Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan
State University of New York
The State University of New York is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 424,051 students, plus 2,195,082 adult education students, spanning 64 campuses across the state. Led by Chancellor Kristina M. Johnson, the SUNY system has 91,182 employees, including 32,496 faculty members, some 7,660 degree and certificate programs overall and a $10.7 billion budget. SUNY includes many institutions and four university Centers: Albany, Binghamton and Stony Brook. SUNY's administrative offices are in Albany, the state's capital, with satellite offices in Manhattan and Washington, D. C. SUNY's largest campus is the University at Buffalo, which has the greatest endowment and research funding; the State University of New York was established in 1948 by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, through legislative implementation of recommendations made by the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University.
The Commission was chaired by Owen D. Young, at the time Chairman of General Electric; the system was expanded during the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state. Apart from units of the City University of New York, SUNY comprises all other institutions of higher education statewide that are state-supported; the first colleges were established with some arising from local seminaries. But New York state had a long history of supported higher education prior to the creation of the SUNY system; the oldest college, part of the SUNY System is SUNY Potsdam, established in 1816 as the St. Lawrence Academy. In 1835, the State Legislature acted to establish stronger programs for public school teacher preparation and designated one academy in each senatorial district to receive money for a special teacher-training department; the St. Lawrence Academy received this distinction and designated the village of Potsdam as the site of a Normal School in 1867.
On May 7, 1844, the State legislature voted to establish New York State Normal School in Albany as the first college for teacher education. In 1865, the endowed Cornell University was designated as New York's land grant college, it began direct financial support of four of Cornell's colleges in 1894. From 1889 to 1903, Cornell operated the New York State College of Forestry, until the Governor vetoed its annual appropriation; the school was moved to Syracuse University in 1911. It is now the State University of New York College of Environmental Forestry. In 1908, the State legislature began the NY State College of Agriculture at Alfred University. In 1946-48 a Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University, chaired by Owen D. Young, Chairman of the General Electric Company, studied New York's existing higher education institutions, it was known New York's private institutions of higher education were discriminatory and failed to provide for many New Yorkers. Noting this need, the commission recommended the creation of a public state university system.
In 1948 legislation was passed establishing SUNY on the foundation of the teacher-training schools established in the 19th century. Most of them had developed curricula similar to those found at four-year liberal arts schools long before the creation of SUNY, as evidenced by the fact they had become known as "Colleges for Teachers" rather than "Teachers' Colleges." On October 8, 1953, SUNY took a historic step of banning national fraternities and sororities that discriminated based on race or religion from its 33 campuses. Various fraternities challenged this rule in court; as a result, national organizations felt pressured to open their membership to students of all races and religions. The SUNY resolution, upheld in court states: Resolved that no social organization shall be permitted in any state-operated unit of the State University which has any direct or indirect affiliation or connection with any national or other organization outside the particular unit. Despite being one of the last states in the nation to establish a state university, the system was expanded during the chancellorship of Samuel B. Gould and the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in the design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state.
Rockefeller championed the acquisition of the private University of Buffalo into the SUNY system, making the public State University of New York at Buffalo. SUNY is governed by a State University of New York Board of Trustees, which consists of eighteen members, fifteen of whom are appointed by the Governor, with consent of the New York State Senate; the sixteenth member is the President of the Student Assembly of the State University of New York. The last two members are the Presidents of the University Faculty Senate and Faculty Council of Community Colleges, both of whom are non-voting; the Board of Trustees appoints the Chancellor. The state of New York assists in financing the SUNY system, along with CUNY, provides lower-cost college-level
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Zhuyin Fuhao, Bopomofo or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols, is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin. It is used to transcribe other varieties of Chinese other varieties of Standard Chinese and related Mandarin dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien. Zhuyin Fuhao and Zhuyin are traditional terms, whereas Bopomofo is the colloquial term used by the ISO and Unicode. Consisting of 37 characters and four tone marks, it transcribes all possible sounds in Mandarin. Zhuyin was introduced in China by the Republican Government in the 1910s and used alongside the Wade–Giles system, which used a modified Latin alphabet; the Wade system was replaced by Hanyu Pinyin in 1958 by the Government of the People's Republic of China, at the International Organization for Standardization in 1982. Although Taiwan adopted Hanyu Pinyin as its official romanization system in 2009, Bopomofo is still an official transliteration system there and remains used as an educational tool and for electronic input methods.
The informal name "Bopomofo" is derived from the first four syllables in the conventional ordering of available syllables in Mandarin Chinese. The four Bopomofo characters that correspond to these syllables are placed first in a list of these characters; the same sequence is sometimes used by other speakers of Chinese to refer to other phonetic systems. The original formal name of the system was Guóyīn Zìmǔ and Zhùyīn Zìmǔ, it was renamed Zhùyīn Fúhào, meaning "phonetic symbols". In official documents, Zhuyin is called "Mandarin Phonetic Symbols I", abbreviated as "MPS I". In English translations, the system is also called either Chu-yin or the Mandarin Phonetic Symbols. A romanized phonetic system was released in 1984 as Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II; the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Wu Zhihui from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Zhuyin Zimu, based on Zhang Binglin's shorthand. A draft was released on July 11, 1913, by the Republic of China National Ministry of Education, but it was not proclaimed until November 23, 1928.
It was renamed first Guoyin Zimu and in April 1930, Zhuyin Fuhao. The last renaming addressed fears that the alphabetic system might independently replace Chinese characters. Zhuyin remains the predominant phonetic system in teaching reading and writing in elementary school in Taiwan, it is one of the most popular ways to enter Chinese characters into computers and smartphones and to look up characters in a dictionary. In elementary school in the lower years, Chinese characters in textbooks are annotated with Zhuyin as ruby characters as an aid to learning. Additionally, one children's newspaper in Taiwan, the Mandarin Daily News, annotates all articles with Zhuyin ruby characters. In teaching Mandarin, Taiwan institutions and some overseas communities use Zhuyin as a learning tool; the Zhuyin characters were created by Zhang Binglin, taken from "regularised" forms of ancient Chinese characters, the modern readings of which contain the sound that each letter represents. It is to be noted that the first consonants are articulated from the front of the mouth to the back, /b/, /p/, /m/, /f/, /d/, /t/, /n/, /l/ etc.
Zhuyin is written in the same stroke order rule as Chinese characters. Note that ㄖ is written with three strokes, unlike the character from which it is derived, which has four strokes; as shown in the following table, tone marks for the second and fourth tones are shared between bopomofo and pinyin. In bopomofo, the lack of a marker is used to indicate the first tone while a dot above indicates the fifth tone. In pinyin, a macron indicates the first tone and the lack of a marker indicates the fifth tone. Unlike Hanyu Pinyin, Zhuyin aligns well with the hanzi characters in books whose texts are printed vertically, making Zhuyin better suited for annotating the pronunciation of vertically oriented Chinese text. Zhuyin, when used in conjunction with Chinese characters, are placed to the right of the Chinese character vertically or to the top of the Chinese character in a horizontal print. Below is an example for the word "bottle": Érhuà-ed words merge as a single syllable, which means ㄦ is attached to the precedent syllable.
In case the syllable uses other tones than 1st tone, the tone is attached to the penultimate syllable, but not to ㄦ. Zhuyin and pinyin are based on the same Mandarin pronunciations, hence there is a one-to-one correspondence between the two systems: 1 Not written. 2 ⟨ü⟩ is written as ⟨u⟩ after ⟨j⟩, ⟨q⟩, ⟨x⟩, or ⟨y⟩. 3 ⟨ㄨㄛ⟩/⟨-uo⟩ is written as ⟨ㄛ⟩/⟨-o⟩ after ⟨ㄅ⟩/⟨-b⟩, ⟨ㄆ⟩/⟨-p⟩, ⟨ㄇ⟩/⟨-m⟩, ⟨ㄈ⟩/⟨-f⟩. 4 ⟨weng⟩ is pronounced when it follows an initial. Three letters used in non-standard dialects of Mandarin are now used to write other Chinese varieties; some Zhuyin fonts do not contain these letters. In Taiwan, Bopomofo is used to teach Taiwanese Hokkien, is used to transcribe it phonetically in contexts such as on storefront signs, karaoke lyrics, film subtitles. Zhuyin can be used as an input method for Chinese characters, it is one of the few input methods that can be found on most modern personal computers without the user having to download or install any additional softwa
Augustine of Hippo
Saint Augustine of Hippo was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Period. Among his most important works are The City of De doctrina Christiana and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith". In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism and to neoplatonism. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made seminal contributions to the development of just war theory; when the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine imagined the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City.
His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople identified with Augustine's On the Trinity. Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Christian Church, the Anglican Communion and as a preeminent Doctor of the Church, he is the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, a number of cities and dioceses. Many Protestants Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace. Protestant Reformers and Martin Luther in particular, held Augustine in preeminence among early Church Fathers. Luther himself was, from 1505 to 1521, a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites. In the East, his teachings are more disputed, were notably attacked by John Romanides.
But other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant approbation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine associated with him, the filioque, was rejected by the Orthodox Church. Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, predestination. Though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, has had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Saint Gregory Palamas. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 15 June. Historian Diarmaid MacCulloch has written: " impact on Western Christian thought can hardly be overstated. Augustine of Hippo known as Saint Augustine, Saint Austin, is known by various cognomens throughout the Christian world across its many denominations including Blessed Augustine, the Doctor of Grace Hippo Regius, where Augustine was the bishop, was in modern-day Annaba, Algeria. Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the municipium of Thagaste in the Roman province of Numidia.
His mother, Monica or Monnica, was a devout Christian. Augustine considered the father like a stranger. Scholars agree that Augustine and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, but that they were Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of pride and dignity. In his writings, Augustine leaves some information as to the consciousness of his African heritage. For example, he refers to Apuleius as "the most notorious of us Africans," to Ponticianus as "a country man of ours, insofar as being African," and to Faustus of Mileve as "an African Gentleman". Augustine's family name, suggests that his father's ancestors were freedmen of the gens Aurelia given full Roman citizenship by the Edict of Caracalla in 212. Augustine's family had been Roman, for at least a century when he was born, it is assumed that his mother, was of Berber origin, on the basis of her name, but as his family were honestiores, an upper class of citizens known as honorable men, Augustine's first language is to have been Latin.
At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus, a small Numidian city about 19 miles south of Thagaste. There he became familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan practices, his first insight into the nature of sin occurred when he and a number of friends stole fruit they did not want from a neighborhood garden. He tells this story in The Confessions, he remembers that he did not steal the fruit because he was hungry, but because "it was not permitted." His nature, he says, was flawed.'It was foul, I loved it. I loved my own error—not that for which I erred, but the error itself." From this incident he concluded the human person is inclined to sin, in need of the grace of Christ. At the age of 17, through the generosity of his fellow citizen Romanianus, Augustine went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric, though it was above the financial means of his family. In spite of the good warnings of his mother, as a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lif
Yale University Press
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University. It was founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day, became an official department of Yale University in 1961, but it remains financially and operationally autonomous; as of 2009, Yale University Press published 300 new hardcover and 150 new paperback books annually and has more than 6,000 books in print. Its books have won five National Book Awards, two National Book Critics Circle Awards and eight Pulitzer Prizes; the press maintains offices in New Haven and London, England. It was a co-founder of the distributer TriLiteral LLC with Harvard University Press. TriLiteral was sold to LSC Communications in 2018. Since its inception in 1919, the Yale Series of Younger Poets Competition has published the first collection of poetry by new poets; the first winner was Howard Buck. Yale University Press and Yale Repertory Theatre jointly sponsor the Yale Drama Series, a playwriting competition; the winner of the annual competition is awarded the David C.
Horn Prize of $10,000, publication of his/her manuscript by Yale University Press, a staged reading at Yale Rep. The Yale Drama Series and David C. Horn Prize are funded by the David Charles Horn Foundation. In 2007, Yale University Press acquired the Anchor Bible Series, a collection of more than 115 volumes of biblical scholarship, from the Doubleday Publishing Group. New and backlist titles are now published under the Anchor Yale Bible Series name. Yale University Press is publishing the Future of American Democracy Series, which "aims to examine and renew the historic vision of American democracy in a series of books by some of America's foremost thinkers", in partnership with the Future of American Democracy Foundation; the Lamar Series in Western History was established in 1962 to publish works that enhance the understanding of human affairs in the American West and contribute to a wider understanding of why the West matters in the political and cultural life of America. The Dwight H. Terry Lectureship was established in 1905 to encourage the consideration of religion in the context of modern science and philosophy.
Many of the lectures, which are hosted by Yale University, have been edited into book form by the Yale University Press. On September 22, 2000, Yale University Press announced a new Yale Nota Bene imprint that would "feature reprints of best-selling and classic Yale Press titles encompassing works of history, science, current affairs and biography, in addition to fiction and drama." The Yale Publishing Course was founded in 2010 by former Publishing Director of the Yale University Press, Tina C. Weiner, it filled the gap created by the closing of the legendary Stanford Publishing Course. It operates under the aegis of the Office of International Affairs of Yale University; the Course trains mid to senior-level publishing professionals to tackle the most compelling issues facing the publishing industry and concentrates on building leadership skills. The curriculum focuses on in-depth analyses of global trends, innovative business models, management strategies, new advances in technology, its immersive week-long programs, one devoted to book publishing and the other to magazine and digital publishing, combine lectures, discussion groups, one-on-one counseling sessions.
The faculty is made up of leading industry experts and members of the Yale School of Management, the Yale Library, the Yale University Press. Participants come from all over the world and represent all areas of publishing within organizations of all sizes and types of publications. In 1963, the Press published a revised edition of Ludwig von Mises's "Human Action". In the May 5, 1964 issue of National Review, Henry Hazlitt wrote the story "Mangling a Masterpiece", accusing Yale University Press of intentionally typesetting the new edition in an amateurish fashion, due to the Press's differing ideological beliefs. In August, 2009, officials at the Press ignited a controversy when they decided to expunge reproductions of the cartoons involved in the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, along with all other images of Muhammad, from a scholarly book entitled The Cartoons that Shook the World, by professor Jytte Klausen. Official website Yale University Press, London Yale Publishing Course, New Haven, Connecticut
A student is a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor and who devotes time outside class to do whatever activities the instructor assigns that are necessary either for class preparation or to submit evidence of progress towards that mastery. In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive. In the United Kingdom and India, the term "student" denotes those enrolled in secondary schools and higher. In Nigeria, education is classified into four system known as a 6-3-3-4 system of education, it implies six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary, three years in senior secondary and four years in the university. However, the number of years to be spent in university is determined by the course of study.
Some courses have longer study length than others. Those in primary school are referred to as pupils; those in university, as well as those in secondary school, are being referred to as students. The Nigerian system of education has other recognized categories like the polytechnics and colleges of education; the Polytechnic gives out National Diploma and Higher National Diploma certifications after a period of two years and/or four years of study respectively. Higher National Diploma can be obtained in a different institution from where the National Diploma was obtained. However, the HND cannot be obtained without the OND certificate. On the other hand, colleges of education give out NCE after a two year period of study. In South Africa, education is divided into four bands: Foundation Phase, Intermediate Phase, Senior Phase, the Further Education and Training or FET Phase. However, because this division is newer than most schools in the country, in practice, learners progress through three different types of school: primary school, junior school, high school.
After the FET phase, learners who pursue further studies take three or four years to obtain an undergraduate degree or one or two years to achieve a vocational diploma or certificate. The number of years spent in university varies as different courses of study take different numbers of years; those in the last year of high school are referred to as'Matrics' or are in'Matric' and take the Grade 12 examinations accredited by the Umalusi Council in October and November of their Matric year. Exam papers are set and administered nationally through the National Department of Basic Education for government schools, while many private school Matrics sit for exams set by the Independent Education Board, which operates with semi-autonomy under the requirements of Umalusi.. A school year for the majority of schools in South Africa runs from January to December, with holidays dividing the year into terms. Most public or government schools are 4-term schools and most private schools are 3-term school, but the 3-term government or public schools and 4-term private schools are not rare.
Six years of primary school education in Singapore is compulsory. Primary School Secondary School Junior College There are schools which have the integrated program, such as River Valley High School, which means they stay in the same school from Secondary 1 to Junior College 2, without having to take the "O" level examinations which most students take at the end of Secondary school. International Schools are subject to overseas curriculums, such as the British, Canadian or Australian Boards. Primary education is compulsory in Bangladesh, it is a near crime to not to send children to primary school. But it is not a punishable crime; because of the socio-economic state of Bangladesh, child labour is sometimes legal. But the guardian must ensure the primary education. Everyone, learning in any institute or online may be called a student in Bangladesh. Sometimes students taking undergraduate education are called undergraduates and students taking post-graduate education may be called post-graduates.
Education System Of Bangladesh: Education is free in Brunei. Darussalam not limited to government educational institutions but private educational institutions. There are two types of educational institutions: government or public, private institutions. Several stages have to be undergone by the prospective students leading to higher qualifications, such as Bachelor's Degree. Primary School Secondary School High School Colleges University Level It takes six and five years to complete the primary and secondary levels respectively. Upon completing these two crucial stages, students/pupils have freedom to progress to sixth-form