Arrian of Nicomedia was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period. The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian is considered the best source on the campaigns of Alexander the Great. However, more even though modern scholars have preferred Arrian to other extant primary sources, this attitude towards Arrian is beginning to change in the light of studies into Arrian's method. Arrian was born in the provincial capital of Bithynia. Dio called him Flavius Arrianus Nicomediansis. In respect of his birth date, sources provide similar dates for his birth; the line of reasoning for dates belonging to 85-90 AD is from the fact of Arrian being made a consul around 130 AD, the usual age for this, during this period, being forty-two years of age.. His family was from the Greek provincial aristocracy, his full name, L. Flavius Arrianus, indicates that he was a Roman citizen, suggesting that the citizenship went back several generations to the time of the Roman conquest some 170 years before.
Sometime during the 2nd century AD while in Epirus Nicopolis, Arrian attended lectures of Epictetus of Nicopolis, proceeded within a time to fall into his pupillage, a fact attested to by Lucian. All, known about the life of Epictetus is due to Arrian, in that Arrian left an Encheiridion of Epictetus' philosophy. After Epirus he went to Athens, while there he became known as the young Xenophon as a consequence of the similarity of his relation to Epictetus as Xenophon had to Socrates. For a period, some time about 126 AD, he was a friend of the emperor Hadrian, who appointed him to the Senate, he was appointed to the position consul suffectus around 130 AD, in 132 AD, he was made prefect or legate of Cappadocia by Hadrian, a service he continued for six years. When he retired, Arrian went to live in Athens, where he became archon sometime during 145 or 146, he died in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Arrian referred to himself as the second Xenophon, on account of his reputation and the esteem in which he was held.
Lucian stated him to be: a Roman of the first rank with a life-long attachment to learning Τhis quality is identified as paideia, the quality considered to be of one, known as an educated and learned personage, i.e. one, esteemed and important. There are eight extant works; the Indica and the Anabasis are the only works intact. His entire remaining oeuvre is known as FGrH 156 to designate those collected fragments; this work is the earliest extant work, dated with any confidence. It is a writing addressed to the Emperor Hadrian. Arrian was a pupil of Epictetus around 108 AD, according to his own account, he was moved to publish his notes of Epictetus' lectures, which are known as Discourses of Epictetus, by their unauthorized dissemination. According to George Long, Arrian noted from Epictetus' lectures for his private use and some time made of these, the Discourses. Photius states that Arrian produced two books the Discourses; the Discourses are known as Diatribai and are a verbatim recording of Epictetus' lectures.
The Enchiridion is a short compendium of all Epictetus' philosophical principles. It is known as a handbook, A Mehl considers the Enchiridion to have been a vade mecum for Arrian; the Enchiridion is a summary of the Discourses. JB Stockdale considered that Arrian wrote eight books of which four were lost by the Middle Ages and the remaining ones became the Discourses. In a comparison of the contents of the Enchiridion with the Discourses, it is apparent that the former contains material not present within the latter, suggesting an original lost source for the Enchiridion. Friendly conversations with Epictetus is a 12 book work mentioned by Photius in his Bibliotheca, of which only fragments remain; the Anabasis of Alexander comprises seven books. Arrian used Xenophon's account of the March of Cyrus as the basis for this work. History of the Diadochi or Events after Alexander is a work of ten books. Three extant fragments are the Vatican Palimpsest, PSI 12.1284, the Gothenburg palimpsest, these stemming from Photius.
The writing is about the successors of Alexander the Great, circa 323 – 321 or 319. A lost work of seventeen books, fragments of Parthica were maintained by the Suda and Stephen of Byzantium; the work survives only in adaptations made by Photius and Syncellus. Translated, the title is History of the Parthians. Arrian's aim in the work was to set forth events of the Parthian war of Trajan; the writing mentioned that the Parthians trace their origins to Artaxerxes II. A work of eight books, Bibliotheca states. A work translated a Nicodemian script. Indica is a work on a variety of things pertaining to India, the voyage of Nearchus in the Persian Gulf; the first part of Indica was based on the work of the same name of Megasthenes, the second part based on a journal written by Nearchus. Written 136/137 AD, Techne Taktike is a treatise on Roman cavalry and military tactics, includes information on the nature and disciplin
Evagoras or Euagoras was the king of Salamis in Cyprus, known from the work of Isocrates, who presents him as a model ruler. The spelling "Evagoras" reflects the Latin transliteration of the name. Coincidentally, it reflects Modern Greek pronunciation, he claimed descent from Teucer, the son of Telamon and half-brother of Ajax, his family had long been rulers of Salamis, although during his childhood Salamis came under Phoenician control, which resulted in his exile. While in Cilicia, Evagoras gathered the support of 50 followers and returned secretly in 410, to gain possession of the throne. Expecting an eventual Persian response to recapture Cyprus, he cultivated the friendship of the Athenians, after Conon's defeat at the Battle of Aegospotami he provided him with a refuge. For a time he maintained friendly relations with Persia, secured the aid of Artaxerxes II for Athens against Sparta, he took part in the battle of Cnidus of 394 BC which he provided most of the resources for and in which the Spartan fleet was defeated thanks to his efforts, for this service his statue was placed by the Athenians side by side with that of Conon in the Ceramicus.
But relations between Evagoras and the Persians became strained. From 391 they were at war. Aided by the Athenians and the Egyptian king Hakor, Evagoras extended his rule over the greater part of Cyprus, crossed over to Asia Minor, took several cities in Phoenicia, persuaded the Cilicians to revolt. One result of the peace of Antalcidas, to which Evagoras refused to agree, was that the Athenians withdrew their support, since by its terms they recognized the lordship of Persia over Cyprus; the following years Evagoras carried on hostilities single-handed, except for occasional aid from Egypt, threatened by the Persians. While Evagoras was in Egypt asking for help, his younger son Pnytagoras was in charge of Salamis; the Persian generals Tiribazus and Orontes at last invaded Cyprus in 385 BC, with an army far larger than what Evagoras could command. However, Evagoras managed to cut off this force from being resupplied, the starving troops rebelled; the war turned in the Persian favor when Evagoras' fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Citium, he was compelled to flee to Salamis.
Here, although blockaded, Evagoras managed to hold his ground, took advantage of a quarrel between the two Persian generals to conclude peace. Evagoras was allowed to remain nominally king of Salamis, but in reality a vassal of Persia, to which he was to pay a yearly tribute; the chronology of the last part of his reign is uncertain. In 374 he was assassinated by a eunuch from motives of private revenge, he was succeeded by Nicocles. According to Isocrates's Panegyric, Evagoras was a model ruler, whose aim was to promote the welfare of his state and of his subjects by the cultivation of Greek refinement and civilization. Isocrates states that many people migrated from Greece to Cyprus because of the noble rule of Evagoras. Other sources of this period – Diodorus Siculus 14.115, 15.2-9. Lysias in his Against Andocides 6.28 addresses him as the king of Cyprus. Although Cypriots were Greeks and their language a dialect of Greek, the Arcadocypriot, they used to write in an older and more difficult system, called Cypriot syllabary.
Evagoras has been called a pioneer of the adoption of the Greek alphabet in Cyprus in place of the older Cypriot syllabary. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Evagoras". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. P. 959. An Evagoras' coin on a stamp of Republic of Cyprus
The Achaemenid Empire called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, the development of civil services and a large professional army; the empire's successes inspired similar systems in empires. By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the south-western portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis, which came to be their heartland. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, establishing the Achaemenid Empire.
Alexander the Great, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered most of the empire by 330 BC. Upon Alexander's death, most of the empire's former territory came under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time; the Iranian elites of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire. The Achaemenid Empire is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon; the historical mark of the empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social and religious influences as well. Despite the lasting conflict between the two states, many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange, some being employed by or allied to the Persian kings; the impact of Cyrus's edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, the empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China.
The empire set the tone for the politics and history of Iran. The term Achaemenid means "of the family of the Achaemenis/Achaemenes". Achaemenes was himself a minor seventh-century ruler of the Anshan in southwestern Iran, a vassal of Assyria. Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here....: the Pasargadae and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder -the Dai, Dropici, being nomadic; the Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The name "Persia" is a Greek and Latin pronunciation of the native word referring to the country of the people originating from Persis; the Persians were an Iranian people who arrived in what is today Iran c. 1000 BC and settled a region including north-western Iran, the Zagros Mountains and Persis alongside the native Elamites.
For a number of centuries they fell under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia. The Persians were nomadic pastoralists in the western Iranian Plateau and by 850 BC were calling themselves the Parsa and their shifting territory Parsua, for the most part localized around Persis; the Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as the Medes, another group of Iranian peoples, established a short-lived empire and played a major role in the overthrow of the Assyrian. The Achaemenids were rulers of the Elamite city of Anshan near the modern city of Marvdasht. There are conflicting accounts of the identities of the earliest Kings of Anshan. According to the Cyrus Cylinder the kings of Anshan were Teispes, Cyrus I, Cambyses I and Cyrus II known as Cyrus the Great, who created the empire. In Herodotus' Histories, he writes that Cyrus the Great was the son of Cambyses I and Mandane of Media, the daughter of Astyages, the king of the Median Empire. Cyrus revolted against the Median Empire in 553 BC, in 550 BC succeeded in defeating the Medes, capturing Astyages and taking the Median capital city of Ecbatana.
Once in control of Ecbatana, Cyrus styled himself as the successor to Astyages and assumed control of the entire empire. By inheriting Astyages' empire, he inherited the territorial conflicts the Medes had had with both Lydia and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. King Croesus of Lydia sought to take advantage of the new international situation by advancing into what had been Median territory in Asia Minor. Cyrus led a counterattack which not only fought off Croesus' armies, but led to the capture of Sardis and the fall of the Lydian Kingdom in 546 BC. Cyrus placed Pactyes in charge of collecting tribute in Lydia and left, but once Cyrus had left Pactyes instigated a rebellion against Cyrus. Cyrus sent the Median general Mazares to deal with the rebellion, Pactyes was captured. Mazares, aft
The Anabasis of Alexander
The Anabasis of Alexander was composed by Arrian of Nicomedia in the second century AD, most during the reign of Hadrian. The Anabasis is a history of the campaigns of Alexander the Great his conquest of the Persian Empire between 336 and 323 BC. Both the unusual title "Anabasis" and the work's seven-book structure reflect Arrian's emulation of the Greek historian Xenophon, whose own Anabasis in seven books concerned the earlier campaign "up-country" of Cyrus the Younger in 401 BC; the Anabasis is by far the fullest surviving account of Alexander's conquest of the Persian empire. It is a military history, reflecting the content of Arrian's model, Xenophon's Anabasis. Nor does Arrian aim to provide a complete history of the Greek-speaking world during Alexander's reign. Arrian's chief sources in writing the Anabasis were the lost contemporary histories of the campaign by Ptolemy and Aristobulus and, for his books, Nearchus. One of Arrian's main aims in writing his history seems to have been to correct the standard "Vulgate" narrative of Alexander's reign, current in his own day associated with the lost writings of the historian Cleitarchus.
The Anabasis gives a broadly chronological account of the reign of Alexander the Great of Macedon, with a particular focus on military matters. After a short Preface concerning Arrian's sources, Book 1 covers the early years of Alexander's reign, including notable descriptions of Alexander's sack of Thebes in 335 and the battle of the Granicus in summer 334 BC. Book 2 is dominated by three large set-piece military operations: the campaign and battle of Issus and the sieges of Tyre and Gaza. Book 3 begins with an account of Alexander in Egypt, including his visit to the oracle of Zeus-Ammon at Siwah, before turning to the battle of Gaugamela and defeat of Darius III; the latter half of the book describes Alexander's pursuit of Darius through northern Iran, the revolt of the pretender Bessus, the deaths of Philotas and Parmenion. Book 4 describes the long Sogdian campaign of 329-327 BC against Bessus and Oxyartes, the early stages of the campaigns in the Punjab, with a notable departure from chronological sequence at 4.7-14, where Arrian collects many of the most notorious stories tending to Alexander's discredit in a single apologetic digression.
Book 5 continues the narrative of the Indian campaign of 326 BC, including Alexander's arrival at Nysa, the battle with Porus at the Hydaspes river, the decision at the Hyphasis not to push on further into India. Book 6 describes the journey down the Indus to the Indian Ocean, including the brutal violence inflicted on the local inhabitants by the Macedonians en route, the crossing of the Gedrosian Desert. Book 7 recounts the events of Alexander's final year, including the Susa marriages, the Opis mutiny, the death of Hephaestion, Alexander's own death. Arrian's Anabasis has traditionally been regarded as the most reliable extant narrative source for Alexander's campaigns. Since the 1970s, however, a more critical view of Arrian has become widespread, due to the work of A. B. Bosworth, who has drawn scholars' attention to Arrian's tendency to hagiography and apologia, not to mention several passages where Arrian can be shown to be downright misleading; the only complete English translation of Arrian available online is a rather antiquated translation by E.
J. Chinnock, published in 1884; the original Greek text used by the Perseus Digital Library is the standard A. G. Roos Teubner edition published at Leipzig in 1907; the most used scholarly English translation is Loeb Classical Library edition, in two volumes. The work first appeared in 1929 and was revised with a new introduction and appendices by P. A. Brunt in 1976. An English translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt appeared in Penguin Classics in 1958; this edition was revised and enlarged with introduction and notes by J. R. Hamilton in 1971; the Landmark Ancient Histories, edited by Robert B. Strassler, includes The Landmark Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander, edited by James Romm, translated by Pamela Mensch; the Landmark edition includes extensive margin maps on every other page. A new translation by Martin Hammond with introduction and notes by John Atkinson appeared in the Oxford World's Classics series in 2013. Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt, Penguin Classics, 1958 and numerous subsequent editions.
Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, translated by P. A. Brunt, with Greek and English text, edited by Jeffrey Henderson, The Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press. Books I-IV: ISBN 0-674-99260-1 Books V-VII and Indica: ISBN 0-674-99297-0 Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, translated by E. J. Chinnock Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, Battle of the Granicus, from the Loeb edition. Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, Sogdian Rock, translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt
Hakor or Hagar known by the hellenized forms Achoris or Hakoris, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty. His reign marks the apex of this feeble and short-lived dynasty, having ruled for 13 years – more than half of its entire duration. Hakor's accession and relationships with his predecessor Nepherites. After Nepherites' death a dynastic struggle did seem to have occurred, the throne was claimed by two or maybe three pretenders: Hakor, a phantom figure called Muthis, only mentioned in Eusebius' epitome of Manetho's Aegyptiaca; as a result, Hakor was alternately considered Nepherites' legitimate successor or an unrelated usurper. In 1986 John D. Ray suggested that Hakor was Nepherites' heir, who ruled undisturbed until his Year 2 when he was deposed by Psammuthes. After another year, Hakor managed to retake his legitimate throne by overthrowing the usurper, continued to date his reign since his first coronation date pretending that this gap never occurred; the third pretender, could be inserted within this struggle, but his role – assuming that he did exist – is unknown.
Ray's hypothesis is accepted by other Egyptologists such as Alan B. Lloyd and Toby Wilkinson. Shortly after his death, Hakor was called an usurper by the founder of the subsequent dynasty, Nectanebo I. However, it has been suggested that Hakor and Nectanebo might have been relatives in some way both related to Nepherites I but rivals to each other. Once re-established, Hakor made considerable exertions to affirm his legitimacy, putting emphasis on his – real or fictional – descent from Nepherites, his building activity was remarkable and he extensively restored many monuments of his royal predecessors. In Karnak, Hakor finished the chapel for the sacred barque of Amun-Ra near the first pylon, started by Psammuthes or by Nepherites I, his building activity is well attested in various places in Upper Egypt, in the Temple of Hibis of Kharga Oasis, as well as other locations in Middle Egypt. Hakor reprised Nepherites' foreign policy. In Aristophanes' comedy Plutus, performed in 388 BCE, an alliance between the Athenians and the Egyptians is mentioned, though it was more intended to refer to the Athenian support for the rebellion of Evagoras I of Cyprus – himself allied with Hakor – against the Achaemenids.
Theopompus reported an alliance between Hakor and the Pisidians. The peace of Antalcidas between the Persians and Greeks was a turning point: after that and Cyprus remained the only opponents of Artaxerxes II as reported by Theopompus and Orosius; the following years are quite obscure, but it seems that the Persians first attacked Egypt in 385 BCE and, after three years of war, the Egyptians managed to defeat the invaders. In 381 BCE Hakor sent aid, money and 50 triremes to Evagoras in order to contribute to his resistance against the Great King who, after the unsuccessful campaign in Egypt, was now focusing on Cyprus. However, when, in 380 BCE, Evagoras travelled to Egypt to beg for further aid, Hakor saw no need to continue supporting him and sent him back to Cyprus with some more money. Evagoras surrendered to Artaxerxes soon after, but Hakor promptly joined a short-lived alliance with Sparta and with Glos, son of the Egyptian admiral, a supporter of the pretender Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II.
Hakor managed to get the Athenian general Chabrias into his service, but the Persian general Pharnabazus II lobbied Athens seeking for them to repatriate him. Hakor died in 379/8 BCE, leaving his throne to his son Nepherites II. However, the latter was able to keep it for just four months before being overthrown and replaced by an army general from Sebennytos, Nectanebo I. "166 Antonius Diogenes, The incredible wonders beyond Thule". Photius: Bibliotheca. Tertullian.org
Cyrus the Younger
Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general, Satrap of Lydia and Ionia from 408 to 401 BC. His birth date is unknown, but he died in 401 BC after a failed battle to oust his elder brother, Artaxerxes II, from the Persian throne; the history of Cyrus and of the retreat of his Greek mercenaries is told by Xenophon in his Anabasis. Another account from Sophaenetus of Stymphalus, was used by Ephorus. Further information is contained in the excerpts from Artaxerxes II's physician, Ctesias, by Photius; these are the only early sources of information on Cyrus the Younger. According to Xenophon, Cyrus the Younger was born after the accession of his father in 424 BC, he had an elder brother and two younger brothers named Ostanes and Oxathres. About Cyrus' childhood, Plutarch wrote, "Cyrus, from his earliest youth, showed something of a headstrong and vehement character. Xenophon spoke more of Cyrus' excellence as a child: In this courtly training Cyrus earned a double reputation.
Nor less in matters of war, in the use of the bow and the javelin, was he held by men in general to be at once the aptest of learners and the most eager practiser. As soon as his age permitted, the same pre-eminence showed itself in his fondness for the chase, not without a certain appetite for perilous adventure in facing the wild beasts themselves. Once a bear made a furious rush at him, without wincing he grappled with her, was pulled from his horse, receiving wounds the scars of which were visible through life. In 408 BC, after the victories of Alcibiades leading to an Athenian resurgence, Darius II decided to continue the war against Athens and give strong support to the Spartans, he sent Cyrus the Younger into Asia Minor as satrap of Lydia and Phrygia Major with Cappadocia, commander of the Persian troops, "which gather into the field of Castolos", i.e. of the army of the district of Asia Minor. There, Cyrus met the Spartan general Lysander. In him, Cyrus found a man, willing to help him become king, just as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince.
Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. When Cyrus was recalled to Susa by his father Darius, he gave Lysander the revenues from all of his cities of Asia Minor. Around that time, Darius called his son to his deathbed. Plutarch wrote that Cyrus's mother, favored him and wanted him on the throne, "And therefore, his father Darius now lying ill, he, being sent for from the sea to the court, set out thence with full hopes that by her means he was to be declared the successor to the kingdom. For Parysatis had the specious plea in his behalf, which Xerxes on the advice of Demaratus had of old made use of, that she had borne him Arsicas when he was a subject, but Cyrus when a king. Notwithstanding, she prevailed not with Darius, but the eldest son Arsicas was proclaimed king, his name being changed into Artaxerxes. According to Plutarch, "his resentment for made him more eagerly desirous of the kingdom than before."In 405 BC, Lysander won the battle of Aegospotami, Sparta became more influential in the Greek world.
Cyrus managed to gather a large army by beginning a quarrel with Tissaphernes, satrap of Caria, about the Ionian towns. In the spring of 401 BC, Cyrus united all his forces into an army now including Xenophon's "Ten Thousand", advanced from Sardis without announcing the object of his expedition. By dexterous management and large promises, he overcame the misgivings of the Greek troops over the length and danger of the war. Cyrus the Younger had obtained the support of the Spartans after having asked them "to show themselves as good friend to him, as he had been to them during their war against Athens", in reference to the support he had given the Spartan in the Peloponnesian War against Athens a few years earlier; the king had only been gathered an army in haste. In October 401 BC, the battle of Cunaxa ensued. Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites, 2,500 peltasts, an Asiatic army of 10,000 under the command of Ariaeus. Cyrus saw.
Pixodarus or Pixodaros, was a ruler of Caria, nominally the Achaemenid Empire Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy. Lycia was ruled by the Carian dynasts since the time of Mausolus, the name of Pixodarus as ruler appears in the Xanthos trilingual inscription in Lycia, he was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively held the sovereignty of their native country. Pixodarus obtained possession of the throne by the expulsion of his sister Ada, the widow and successor of their brother Idrieus, held it without opposition for a period of five years, 340–335 BC, he cultivated the friendship of Persia, gave his daughter in marriage to a Persian named Orontobates, whom he seems to have admitted to some share in the sovereign power during his own lifetime. But he did not neglect to court the alliance of other powers and endeavoured to secure the powerful friendship of Philip II, king of Macedonia, by offering the hand of his eldest daughter in marriage to Arrhidaeus, the illegitimate son of the Macedonian monarch.
The discontent of the young Alexander at this period led him to offer himself as a suitor for the Carian princess instead of his natural brother — an overture, eagerly embraced by Pixodarus, but the indignant interference of Philip put an end to the whole scheme. Pixodarus died — a natural death — some time before the landing of Alexander in Asia, 334 BC: and was succeeded by his son-in-law the Persian Orontobates, who had married his daughter Ada II. Orontobates was soon ousted by Alexander the Great in the Siege of Halicarnassus, replaced by Princess Ada with the approval of Alexander. A fragment of a bilingual decree by Pixodarus in Greek and Lycian was discovered at Xanthos in Turkey, is now held at the British Museum in London; the inscription records grants made by Pixedara to the Lycian cities of Arñna, Pñ, Tlawa and Xadawãti. Pixadorus is mentioned in the Xanthos trilingual inscription, confirming the rule of Pixodarus over neighbouring Lycia: In the month Siwan, year 1 of King Artaxerxes.
In the fortress of Arñna. Pixodarus son of Katomno, the satrap, in Karka and Termmila.... When Pixodarus, the son of Hecatomnus, became satrap of Lycia, he appointed as rulers of Lycia Hieron and Apollodotos, as governor of Xanthus, Artemelis; the Artaxerxes in question is thought to be Artaxerxes IV. Smith, William. "Pixodarus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology