployment to San Diego, JCS changed her home port to Naval Station Bremerton, Washington on 19 January 2005. Once at Bremerton, John C. Stennis underwent an 11-month docking planned incremental availability, the first time she had been dry-docked since commissioning. Upgrades included a new mast.
The new mast’s structure is the first of its kind. A new type of steel alloy was used, making it thicker than before; the new mast is heavier and taller, allowing it to support new antennae the old mast would not have been able to support. Other upgrades included the installation of a new integrated bridge system in the pilothouse that will save manpower and provide state-of-the-art displays. Foll
A goði or gothi is an Old Norse term for a chieftain-priest. Gyðja is the female form; the title is known from medieval Iceland where it lived on as a secular political title after Christianization. During the pagan era, the goði was a local chieftain who served in the role of priest. After the Settlement in Iceland, the hofgoði was a temple priest; the area over which a goði had leadership was termed a goðorð. Over time, after 1000, when the Christian conversion occurred in Iceland, the term goði lost its sacred connotations and came to mean "chieftain"; the name appears in Wulfila's Gothic language translation of the Bible as gudja for "priest", but in Old Norse it is only the feminine form gyðja that corresponds to the Gothic form. The corresponding masculine Old Norse form would have been an unattested *gyði. In Scandinavia there are surviving early attestations in the Proto-Norse form gudija from the Norwegian Nordhuglo runestone, in the Old Norse form goði from two Danish runestones, the Glavendrup stone and the Helnæs Runestone.
There are a few placenames, such as Gudby in Södermanland, that retain the name. Otherwise, there are no further surviving attestations except from Iceland where the goðar would be of historical significance; the term goði is used as a priestly title by modern adherents of various denominations of Germanic Neopaganism. Althing, a plain in medieval Iceland where the goðar assemble to decide on legislation and dispense justice. Allsherjargoði, a goði who sanctifies the Althing, or the chief religious official of the modern Ásatrúarfélagið organisation. Blót, a sacrifice in Germanic Heathenry to the Norse gods, the spirits of the land, the ancestors. Sacred king Divine right of Jón Hnefill. "Blót and Þing: The Function of the Tenth-Century Goði", in A Piece of Horse Liver: Myth and Folklore in Old Icelandic Sources, 35–56. Reykjavik. ISBN 9979-54-264-0. Byock, Jesse L.. "Goði". Entry in Medieval Scandinavia, an Encyclopedia, 230–231. Garland: NY and London, ISBN 0-8240-4787-7
White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them. White supremacy has roots in scientific racism, it relies on pseudoscientific arguments. Like most similar movements such as neo-Nazism, white supremacists oppose members of other races as well as Jews; the term is typically used to describe a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social, historical, or institutional domination by white people. Different forms of white supremacism put forth different conceptions of, considered white, different groups of white supremacists identify various racial and cultural groups as their primary enemy. In academic usage in usage which draws on critical race theory or intersectionality, the term "white supremacy" can refer to a political or socioeconomic system, in which white people enjoy a structural advantage over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level. White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism, the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century.
White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War, it persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era. In the antebellum South, this included the holding of African Americans in chattel slavery, in which four million of them were denied freedom; the outbreak of the Civil War saw the desire to uphold white supremacy being cited as a cause for state secession and the formation of the Confederate States of America. In an editorial about Native Americans in 1890, author L. Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians."In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white were disenfranchised, barred from government office, prevented from holding most government jobs well into the second half of the 20th century. Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social and political exclusion."
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the mid-20th century, resulting in the civil rights movement. Sociologist Stephen Klineberg has stated that U. S. immigration laws prior to 1965 declared "that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race". The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, altered the demographic mix in the U. S as a result. Many U. S. states banned interracial marriage through anti-miscegenation laws until 1967, when these laws were invalidated by the Supreme Court of the United States' decision in Loving v. Virginia; these mid-century gains had a major impact on white Americans' political views. For sociologist Howard Winant, these shifts marked the end of "monolithic white supremacy" in the United States. After the mid-1960s, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right.
According to Kathleen Belew, a historian of race and racism in the United States, white militancy shifted after the Vietnam War from supporting the existing racial order to a more radical position—self-described as "white power" or "white nationalism"—committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland. Such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups and a religious fundamentalist movement being the other two. Howard Winant writes that, "On the far right the cornerstone of white identity is belief in an ineluctable, unalterable racialized difference between whites and nonwhites." In the view of philosopher Jason Stanley, white supremacy in the United States is an example of the fascist politics of hierarchy, in that it "demands and implies a perpetual hierarchy" in which whites dominate and control non-whites. Some academics argue that outcomes from the 2016 United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy.
Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of...the power to control society's resources and determine the rules for ". Educators, literary theorists, other political experts have raised similar questions, connecting the scapegoating of disenfranchised populations to white superiority. White supremacism has been depicted in music videos, feature films, journal entries, on social media; the 1915 silent drama film The Birth
A blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor. Blue-collar work may involve skilled or unskilled manufacturing, sanitation, custodial work, textile manufacturing, power plant operations, commercial fishing, pest control, food processing, oil field work, waste disposal, recycling, plumbing, mechanic, warehousing, technical installation, many other types of physical work. Blue-collar work involves something being physically built or maintained. In contrast, the white-collar worker performs work in an office environment and may involve sitting at a computer or desk. A third type of work is a service worker whose labor is related to customer interaction, sales or other service-oriented work. Many occupations blend white, or pink industry categorizations. Blue-collar work is paid hourly wage-labor, although some professionals may be paid by the project or salaried. There is a wide range of payscales for such work depending upon field of experience; the term blue collar was first used in reference to trades jobs in 1924, in an Alden, Iowa newspaper.
The phrase stems from the image of manual workers wearing blue denim or chambray shirts as part of their uniforms. Industrial and manual workers wear durable canvas or cotton clothing that may be soiled during the course of their work. Navy and light blue colors conceal potential dirt or grease on the worker's clothing, helping him or her to appear cleaner. For the same reason, blue is a popular color for boilersuits; some blue collar workers have uniforms with the name of the business and/or the individual's name embroidered or printed on it. The popularity of the colour blue among manual labourers contrasts with the popularity of white dress shirts worn by people in office environments; the blue collar/white collar colour scheme has socio-economic class connotations. However, this distinction has become blurred with the increasing importance of skilled labour, the relative increase in low-paying white-collar jobs. Since many blue-collar jobs consist of manual labor, educational requirements for workers are lower than those of white-collar workers.
Only a high school diploma is required, many of the skills required for blue-collar jobs will be learned by the employee while working. In higher level jobs, vocational training or apprenticeships may be required, for workers such as electricians and plumbers, state-certification is necessary. With the information revolution, Western nations have moved towards a service and white collar economy. Many manufacturing jobs have been offshored to developing nations which pay their workers lower wages; this offshoring has pushed agrarian nations to industrialized economies and concurrently decreased the number of blue-collar jobs in developed countries. In the United States, blue collar and service occupations refer to jobs in precision production and repair occupations. In the United States, an area known as the Rust Belt comprising the Northeast and Midwest, including Western New York and Western Pennsylvania, has seen its once large manufacturing base shrink significantly. With the de-industrialization of these areas starting in the mid-1960s cities like Cleveland, Ohio.
Due to this economic osmosis, the rust belt has experienced high unemployment and urban blight. Due to many blue-collar jobs involving manual labor and unskilled workers, automation poses a threat of unemployment for blue-collar workers. One study from the MIT Technology Review estimates that 83% of jobs that make less than $20 per hour are threatened by automation; some examples of technology that threaten workers are self-driving cars and automated cleaning devices, which could place blue-collar workers such as truck drivers or janitors out of work. Others have suggested that technological advancement will not lead to blue-collar job unemployment, but rather shifts in the types of work that blue-collar workers do; some foresee computer coding as becoming the blue-collar job of the future. Proponents of this idea view coding as a skill that can be learned through vocational training, suggest that more coders will be needed in a technologically advancing world. Others see future of blue-collar work as humans and computers working together to improve efficiency.
Such jobs would consist of labeling. Blue-collar workers have played a large role in electoral politics. In the 2016 United States Presidential election, many attributed Donald Trump's victories in the states of Ohio and Michigan to blue-collar workers, who overwhelmingly favored Trump over opponent Hillary Clinton. Among white-working class citizens, Trump won 64% of the votes, compared to only 32% for Clinton; this was the largest margin of victory among this group of voters for any presidential candidate since 1980. Many attributed Trump's success among this bloc of voters to his opposition of international trade deals and environmental regulations, two of the largest threats to blue-collar employment. Opponents of this view believe Trump's success with this bloc had more to do with an anti-immigrant and nationalist platform that supports deportation and discourages investment in higher education. "Blue-collar" can be
Germanic paganism refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic people from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages. Rooted in Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Germanic religion expanded during the Migration Period, yielding extensions such as Old Norse religion among the North Germanic peoples, Continental Germanic paganism among the continental Germanic peoples, Anglo-Saxon paganism among the West Germanic people. Among the East Germanic peoples, traces of Gothic paganism may be discerned from scant artifacts and attestations. According to John Thor Ewing, as a religion it consisted of "individual worshippers, family traditions and regional cults within a broadly consistent framework". Anglo-Saxon paganism Continental Germanic paganism Frankish paganism Gothic paganism Norse paganism Heathenry Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, translated by Stallybrass, James S. Dover Publications Buchholz, Peter, "Perspectives for Historical Research in Germanic Religion", History of Religions, University of Chicago Press, 8: 111–138 North, Pagan words and Christian meanings, Rodopi, ISBN 978-90-5183-305-8