Littorina obtusata, common name the flat periwinkle, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Littorinidae, the winkles or periwinkles. This marine species occurs wherever brown seaweeds grow and it is widely distributed, the Baltic Sea, in European waters from Norway down to Southern Spain, in the Mediterranean Sea, in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean along the Gulf of Maine. The maximum recorded length is 13.5 mm. This species can be found in the littoral and sublittoral zone on rocky shores and piers, minimum recorded depth is 0 m. Maximum recorded depth is 110 m, on sheltered shores it has a lighter and uniform color. On exposed shores its color is darker and chequered, notes Bibliography Backeljau, T. Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen, Belgium, the comparative morphology and evolution of the gastropod family Littorinidae. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B324, species list from the British Oceanographic Data Centre Gastropods.
com, Littorina obtusata obtusata, accessed,16 May 2011
The Yorkshire Museum is a museum in York, England. It is the home of the Cawood sword, and has four permanent collections, covering biology, archaeology, in 1828, the society received by royal grant,10 acres of land formerly belonging to St Mary’s Abbey for the purposes of building a new museum. The main building of the museum is called the Yorkshire Museum and it was officially opened in February 1830, which makes it one of the longest established museums in England. A condition of the grant was that the land surrounding the museum building should be a botanic gardens. The botanic gardens are now known as the Museum Gardens, on 26 September 1831, the inaugural meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science was held at the Yorkshire Museum. The Tempest Anderson Hall was built in 1912, as an annex to the museum and it is used as a conference venue and lecture theatre. The museum closed in November 2009 for a refurbishment and reopened on Yorkshire Day on 1 August 2010. The £2 million scheme was carried out by the museums own staff.
There are temporary exhibitions and a library and learning space. The four permanent collections at the museum all have English designated collection status, the collection began in the 1820s, with the collection of animal bones and fossils from Kirkdale Cave. The biology collection contains 200,000 specimens, including both fauna and flora, with the majority of the made up of insects. The geology collection contains over 112,500 specimens of rocks, fossils make up the majority of the collection numbering over 100,000 samples, and include important specimens from the Carboniferous and Tertiary periods. The astronomy collection is kept in the observatory in the museum gardens with some telescopes kept at the Castle Museum in York. The observatory is staffed by volunteers, the archaeology collection has close to a million objects that date from around 500,000 BC to the 20th century. Most of the objects from the Roman, Anglo Scandinavian and Medieval periods are from the York, following the 2010 refit of the museum, the first gallery displayed parts of the Roman collection, focusing on objects from Eboracum.
A statue of the Roman God Mars is prominently displayed, the final record of the famous lost Roman legion, the ninth legion, is on display as part of the Roman gallery. The BBC reports that Experts have described it the finest example of Romano British inscription in existence, the museum houses some collections of forged prehistoric tools by the Yorkshire forger, Flint Jack. The Coppergate Helmet, discovered in York in 1982 The Ormside Bowl, found in Cumbria, the Middleham Jewel, discovered in 1992 by Ted Seaton using a metal detector at Middleham, North Yorkshire
Argillite may refer to Argillite, Kentucky. An argillite is a sedimentary rock composed predominantly of indurated clay particles. Argillaceous rocks are basically lithified muds and oozes and they contain variable amounts of silt-sized particles. The argillites grade into shale when the fissile layering typical of shale is developed, another name for poorly lithified argillites is mudstone. These rocks, although variable in composition, are high in aluminium and silica with variable alkali. The term pelitic or pelite is often applied to these sediments, metamorphism of argillites produces slate and pelitic schist. The Belt Supergroup, an assemblage of rocks of late Precambrian age, includes thick sequences of argillite and it is exposed primarily in western Montana, including the Bitterroot Valley and Bitterroot Mountains, the Missoula area, Flathead Lake, and Glacier National Park, and in northern Idaho. There are minor occurrences in northwestern Washington and western Wyoming, the Haida carvings of along the coast of British Columbia are notable aboriginal art treasures created from a type of a hard, fine black silt argillite, sometimes called black slate.
The black slate occurs only at a quarry on a Slatechuck Mountain in the basin of Slatechuck Creek. At one time, around 1900, it was shipped to Victoria for manufacturing and this artwork has been of high quality and prized around the world since the Haida first began carving it to sell to sailors around 1800, modern Haida carvers continue the tradition. Mudrock Catlinite Lutite R. V. Dietrich,2005, museum of Civilization Haida argillite gallery BC Govt MINFILE report, includes history and geological data. Dauzères, Alexandre,2004, Ten Years of Argillite Study, Procedia Earth and Planetary Science USGS argillite
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Stanhope, County Durham
Stanhope is a small market town in County Durham, in England. It is situated on the River Wear between Eastgate and Frosterley on the north east side of Weardale, the A689 road meets the B6278 road from Barnard Castle to Shotley Bridge here. The parish council area is the largest in England with 221 km² and it shares some land in common with the neighbouring Wolsingham civil parish. Stanhope is surrounded by moorland in the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty - the second largest of the current 40 AONBs in England, features of interest include a petrified tree stump in the churchyard which was discovered with two others. One of only two heated open air swimming pools in the North East, stanhope Agricultural Show is held on the second weekend of September each year. It was founded in 1834 and has been held annually since, with the exception of the war years, stanhope is the current terminus of the Weardale Railway, a heritage railway operating primarily on weekends from Bishop Auckland with stations at Frosterley and Witton-le-Wear.
Joseph Butler and cleric William Percival Crozier, editor of the Manchester Guardian 1932-1944
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
Geology of England
The geology of England is mainly sedimentary. The youngest rocks are in the south east around London, progressing in age in a westerly direction. The geology of England is recognisable in the landscape of its counties, the bedrock consists of many layers formed over vast periods of time. These were laid down in various climates as the climate changed, the landmasses moved due to continental drift. From time to time horizontal forces caused the rock to undergo considerable deformation, folding the layers of rock to form mountains which have since been eroded, to further complicate the geology, the land has been subject to periods of earthquakes and volcanic activity. Overlain on this bedrock geology is a variable distribution of soils and fragmental material deposited by glaciers (boulder clay. Maps showing the distribution of this drift geology are frequently produced as either separate maps, when ordering maps, this distinction should be kept in mind. Catalogues often distinguish them as S, D or S+D maps, drift geology is often more important than solid geology when considering building works, siting water boreholes, soil fertility, and many other issues.
In the Ribble valley, Lancashire in north west England the resulting drumlins are clearly visible, cromer Ridge in East Anglia is a terminal moraine. Indeed, most of East Anglia is covered with glacial till which has produced its rich loamy soils and this unconsolidated material is very easily eroded hence the rapid rate of retreat of the coastline of this region. A similar situation exists in east Yorkshire in the Holderness district, as the ice caps retreated northwards, more fluvio-glacial deposition occurred for example in the Vale of York No rocks earlier than the Proterozoic occur at surface within England. The early geological development of the Avalonia terrane, including England, is believed to have been in volcanic arcs near a subduction zone on the margin of the Gondwana continent. Some material may have accreted from volcanic island arcs which formed out in the ocean. The igneous activity had started by 730 million years ago and continued until around 570 million years ago, the remains of these islands underlie much of central England with small outcrops visible in various places.
Around 600 million years ago, the Cadomian Orogeny created mountains in what would subsequently become England, the Phanerozoic comprises the Palaeozoic and Cenozoic eras, each of which are represented in English geology. The Palaeozoic comprises six periods from the Cambrian to the Permian, in the early Cambrian period the volcanoes and mountains of England were eroded as the land became flooded by a rise in sea level, and new layers of sediment were laid down. Cambrian shales laid down in a sea are exposed in the Midlands at Nuneaton. Much of central England formed a block of crust which has remained largely undeformed ever since
County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is Durham, a cathedral city, the largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west, the county included southern Tyne and Wear, including Gateshead and Sunderland. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a railway industry. Its economy was based on coal and iron mining. It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination, in the centre of the city of Durham, Durham Castle and Durham Cathedral are a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site. Many counties are named after their town, and the expected form here would be Durhamshire. Thus County Durham is a form of County of Durham. The situation regarding the name with regards to present-day local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to the county of County Durham, the former postal county was named County Durham to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities, the ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. The Borough of Hartlepool, until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the relatively short-lived county of Cleveland, the part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees that is north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that countys abolition in 1996, the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012, the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance, the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area.
Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, based at the Durham Constabulary base in Barnard Castle, respond to search, Cuthbert between Tyne and Tees or the Liberty of Haliwerfolc. The bishops special jurisdiction rested on claims that King Ecgfrith of Northumbria had granted a substantial territory to St Cuthbert on his election to the see of Lindisfarne in 684
The dog whelk, dogwhelk, or Atlantic dogwinkle, scientific name Nucella lapillus, is a species of predatory sea snail, a carnivorous marine gastropod mollusc in the family Muricidae, the rock snails. Nucella lapillus was originally described by Linnaeus in 1758 as Buccinum lapillus, dog whelk can refer to the Nassariidae. This species is found around the coasts of Europe and in the northern west Atlantic coast of North America and it is can be found in estuarine waters along the Atlantic coasts. This species prefers rocky shores, where it eats mussels and acorn barnacles, the dog whelk shell is small and rounded with a pointed spire and a short, straight siphonal canal and a deep anal canal. The aperture is usually crenulated in mature dog whelks, less often in juveniles, the shell surface can be fairly smooth interrupted only with growth lines, or when the snail is living in more sheltered areas the shell surface can be somewhat rough and lamellose. The outer lip is dentate and ridged within, the external shell colour is usually a whitish grey, but can be a wide variety of orange, brown, black, or banded with any combination of these colours.
They can even, occasionally, be green, blue, or pink, the dog whelk lives in rocky shores, and estuarine conditions. Climatically it lives between the 0°C and 20°C isotherms, water loss by evaporation has to be tolerated, or avoided. The peak in dog whelk population density is approximately coincidental with the mid-tidal zone and it lives in the middle shore. At low vertical heights it is biotic factors, such as predation from crabs and intraspecific competition and this can create toxic conditions for many species. The dog whelk can only survive out of water for a period, as it will gradually become desiccated. Metabolic processes within cells take place in solution, and a decrease in water content makes it impossible for the organism to function properly. In experiments it has shown that 50% of dog whelks die at 40°C. Its adaptations include a modified radula to bore holes in the shells of prey, when a hole has been formed paralysing chemicals and digestive enzymes are secreted inside the shell to break the soft body down into a ‘soup’ which can be sucked out with the proboscis.
Mussels have developed a strategy of tethering and immobilising with byssus threads any dog whelks invading their beds. The plates of barnacles can be pushed apart with the proboscis, feeding only occurs when conditions are conducive to such an activity, and during these times the dog whelk consumes large quantities of food so that the gut is always kept as full as possible. This allows shelter until more food is required, when foraging resumes, if waves are large or there is an excessive risk of water loss the dog whelk will remain inactive in sheltered locations for long periods. Predators of the dog whelk include various species of crabs and birds, protection against predation from crabs which attempt to pull the soft body out through the shell aperture can be afforded by growing teeth around the edge of the aperture
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
Bronze Age Britain
Bronze Age Britain is an era of British history that spanned from c.2500 until c.800 BC. Lasting for approximately 1,700 years, it was preceded by the era of Neolithic Britain and was in turn followed by the period of Iron Age Britain. Being categorised as the Bronze Age, it was marked by the use of copper and bronze by the prehistoric Britons, Great Britain in the Bronze Age saw the widespread adoption of agriculture. This has been described as a time when elaborate ceremonial practices emerged among some communities of subsistence agriculturalists of western Europe, there is no clear consensus on the date for the beginning of the Bronze Age in Great Britain and Ireland. Some sources give a date as late as 2000 BC, while others set 2200 BC as the demarcation between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. The period from 2500 BC to 2000 BC has been called the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age, 2500–2000 BC, Mount Pleasant Phase, Early Beaker culture, copper+tin. 2100–1900 BC, Late Beaker, tanged spearheads, 1500–1300 BC, Acton Park Phase, socketed spearheads, copper+tin, lead.
1300–1200 BC, Knighton Heath Period, rapiers, 1200–1000 BC, Early Urnfield, Wilburton-Wallington Phase. 1000–900 BC, Late Urnfield, socketed axes, palstaves, 800–700 BC, Ewart Park Phase, Llyn Fawr Phase, leaf-shaped swords. In Ireland the final Dowris phase of the Late Bronze Age appears to decline in about 600 BC, in around 2700 BC, a new pottery style arrived in Great Britain, the Beaker culture. Beaker pottery appears in the Mount Pleasant Phase, along with flat axes, people of this period were largely responsible for building many famous prehistoric sites, such as the phases of Stonehenge along with Seahenge. Movement of Europeans brought new people to the islands from the continent, recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicates that at least some of the new arrivals came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people, integration is thought to have been peaceful, as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers.
Also, the burial of dead became more individual, for example, in the Neolithic era, a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead. The Early Bronze Age saw people buried in barrows, or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. They were often buried with a beaker alongside the body, modern thinking tends towards the latter view. Alternatively, a Beaker elite may have made the migration and come to influence the population at some level. Believed to be of Iberian origin, part of the Beaker culture brought to Great Britain the skill of refining metal, at first they made items from copper, but from around 2150 BC smiths had discovered how to make bronze by mixing copper with a small amount of tin