The priestly breastplate was a sacred breastplate worn by the High Priest of the Israelites, according to the Book of Exodus. In the biblical account, the breastplate is sometimes termed the breastplate of judgment and these stones were, at times, used to determine God’s will in a particular situation. It should be noted that using these stones did not always determine Gods will, if any other way was not given by God, the high priest would find Gods guidance. The description states that the breastplate was to be formed from one rectangular piece of cloth—⅓ of a cubit by ⅔ of a cubit. The Hebrew term for the breastplate, חֹשֶׁן, appears to be named from its appearance, probably derived from the source as Arabic حسن. The 19th-century German biblical scholar August Dillmann thought that it was likely to be derived from the Hebrew word חֹצֶן, meaning fold. According to the Talmud, the wearing of the Hoshen atoned for the sin of errors in judgement on the part of the Children of Israel, the word has its equivalent in the Greek, σμήρις.
There was a different order for the names inscribed on the two stones, carried on the High Priests shoulders. Others suggest that they were engraved with emery, having the property of a diamond used in cutting other stones. Explanation of the meaning of the jewels generated a great deal of both Jewish and Christian writing, and was a staple component of the tradition of lapidaries or books on gemology. The jewel stones are as follows, Odem / Sardios - both names mean red, and probably refers to Sard, a common stone in classical cultures. All authors agree that stone was of a red colour. The Chinese Union Version refers to this stone as being a ruby, bareḳet / Smaragdos - Bareketh etymologically means ‘lightning flash’, whence shimmering or shiny. Smaragdos was often used in Greek literature to refer to a bright crystal found in columnar formations. Emerald in the sense of green beryl exists locally in Egypt. Items carved from emerald are known from as early as the 12th Dynasty, 1900s BCE, but these emeralds are random finds, and not actively mined until the Ptolemaic period.
Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemies, is famous for her love for the Egyptian emerald, other minerals resembling emerald are heliodor and rock crystal, there is much to be said for Smaragdos being either of those. Although “emerald” is the most common used to describe the Hebrew word, bareḳet, in other sources
The dough offering is a positive commandment requiring the owner of a bread dough to give a part of the kneaded dough to a priest. This commandment is one of the twenty-four kohanic gifts, the common modern practice in Orthodox Judaism is to burn the portion to be given the Kohen, although giving the hallah to a Kohen for consumption is permitted outside of Israel. Of the first of your dough you shall lift up a cake as an offering, as the offering of the threshing floor, so you shall lift it up. From the first of your dough you shall give to the LORD an offering throughout your generations In the above passage cake is khallah while of dough is ariycah. The return of the Jews from the Babylonian exile marked a renewal in adherence to numerous commandments, and the dough offering, the Mishnah contains a tractate M. Hallah dealing with the dough offering. Among the rulings are that it was prohibited to set aside dough offering and tithes from dough made from grain harvested after the New Year, in behalf of dough made from old grain.
The mitzvah of challah, is believed by some scholars to originate in the priestly source. Other insights on the symbolism of Challah appear in Midrashic and Kabbalistic literature, the Mitzvah of separating challah is traditionally regarded as one of the three Mitzvot performed especially by women. The mitzvah of challah is one mitzvah with two parts, separating the required dough, giving the dough to a Kohen. Nachmanides as well as the Tosafist Isaiah di Trani explain that it is the giving of the Challah portion to the Kohen that is the primary component of the Mitzvah. The minimal quantity of dough whose preparation mandates the performance of the Mitzvah is quantified by Chazal as a portion of flour equivalent to 43 and 1/5 eggs, in modern terms, The quantity that qualifies the reciting of a Brocha is about 1.64 kg. A quantity of flour weighing between 2 lb 11oz and 3 lb 11oz, qualifies for giving Challah but no Brocha is recited The Torah does not specify how much dough is required to be given to the Kohen, this is discussed in the Talmud.
The rabbinical stipulation is that 1/24 is to be given in the case of private individuals, if the baker forgets to set aside Challah, it is permissible to set aside Challah portion of the bread after it has been baked. The Mitzvah is listed as one in effect in Israel even during the Shmittah year, even the pauper who is entitled to collect Peah and would be exempt from giving Maasar is obligated to give Challah from his dough portion. The dough from Maaser Sheni, is not exempt from Challah giving. The consumption of Challah by a Kohen in the Land of Israel is forbidden by Torah law due to the absence of the ashes of the Red Heifer necessary for ritual purity. The common practice of Diaspora Jewry is to burn the Challah, the Kohen is required to recite the required Beracha thanking God for sanctifying the Kohanim with the sanctity of Ahron. The commentators to the Shulchan Aruch record that it is the Minhag of some Diaspora Jews to be scrupulous in giving Challah from the used for baking Matzot Mitzvah to a Kohen minor to eat
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship. While sacrifice often implies the ritual killing of an animal, the term offering can be used for bloodless sacrifices of food or artifacts, for offerings of liquids by pouring, the term libation is used. The Latin term sacrificium derived from Latin sacrificus, which combined the concepts sacra, the Latin word sacrificium came to apply to the Christian eucharist in particular, sometimes named a bloodless sacrifice to distinguish it from blood sacrifices. In individual non-Christian ethnic religions, terms translated as sacrifice include the Indic yajna, the Greek thusia, the Germanic blōtan, the term usually implies doing without something or giving something up. But the word occurs in metaphorical use to describe doing good for others or taking a short-term loss in return for a greater power gain. Scholars such as René Girard have theorized that scapegoating may account for the origins of sacrifice, animal sacrifice is the ritual killing of an animal as part of a religion.
It is practiced by adherents of religions as a means of appeasing a god or gods or changing the course of nature. It served a social or economic function in those cultures where the portions of the animal were distributed among those attending the sacrifice for consumption. Animal sacrifice has turned up in almost all cultures, from the Hebrews to the Greeks and Romans, Ancient Egyptians and it is against their religion for Egyptians to sacrifice animals, except for sheep, calves, male calves and geese. Animal sacrifice is practiced today by the followers of Santería and other lineages of Orisa as a means of curing the sick. However, in Santeria, such animal offerings constitute a small portion of what are termed ebos—ritual activities that include offerings, prayer. Christians from some villages in Greece sacrifice animals to Orthodox saints in a known as kourbània. The practice, while publicly condemned, is often tolerated, according to Walter Burkert, a scholar of sacrifice, Greek sacrifices derived from hunting practices.
Hunters, feeling guilty for having killed another living being so they could eat and survive, the primary evidence used to suggest this theory is the Dipolieia, which is an Athenian festival, in limited circulation, during which an ox was sacrificed. The protagonist of the ritual was an ox, which it had, at one point. According to his theory, the killer of the ox eased his conscience by suggesting that everybody should participate in the killing of the sacrificial victim. In the expansion of the Athenian state, numerous oxen were needed to feed the people at the banquets and were accompanied by state festivals, the hecatomb became the general designation for the great sacrifices offered by the state. These sacrificial processions of hundreds of oxen remove the original ties, Human sacrifice was practiced by many ancient cultures
Priestly robe (Judaism)
The priestly robe, sometimes robe of the ephod, is one of the sacred articles of clothing of the Jewish High Priest. The robe is described in Exodus 28, 31-35 and it was worn under the Ephod. Like all the garments, it was to be made by gifted artisans. Filled with the spirit of wisdom and it was a sleeveless, purple-blue or violet robe, woven in a single piece. The opening in the center for the High Priests head to pass through was woven, the lower hem of the garment was fringed with small golden bells alternating with pomegranate-shaped tassels of blue and scarlet wool. The golden bells were a necessity, and they must ring when the High Priest entered the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement, lest he die. ”According to the Talmud, the wearing of the priestly robe atoned for the sin of evil speech on the part of the Children of Israel. In traditional Rabbinical teaching, each of the robes is intended to atone for a particular sin on the part of the Children of Israel. The eminent sage Rashi points out in his commentary on the Talmud that the robe was fashioned to atone for the sin of an evil tongue, speaking poorly about someone else.
The Talmud states that the tassels between each bell on the robe were made of three materials, turquoise and scarlet wool. These three materials signify to the three people who are injured when lashon hara is spoken, the speaker, the listener, and the one who is spoken about
Kohen or cohen is the Hebrew word for priest used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood. Jewish kohanim are traditionally believed and halakhically required to be of direct descent from the biblical Aaron. The term is used colloquially in Orthodox Judaism in reference to modern day descendants of Aharon, during the existence of the Temple in Jerusalem, kohanim performed the daily and holiday duties of sacrificial offerings. Today, kohanim retain a lesser though distinct status within Rabbinic and Karaite Judaism, in the Samaritan community, the kohanim have remained the primary religious leaders. The noun kohen is used in the Torah to refer to priests, the Hebrew noun kohen is most often translated as priest, whether Jewish or pagan, such as the priests of Baal or Dagon, though Christian priests are referred to in Hebrew by the term komer. The word derives from a Semitic root common, at minimum, to the Central Semitic languages, as a starkly different translation the title worker, Rashi on Exodus 29,30 and servant Targum to Jeremiah 48,7, have been offered as a translation as well.
Some have attempted to resolve this contradiction by suggesting that, although the priest does enjoy specific privileges. The status of priest kohen was conferred on Aaron, the brother of Moses, during the 40 years of wandering in the wilderness and until the Holy Temple was built in Jerusalem, the priests performed their priestly service in the portable Tabernacle. Their duties involved offering the daily and Jewish holiday sacrifices, and blessing the people in a Priestly Blessing, in a broader sense, since Aaron was a descendant of the Tribe of Levi, priests are sometimes included in the term Levites, by direct patrilineal descent. However, not all Levites are priests, when the Temple existed, most sacrifices and offerings could only be conducted by priests. The Torah mentions Melchizedek king of Salem, identified by Rashi as being Shem the son of Noah, the second is Potiphera, priest of Heliopolis, priest of Midian both pagan priests of their era. When Esau sold the birthright of the first born to Jacob, Rashi explains that the priesthood was sold along with it, because by right the priesthood belongs to the first-born.
Only when the first-born sinned in the incident of the calf, the priesthood was given to the Tribe of Levi. Aaron received the priesthood along with his children and any descendants that would be born subsequently, his grandson Phinehas had already been born, and did not receive the priesthood until he killed the prince of the Tribe of Simeon and the princess of the Midianites. Thereafter, the priesthood has remained with the descendants of Aaron, in every generation when the Temple was standing, one kohen would be singled out to perform the functions of the High Priest. His primary task was the Day of Atonement service, another unique task of the high priest was the offering of a daily meal sacrifice, he held the prerogative to supersede any priest and offer any offering he chose. Although the Torah retains a procedure to select a High Priest when needed, in the absence of the Temple in Jerusalem, prior to that time, the priestly courses numbered a mere eight. This newly instated a cycle of courses, or priestly divisions
Jehoiada in the Hebrew Bible, was a prominent priest during the reigns of Ahaziah and Joash. Jehoiada became the brother-in-law of King Ahaziah as a result of his marriage with princess Jehosheba, both Jehosheba and Ahaziah were children of King Jehoram of Judah. Ahaziah died a year after assuming the throne, which was usurped by his mother Athaliah and Jehoiada rescued from Athaliahs slaughter, Athaliahs one-year-old grandson, Joash. For six years, they hid the sole surviving heir to the throne within the Temple, Jehoiada was instrumental in the staging of the coup that dethroned and killed Athaliah. Under Jehoiadas guidance, Baal-worship was renounced and the altar and temple of Baal were destroyed, Jehoiada is noteworthy for the national covenant that he made between him, and between all the people, and between the king, that they should be the LORDs people. Jehoiada lived 130 years and was buried very honorably among the kings in the city of David, Jehoiadas son, was martyred by King Joash.
Jehoiadas name does not appear in the list of the Zadokite dynasty in 1 Chronicles 5, Josephus mentions Jehoiada as high priest in his Jewish Antiquites Book 9, Chapter 7, How Athaliah reigned over Jerusalem for five years, when Jehoiada the high priest slew her. However, Josephus does not mention a Jehoiada in his list of High Priests, according to the medieval chronicle Seder Olam Zutta, Jehoiada was a High priest. The Coup of Jehoiada and the Fall of Athaliah, The Discourses and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Matthew George
Joshua the High Priest
While the name Yeshua is used in Ezra–Nehemiah for the High Priest, he is called Joshua son of Yehozadak in the books of Haggai and Zechariah. Yeshua son of Jozadak served as High Priest ca, 515-490 BCE in the common List of High Priests of Israel. This dating is based on the period of service age 25-50 not age 30-50, the biblical text credits Joshua among the leaders that inspired a momentum towards the reconstruction of the temple, in Ezra 5,2. Later 10,18 some of his sons and nephews are found guilty of intermarriage, facts concerning the part of Joshuas life are in part dependent upon whether Joshua was still alive at the time of his appearance in a vision by Zechariah. In the Book of Zechariah 3, 6-10, Zechariah the prophet experiences a vision given to him by an angel of the Lord in which the restoration, included in the visions were requirements in which Joshua was expected to uphold. The vision functioned to purify Joshua and to him for the preparations of his priestly duties. In 1825, the tomb of Joshua was reported to have been found at one hours distance from Baghdad
The Torah is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings and it can most specifically mean the first five books of the twenty-four books of the Tanakh, and it usually includes the rabbinic commentaries. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the five books and the Oral Torah, the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation, reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases for Jewish communal life. The word Torah in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, the meaning of the word is therefore teaching, doctrine, or instruction, the commonly accepted law gives a wrong impression.
Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, the earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been The Torah of Moses. This title, however, is neither in the Torah itself. It appears in Joshua and Kings, but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus, in contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were The Book of Moses and The Book of the Torah, Christian scholars usually refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the Pentateuch, a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria, meaning five books, or as the Law. The Torah starts from the beginning of Gods creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, and it ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative.
This is followed by the story of the three patriarchs and the four matriarchs, God gives to the patriarchs a promise of the land of Canaan, but at the end of Genesis the sons of Jacob end up leaving Canaan for Egypt due to a regional famine. They had heard there was a grain storage and distribution facility in Egypt. Exodus begins the story of Gods revelation to his people of Israel through Moses, Moses receives the Torah from God, and teaches His laws and Covenant to the people of Israel. It talks about the first violation of the covenant when the Golden Calf was constructed, Exodus includes the instructions on building the Tabernacle and concludes with its actual construction. Leviticus begins with instructions to the Israelites on how to use the Tabernacle, leviticus 26 provides a detailed list of rewards for following Gods commandments and a detailed list of punishments for not following them. Numbers tells how Israel consolidated itself as a community at Sinai, set out from Sinai to move towards Canaan, even Moses sins and is told he would not live to enter the land
Sons of Zadok
The Sons of Zadok are a family of Jewish priests, descended from Zadok, the first high priest in Solomons Temple. The Tanakh records how prior to the death of Aaron at Hor HaHar, he was accompanied by his brother Moses, as well as his elder son Eleazar and younger son Ithamar. Upon entry to the cave where Aaron died, he witnessed as his brother Moses dressed his elder son Eleazer with the clothes of the high priesthood, as initiation to high priesthood. Similarly, the Hebrew Bible relates how, at the time Phineas son of Eleazar appeased Gods anger, he merited the divine blessing of God, Phineas the son of Elazar the son of Ahron the Kohen. Torah commentators such as Yosef Karo and explain that the continuity of high priesthood is put forth to the descendants of Phineas from this noted verse. Torah commentators record that Phineas sinned due to his not availing his servitude of Torah instruction to the masses at the leading up to the Battle of Gibeah. In addition, he failed to address the needs of relieving Jephthah of his vow.
As consequence, the priesthood was taken from him and given to the offspring of Ithamar, essentially Eli. This prophecy of Elkanah ultimately happened in the era of King David when Zadok from the progeny of Eleazar was appointed as high priest. The Metzudoth and Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno comment that the service of Zadok, the three Hebrew Bible mentions of the sons of Zadok in the Third Temple occur in the book of Ezekiel. These sources are presented in spite of Ezekiel himself, as a kohen, being from the descendants of Ithamar and not Eleazar, as are Zadok, maimonides viewed the Sadducees as Gonvei Daat of the greater Jewish nation and of intentionally negating the Chazalic interpretation of Torah. Likewise, in his Mishneh Torah treatise he defines the Sadducees as Harming Israel, Ezekiel records the general rebellion of the children of Israel against God. Rabbinic commentators understood this general rebellion as referring to that of Jeroboam and the Ten Tribes against the Kingdom of David and the priesthood of Zadok.
As recognition for not participating in worship and for actively and publicly sanctifying Gods holy name. Asher ben Jehiel in his Torah commentary likens the public actions of the sons of Zadok to those of the Tribe of Levi at the time of the sin of the Golden Calf. According to Meir Leibush ben Yehiel Michal on Ezekiel 4,5 the period of idol worship initiated from the rebellion of Jeroboam up until the destruction of the First Temple. The book of Ezekiel details that the line of priests, sons of Zadok, will execute the primary services in the Third Temple. According to Oral Torah, the choosing and appointing of the high priest depends on the appointee being a descendant of Zadok, in the Midrash ha-Gadol to Genesiu 6,4 et al
The Priestly Blessing or priestly benediction, known in rabbinic literature as raising of the hands, or Dukhanen, is a Hebrew prayer recited by Kohanim - the Hebrew Priests. According to the Torah, Aaron blessed the people offering sacrifices. Various interpretations of these verses connect them to the three Patriarchs, Abraham and Jacob, or to three attributes of God, Mercy and Glory. Versions of the blessing are often found in mortuary and cultic contexts, only Kohanim can perform the Priestly Benediction. And the blessing should be performed only in the presence of a minyan – even if the Kohanim themselves must be included for a total of ten. Tradition prohibits a Kohen from reciting the blessing while under the influence of alcohol, all Kohanim present are obligated to participate, unless disqualified in some way. If a Kohen does not wish to participate, he must leave the sanctuary for the duration of the blessing, a Kohen who is on bad terms with the congregation or who is unwilling to perform the ritual should not perform it.
It is customary that, once the Kohanim are assembled on the platform, the cantor or prayer leader will prompt them by reciting each word of the blessing and this custom is especially followed if only one Kohen is available to give the blessing. Apparently this prompting is done to avoid errors or embarrassment if any of the Kohanim should be ignorant of the words of the recitation. However, if there are a number of kohanim, they may say the first word of the blessing without the prompting, if the prayer leader is a Kohen himself, he does not prompt the other Kohanim in the blessing. Instead, a non-Kohen is designated with that task, and the leader remains silent, the Jewish Mishnah records advice that a person who is troubled by a dream should reflect on it when the Kohanim recite their blessing. This practice is still done in many Orthodox communities and it is recited at bedtime. In many traditional Jewish communities it is the custom for congregants to spread their tallitot over their own heads during the blessing, if a man has children, they will come under his tallit to be blessed, even if they are quite old.
This blessing is recited by Jewish parents to bless their children on Friday night before the beginning of the Shabbat meal. Some rabbis will say the blessing to a boy at his bar mitzvah or to a girl at her bat mitzvah, for girls the traditional request is God to make them like Sarah, Rebecca and Leah, the Matriarchs of the Jewish people. It may be said before a journey, and some people will write it out. It is often used in the liturgy as the first section of Torah to be read in the morning after reciting the blessing before studying Torah. In the case where no Kohanim are present in the synagogue the hazzan will read the verse by verse