History of Israel
The Land of Israel is the birthplace of the Jewish people, the place where the Hebrew Bible was composed and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity. It contains sites sacred to Judaism, Islam, Samaritanism and the Bahá'í Faith; the region has come under the sway of various empires and been home to a variety of ethnicities, but was predominantly Jewish from 1,000 years before the Common Era until the 3rd century of the Common Era. The adoption of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century led to a Greco-Roman Christian majority which lasted until the 7th century when the area was conquered by the Arab Muslim Empires, it became predominantly Muslim until the Crusades between 1096 and 1291, when it was the focal point of conflict between Christianity and Islam. From the 13th century it was Muslim with Arabic as the dominant language and was first part of the Syrian province of the Mamluk Sultanate and part of the Ottoman Empire until the British conquest in 1917. A Jewish national movement, emerged in the late-19th century, as part of which Aliyah increased.
During World War I, the British government publicly committed to create a Jewish National Home and was granted a Mandate to rule Palestine by the League of Nations for this purpose. A rival Arab nationalism claimed rights over the former Ottoman territories and sought to prevent Jewish migration into Palestine, leading to growing Arab–Jewish tensions. Israeli independence in 1948 was accompanied by an exodus of Arabs from Israel, the Arab–Israeli conflict and a subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries and Europe to Israel. About 43 % of the world's Jews live in the largest Jewish community in the world. Since about 1970, the United States has become the principal ally of Israel. In 1979, an uneasy Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty was signed, based on the Camp David Accords. In 1993, Israel signed Oslo I Accord with the Palestine Liberation Organization, followed by establishment of the Palestinian National Authority and in 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed. Despite efforts to finalize the peace agreement, the conflict continues to play a major role in Israeli and international political and economic life.
The economy of Israel was primarily socialist and the country dominated by social democratic parties until the 1970s. Since the Israeli economy has moved to capitalism and a free market economy retaining the social welfare system. Between 2.6 and 0.9 million years ago, at least four episodes of hominine dispersal from Africa to the Levant are known, each culturally distinct. The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1.5 million years ago, was found in Ubeidiya near the Sea of Galilee. The flint tool artefacts have been discovered at Yiron, the oldest stone tools found anywhere outside Africa. Other groups include 1.4 million years old Acheulean industry, the Bizat Ruhama group and Gesher Bnot Yaakov. In the Carmel mountain range at el-Tabun, Es Skhul and early modern human remains were found, including the skeleton of a Neanderthal female, named Tabun I, regarded as one of the most important human fossils found; the excavation at el-Tabun produced the longest stratigraphic record in the region, spanning 600,000 or more years of human activity, from the Lower Paleolithic to the present day, representing a million years of human evolution.
Other notable Paleolithic sites include caves Manot. The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominids, who lived in northern Israel 120,000 years ago. Around 10th millennium BCE, the Natufian culture existed in the area. During the 2nd millennium BCE, part of which became known as Israel, was dominated by the New Kingdom of Egypt from c.1550 to c. 1180. The first record of the name Israel occurs in the Merneptah stele, erected for Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah c. 1209 BCE, "Israel is laid waste and his seed is not." William G. Dever sees this "Israel" in the central highlands as a cultural and political entity, more an ethnic group rather than an organized state. Ancestors of the Israelites may have included Semites native to the Sea Peoples. McNutt says, "It is safe to assume that sometime during Iron Age I a population began to identify itself as'Israelite'", differentiating itself from the Canaanites through such markers as the prohibition of intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, religion.
The archaeological evidence indicates a society of village-like centres, but with more limited resources and a small population. Villages had populations of up to 300 or 400, which lived by farming and herding, were self-sufficient. Writing was known and available for recording in small sites; the first use of grapheme-based writing originated in the area among Canaanite peoples resident in Egypt. This evolved into the Phoenician alphabet from which all modern alphabetical writing systems are descended; the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was one of the first to develop and evidence of its use exists from about 1000 BCE, the language spoken was Biblical Hebrew. Monotheism, the belief in a single all-powerful law-giving God is thought to have evolved among the Hebrew speakers over the next few centuries, from a number of separate cults, leading to the first versions of the religion now known as Judaism; the Hebrew Bible describes constant warfare between the Israelites and the Philistines whose capital was Gaza.
The Dutch Wikipedia is the Dutch-language edition of the free online encyclopedia, Wikipedia. It was started in June 2001; as of April 2019, the Dutch Wikipedia is the sixth-largest Wikipedia edition, with 1,963,438 articles. It was the fourth Wikipedia edition to exceed 1 million articles, after the English and French editions. In April 2016, 1154 active editors made at least five edits in that month; the Dutch Wikipedia was started on 19 June 2001, reached 100,000 articles on 14 October 2005. It surpassed the Polish Wikipedia as the sixth-largest edition of Wikipedia, but fell back to the eighth position. On 1 March 2006, it overtook the Swedish and Italian editions in one day to rise back to the sixth position; the edition's 500,000th article was created on 30 November 2008. In a 2006 Multiscope research study, the Dutch Wikipedia was rated the third-best Dutch-language website, after Google and Gmail, with a score of 8.1. The Dutch language Wikipedia has the largest ratio of Wikipedia pages per native speaker of all of the top 10 largest Wikipedia editions.
Its rate of daily article creations spiked in March 2006 growing to an average of 1,000 a day in early May 2006. After this number was reached, growth dropped to an average of only about 250 a day, comparable to the averages around December 2005. Since there have been more article-creation surges, one of the largest peaking at 2,000 new articles per day in September 2007, but the growth rate has always returned to the lowest average of around 250. In 2008, Dutch businessman Bob Sijthoff attempted to sue "the Vereniging Wikimedia Nederland" and "the Stichting Wikimedia Nederland" to force the removal of his Dutch Wikipedia article, which he stated contained "false and abusive" information. On December 10, 2008, the court rejected his request; the judge ruled that he had sued the wrong entity and that legal responsibility for the content of the articles would not lie in the Netherlands, but with the American Wikimedia Foundation. The majority of articles in Dutch Wikipedia were created by internet bots.
In October 2011, several bots created 80,000 articles in only 11 days. The Dutch Wikipedia's one-millionth article was created in December 2011, after another surge of bot activity saw 100,000 added articles in only 10 days. In late March 2013, the Dutch Wikipedia surpassed the French Wikipedia to become the third-largest edition of Wikipedia. In June 2013, it overtook the German Wikipedia to become the second-largest Wikipedia edition; the depth or editing depth of Wikipedia is a rough indicator of the encyclopedia's collaborative quality, showing how its articles are updated. The depth is measured by taking the average number of edits per article multiplied by the extent in which articles are supported by discussion. Among the nine language editions with one million articles, the Dutch and Polish Wikipedias in that order have depth parameters much lower than the other six; as of March 2012, for the English version the article depth is 666, for the German 88, for the French 153, for the Spanish 160, for the Dutch only 18.
Compared to most other Wikipedia editions with a similar number of articles, articles on the Dutch Wikipedia have less content with an average of 1,598 bytes per article. This is 40% of that of the French, Italian and Spanish editions. De Smits, Ap. "Dat zoeken we op! Wikipedia vs. de Britannica en Encarta". Personal Computer Magazine. April 2008. Dutch Wikipedia Dutch Wikipedia mobile version
The Ukrainian Wikipedia is the Ukrainian language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The first article was written on January 30, 2004. Ukrainian Wikipedia has 898,822 articles and is the 16th largest Wikipedia edition. In the Ukrainian Wikipedia one area of knowledge has been covered to an extent greater than all other Wikipedias — the subject of mining, due to the considerable contribution by one person, Volodymyr Biletsky, a professor at Donetsk National Technical University. Using as a basis his published Encyclopedia of Mining, Biletsky has contributed over 10,000 articles on the subject to Ukrainian Wikipedia. In 2013 the Institute of History of Ukraine at the National Academy of Science gave permission to the Ukrainian Wikipedia to use the digital version of the Encyclopedia of Ukraine's History, published online; the Higher School Academy of Science and Forest Engineering allowed Wikipedia to use their information resources. One of the areas where activity is notable is in Wiki Loves Monuments project, an annual international photo contest focused on cultural and historical monuments.
Ukrainian Wikipedians were ranked 4th among 36 participating countries for the number of uploads of images as part of this project in 2012. In 2014 Ukrainian Wikipedians were winners. A significant number of articles in Ukrainian Wikipedia relate to the history of the development of the Ukrainian language. A study in August 2012 counted over 8,000 articles mentioning the term "Ukrainian language" and over 1,400 articles with the term "history of Ukrainian language" and concluded that collectively represented a good coverage of its history and concepts. Articles about the history of Ukrainian language included articles about early publications like bibles printed in Ukrainian, grammar books, changes in phonetics through time, Ukrainian calligraphy, history of Ukrainian language within the context of the Soviet Union and the banning of Ukrainian language by the Russian Government. At the end of 2012 Ukrainian Wikipedia contained over 1,500 articles relating to Ukrainian history; as of June 2012 the Ukrainian Wikipedia contained 52 specific articles about Ukrainian astronomers and astronomo-geodesists, which have now been collated into a published book.
On January 21, 2014, the Ukrainian Wikipedia community decided to block access to the portal every day between 4:00 and 4:30 PM in protest of "dictatorship laws" in Ukraine, that restrict the freedom of speech and pose a threat to the portal. On October 1, 2005, Ukrainian Wikipedia reached the 20,000-article mark; the milestone of 250,000 articles was reached on 21 December 2010, 860,000 people had viewed 30 million articles in that month alone. By 2012, with over 400,000 articles and 100 million words, the Ukrainian Wikipedia many times over had content larger than the largest printed encyclopedia at that time — the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia; as of April 2019, the Ukrainian Wikipedia has 898822 articles and nearly 2.5 million visitors every day. The Ukrainian Wikipedia at that time was on the 16th place in the ranking of the World's Wikipedias. January 30, 2004 — 1st article April 4, 2004 — 1,000 articles June 18, 2004 — 5,000 articles December 16, 2004 — 10,000 articles October 1, 2005 — 20,000 articles October 15, 2006 — 30,000 articles November 12, 2006 — 40,000 articles January 16, 2007 — 50,000 articles May 17, 2007 — 60,000 articles September 9, 2007 — 70,000 articles December 13, 2007 — 80,000 articles January 24, 2008 — 90,000 articles March 28, 2008 — 100,000 articles July 13, 2008 — 120,000 articles May 30, 2009 — 150,000 articles April 7, 2010 — 200,000 articles December 20, 2010 — 250,000 articles July 7, 2011 — 300,000 articles December 28, 2011 - 350 000 articles September 20, 2012 — 400,000 articles May 12, 2014 — 500,000 articles November 13, 2015 — 600,000 articles June 4, 2017 — 700,000 articles List of Wikipedias and their ranking by number of articles Wikipedia Statistics Ukrainian Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report - Wikipedia Page Views Per Country Ukrainian Wikipedia Ukrainian Wikipedia mobile version Wikipedia at Wikimedia Ukraine Weblog Bozhena Sheremeta, Ukrainian Wikipedia hits growth peak with over 500,000 articles, Kyiv Post, November 24, 2014
The Russian Wikipedia is the Russian-language edition of Wikipedia. As of April 2019, it has 1,540,644 articles, it was started on 11 May 2001. In October 2015 it became the sixth-largest Wikipedia by the number of articles, it has the fifth-largest number of edits. Since 2016, Alexa Internet rankings tend to show it as the world's most visited language Wikipedia after the English Wikipedia, it is the largest Wikipedia written in any Slavic language, surpassing its nearest rival, the Polish Wikipedia, eightfold by the parameter of depth. In addition, the Russian Wikipedia is the largest Wikipedia written in Cyrillic or in a script other than Latin script. In April 2016, the project had 3,377 active editors who made at least five edits in that month, ranking third behind the English and Spanish versions. Difficult issues are resolved through the Arbitration Committee, which handles content disputes, blocks users or prohibits certain users from editing articles on certain topics. Administrators are elected through a vote.
Administrators who have become inactive may lose their privileges by an Arbitration Committee decision. As of 1 June 2012, some of the biggest categories in the Russian Wikipedia are: 176,411 biographical articles. Although the Western name order is used in Russian, the Russian Wikipedia uses lexical order for all articles on non-fictional persons; this order has been traditionally used in major Russian language encyclopedias, like the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. 144,322 human settlements articles. 28,187 river articles 19,302 film articles 16,925 animal articles 16,517 scientific articles 16,133 surname articles 13,936 footballers' articles 11,247 Musicians' articles 10,755 Writers' articles 9,243 album articles 9,237 articles on recipients of the Order of Lenin 7,307 Company's articles 6,734 plant articles 6,574 street articles 6,265 NGC astronomical articles 6,157 actors articles 5,719 artist articles 5,580 music group articles 5,292 Hero of the Soviet Union articles10,340 articles contain material from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary.
More than 11,000 articles were translated from the English Wikipedia. In addition to common Wikipedia namespaces, the Russian Wikipedia has three custom ones: "Incubator" –, used as a training camp for new users and their first articles, "Project" – for Wikipedia projects and "Arbitration" – for arbitration requests. In 2015, Roman Leibov, a professor at University of Tartu, in an interview opined that articles related to humanities in the Russian Wikipedia are of inferior quality compared to English Wikipedia, some articles deteriorate with time, he suggested that this effect is due to overzealous policing of intellectual property rights by the community and bemoaned poor editing skills of some Wikipedians. The main page was created on 7 November 2002. On 30 December 2004, the 10,000th article was created. On 23 December 2005, the 50,000th article was created. On 16 August 2006, the 100,000th article was created. On 29 November 2006, the Russian Wikipedia received the National Runet Award in the Educational section.
On 10 March 2007, the 150,000th article was created. On 4 September 2007, the 200,000th article was created. On 27 November 2007, the Russian Wikipedia received the National Runet Award in the Educational section. On 17 March 2008, the 250,000th article was created. On 18 July 2008, the 300,000th article was created. On 22 January 2009, the 350,000th article was created. On 16 June 2009, the 400,000th article was created. On 25 November 2009, the Russian Wikipedia received the National Runet Award in the Science and Education section. On 25 February 2010, the 500,000th article was created. On 8 October 2010, the 600,000th article was created. On 12 April 2011, the 700,000th article was created. On 10 December 2011, the 800,000th article was created. On 8 September 2012, the 900,000th article was created. On 11 May 2013, the 1,000,000th article was created. On 27 March 2014, the 1,100,000th article was created. On 19 March 2015, the 1,200,000th article was created. On 29 March 2016, the 1,300,000th article was created.
On 1 October 2018, the 1,500,000th article was created. The Russian Wikipedia was created on 20 May 2001 in the first wave of non-English Wikipedias, along with editions in Catalan, Dutch, Esperanto, Hebrew, Japanese, Portuguese and Swedish; the first edit of the Russian Wikipedia was on 24 May 2001, consisted of the line "Россия – великая страна". The following edit changed it to the joke: "Россия — родина слонов" ("Russia is the motherland of elephants For a long time development was slow, but in the 12-month period between February 2005 and February 2006 it surpassed nine editions in other languages – the Catalan, Ukrainian, Finnish, Chinese and Danish Wikipedias. In 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010 the Russian Wikipedia won the "Science and education" category of the "Runet Prize" award, supervised by the Russian government agency FAPMC. On 10 July 2012 Russian Wikipedia closed access to its content for 24 hours in protest against proposed amend
The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is known for participating in the Wikimedia movement, it hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sibling projects through non-profit means; as of 2017, the foundation employs over 300 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$109.9 million. María Sefidari is chair of the board. Katherine Maher has been the executive director since March 2016; the Wikimedia Foundation has the stated goal of developing and maintaining open content, wiki-based projects and providing the full contents of those projects to the public free of charge. Another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy; the Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S. Internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005, its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60. The foundation's by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it and globally.
In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, Larry Sanger, an online community organizer and philosophy professor, founded Wikipedia as an Internet encyclopedia to supplement Nupedia. The project was funded by Bomis, Jimmy Wales's for-profit business; as Wikipedia's popularity increased, revenues to fund the project stalled. Since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis's resources and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project; the Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20, 2003. It applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 14, 2004; the mark was granted registration status on January 10, 2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16, 2004, and, in the European Union, on January 20, 2005. There were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs; the name "Wikimedia", a compound of wiki and media, was coined by American author Sheldon Rampton in a post to the English mailing list in March 2003, three months after Wiktionary became the second wiki-based project hosted on Wales' platform.
In April 2005, the U. S. Internal Revenue Service approved the foundation as an educational foundation in the category "Adult, Continuing education", meaning all contributions to the foundation are tax-deductible for U. S. federal income tax purposes. On December 11, 2006, the foundation's board noted that the corporation could not become the membership organization planned but never implemented due to an inability to meet the registration requirements of Florida statutory law. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership activities; the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25, 2007, the foundation's board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Major considerations cited for choosing San Francisco were proximity to like-minded organizations and potential partners, a better talent pool, as well as cheaper and more convenient international travel than is available from St. Petersburg, Florida.
The move from Florida was completed by 31 January 2008 with the headquarters on Stillman Street in San Francisco. In 2009, the Wikimedia Foundation's headquarters moved to New Montgomery Street. Lila Tretikov was appointed executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014, she resigned in March 2016. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the interim executive director, a position made permanent in June 2016. In October 2017, the headquarters moved to One Montgomery Tower. Content on most Wikimedia Foundation websites is licensed for redistribution under v3.0 of the Attribution and Share-alike Creative Commons licenses. This content is sourced from contributing volunteers and from resources with few or no copyright restrictions, such as copyleft material and works in the public domain. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates eleven other wikis that follow the free content model with their main goal being the dissemination of knowledge; these include, by launch date: Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects.
For instance, Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sites. These include: Wikimedia movement affiliates are independent, but formally recognized, groups of people intended to work together to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement; the Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees has approved three active models for movement affiliates: chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. Movement affiliates are intended to organize and engage in activities to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement, such as regional conferences, edit-a-thons, public relations, public policy advocacy, GLAM engagement, Wikimania. Recognition of a chapter and thematic organization is approved by the foundation's board. Recommendations on recognition of chapters and thematic organizations are made to the foundation's board by an Affiliations Committee, composed of Wikimedia community volunteers; the Affiliations Committee approves the recognition of individual user groups.
While movement affiliates are formally recognized by the Wikimedia Foundation, they are independent of the Wikimedia Foundation, with no legal control of nor responsibility for the Wikimedia projects. The foundation began recognizing chapters in 2004. In 2010, development on additional models began. In 2012, the foundation approved, fina
The Chinese Wikipedia is the Chinese language edition of Wikipedia. It is run by the Wikimedia Foundation. Started on 11 May 2001, the Chinese Wikipedia has about 1,051,000 articles and about 2,716,000 registered users, of which 81 have administrative privileges; the Chinese Wikipedia has been blocked in Mainland China since May 2015. The Chinese Wikipedia is the fourth largest online Chinese encyclopedia after Hudong Baike, Baidu Baike and Soso Baike; the Chinese Wikipedia was established along with 12 other Wikipedias in May 2001. At the beginning, the Chinese Wikipedia did not support Chinese characters, had no encyclopedic content. In October 2002, the first Chinese-language page was written, the Main Page. A software update on 27 October 2002 allowed Chinese language input; the domain was set to be zh.wikipedia.org, with zh based on the ISO code for the Chinese language. On 17 November 2002, the user Mountain translated the Computer science article into zh:计算机科学, thus creating its first real encyclopedic article.
In order to accommodate the orthographic differences between simplified Chinese characters and traditional Chinese characters, from 2002 to 2003, the Chinese Wikipedia community decided to combine the two separate versions of the Chinese Wikipedia. The first running automatic conversion between the two orthographic representations started on 23 December 2004, with the MediaWiki 1.4 release. The needs from Hong Kong and Singapore were taken into account in the MediaWiki 1.4.2 release, which made the conversion table for zh-sg default to zh-cn, zh-hk default to zh-tw. In its early days, most articles on the Chinese Wikipedia were translated from the English version; the first five sysops, or administrators, were promoted on 14 June 2003. Wikipedia was first introduced by the mainland Chinese media in the newspaper China Computer Education on October 20, 2003, in the article, "I join to write an encyclopedia". On May 16, 2004, Wikipedia was first reported by Taiwanese media in the newspaper China Times.
Since many newspapers have published articles about the Chinese Wikipedia, several sysops have been interviewed by journalists. Ivan Zhai of the South China Morning Post wrote that the blocks from the Mainland authorities in the 2000s stifled the growth of the Chinese Wikipedia, that by 2013 there was a new generation of users originating from the Mainland who were taking efforts to make the Chinese Wikipedia grow. In 2013, there were 1.4 million registered users on the Chinese Wikipedia, in July 2013 7,500 of these users were active, with most of them originating from Hong Kong and Taiwan. 715,000 entries for the Chinese Wikipedia, making it the 12th largest Wikipedia. The Chinese name of Wikipedia was decided on 21 October 2003, following a vote; the name means "Wiki Encyclopedia". The Chinese transcription of "Wiki" is composed of two characters: 維/维, whose ancient sense refers to'ropes or webs connecting objects', alludes to the'Internet'; the name can be interpreted as'the encyclopedia that connects the fundamental knowledge of humanity'.
The most common Chinese translation for wiki technology is 維基/维基. As a result, the term 維基/维基 has become associated with Wikimedia projects; the Chinese Wikipedia has a subtitle: 海納百川，有容乃大/海纳百川，有容乃大. It means, "The sea encompasses hundreds of rivers/all rivers run into sea; the subtitle is the first half of a couplet composed by the Qing Dynasty official Lin Zexu. In April 2016, the project had 2127 active editors. Chinese Wikipedia contributors come from a variety of backgrounds. Just as English Wikipedia tends to be more detailed in western-related topics, the Chinese Wikipedia has detailed descriptions of China-related topics. Within that region, the Chinese Wikipedia tends to be more detailed in topics about Hong Kong and the wealthy east coast provinces of mainland China. Due to the geographical origin of its participants, the most discussed and debated topics on the Chinese Wikipedia are political issues in Chinese modern history. For example, the six most edited articles as of August 2007 were Taiwan, Chinese culture, Mao Zedong, Chiang Kai-shek, Hong Kong, in that order.
In contrast, issues such as the Israel-Palestinian conflict are much less contentious. Due to the audience base, Wikipedians from Mainland and other areas had engaged in editing conflicts over political topics related to Cross-Straits relations; as of August 2014, there sysops. They are all elected by Chinese Wikipedians. Most of them come from Hong Kong and Taiwan. There are a few who come from the United States and Japan; the first Chinese Wikipedian meeting was held in Beijing on July 25, 2004. Since Chinese Wikipedians from different regions have held many gatherings in Beijing, Dalian, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Taiwan. A regular meetup is held once every two weeks in Shanghai and Hong Kong, once every month in Tainan City, Taiwan. In July 2006, Taiwanese Wikipedians held a "travelling meetup", travelling by train through four Taiwanese cities over a period of two days. In August 2006, Hong Kong hosted the first annual Chin
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre