Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Colin Peter Groves was Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. Born in England, Groves completed a Bachelor of Science at University College London in 1963, a Doctor of Philosophy at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine in 1966. From 1966 to 1973, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher and Teaching Fellow at the University of California, Queen Elizabeth College and the University of Cambridge, he emigrated to Australia in 1973 and joined the Australian National University, where he was promoted to full Professor in 2000 and remained Emeritus Professor until his death. Professor Groves' research interests included human evolution, mammalian taxonomy, skeletal analysis, biological anthropology, ethnobiology and biogeography, he conducted extensive fieldwork in Kenya, Rwanda, Iran, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Along with the Czech biologist Professor Vratislav Mazák, Groves was the describer of Homo ergaster.
Groves wrote Primate Taxonomy published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 2001, Ungulate Taxonomy, co-authored by Peter Grubb. He was an active member of the Australian Skeptics and had many published skeptical papers, as well as research papers covering his other research interests, he conducted regular debates with creationists and anti-evolutionists. Groves, C.. A theory of human and primate evolution. New York: Oxford Science Publications. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330810314. Groves, C.. Laycock, D, ed. Skeptical, a handbook on pseudoscience and the paranormal. Australian Skeptics. ISBN 0-7316-5794-2. Groves, C.. "From Ussher to Slusher. Archaeology in Oceania. 31: 145–151. Groves, C. P.. "Leopard-cats, Prionailurus bengalensis from Indonesia and the Philippines, with the description of two new subspecies". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 62: 330–338. Groves, C.. Primate Taxonomy. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X. Cameron, D. W.. Bones and Molecules. Boston: Elsevier. P. 402. ISBN 0-12-156933-0.
Groves, C.. Extended Family: Long Lost Cousins. A Personal Look at the History of Primatology. Arlington, Virginia: Conservation International. P. 227. ISBN 1-934151-25-4. Groves, C.. "Birth of a notion". The Skeptic. Australian Skeptics. 34: 39. Retrieved 2016-03-17; the Colin Groves Pages The Groves Collection at No Answers in Genesis ANU Faculty Homepage ANU Researcher Profile page
The patas monkey known as the wadi monkey or hussar monkey, is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over semi-arid areas of West Africa, into East Africa. It was considered the only member of the genus Erythrocebus, but the Blue Nile patas monkey synonymized with this species, was resurrected in 2018. There is some confusion surrounding the number of valid subspecies, with some listing four, others listing two. Others, have suggested that at least some of the features used to separate these subspecies are variations in the female's facial pattern during pregnancy. On the other hand, the change in the nose during pregnancy occurs only in the West African populations; the male patas monkey grows to 60 cm to 87 cm excluding the tail, which measures 75 cm. Adult males are larger than adult females, which average 49 cm in length. Adult males average 12.4 kg and adult females 6.5 kg, showing a high degree of sexual dimorphism. Reaching speeds of 55 km/h, it is the fastest runner among the primates; the life span in the wild can be up to about 20 years.
It is found in many parts of central and eastern Africa. It has been introduced to Puerto Rico; the species avoids dense lives in more open tropical savanna. The patas monkey lives in multi-female groups of up to 60 individuals; the group contains just one adult male for most of the year. During the breeding season, there are multi-male influxes into the group. Once juvenile males reach sexual maturity they leave the group joining all-male groups; the adult females in the group initiate movement of the group with the male following their lead. Variation in the female social structure of patas monkeys has been observed across different populations; this variation may be dependent on food resources, as conflict between individuals is a result of competition for limited resources. Higher rates of conflict over dense, but limited, such as fruit bushes, is associated with more stable, well defined dominance hierarchies than habitats with more diffuse resources, such as insects. Variation in the availability of these resources has been associated with variation in dominance hierarchies among females.
Conflict among females has shown the presence of recognition among matrilineal relatives. It has been observed that, shortly after conflicts among two females, patas monkeys act differently toward each other than if they had not been in conflict. Females “reconcile” with each other by activities such as sitting together and grooming. While this reconciliatory behavior is observed between unrelated individuals, it is most common among matrilineal relatives. Dominance structure has little effect on the probability of reconciliation occurring, except that the alpha-female is the least reconciliatory of the females. Affiliation toward matrilineal relatives is common in other primates as well, such as vervet monkeys. Mating in patas monkeys is seasonal and occurs during the wet season. During periods when females are not receptive stable groups with one adult resident male and several females are the norm; this leaves an excess of males that either live on their own. During the mating season, resident males may be chased away by invading solitary males.
This results in the formation of multi-male, multi-female groups shortly thereafter, as more males invade a group. The new resident male does not chase away subordinate invading males, but rather focuses on mating with females. At the end of the mating season, one-male, multi-female groups stabilize. One male chases other males away. In some instances, submissive males are tolerated by the resident male for short periods of time. Young males have been observed to leave their natal groups anywhere from two to four years of age. However, one study showed that most juveniles left before they were three, before most males reach sexual maturity; this contrasts with an earlier study in which juveniles were observed to leave at sexual maturity, indicating that there may be variation between groups. The reason young males leave their natal group is contested. Dominant males have been observed to act aggressively toward younger males in captivity. However, observations of wild patas monkeys has shown young males leaving the group in which they were born without any aggressive behavior from the adult male.
The juveniles, in the time shortly before they leave, spend less and less time with the adult females in the group. However, juvenile males do not change the amount of time; this may indicate weakening of matrilineal ties, rather than male aggression, as the main reason juveniles disperse from their natal group. Patas monkeys have several distinct alarm calls. Different alarm calls are given by different group members and certain alarm calls are distinctive of different types of predators. Unlike other primates, patas monkeys take refuge from predators in trees; this is most the due to the sparse tree cover in patas monkey habitats. While patas monkeys run on the ground away from predators, individuals have been observed to attack predators such as jackals and wildcats; this behavior has been observed in both males and femal
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The common adjective used for daytime activity is "diurnal"; the timing of activity by an animal depends on a variety of environmental factors such as the temperature, the ability to gather food by sight, the risk of predation, the time of year. Diurnality is a cycle of activity within a 24-hour period. Animals active during twilight are crepuscular, those active during the night are nocturnal, animals active at sporadic times during both night and day are cathemeral. Plants that open their flowers during the daytime are described as diurnal, while those that bloom during nighttime are nocturnal; the timing of flower opening is related to the time at which preferred pollinators are foraging. For example, sunflowers open during the day to attract bees, whereas the night-blooming cereus opens at night to attract large sphinx moths. Many types of animals are classified as being diurnal, meaning they are active during the day time and inactive or have periods of rest during the night time.
Classified diurnal animals include mammals and reptiles. Most primates are diurnal. Scientifically classifying diurnality within animals can be a challenge, apart from the obvious increased activity levels during the day time light. Most animals were diurnal, but adaptations that allowed some animals to become nocturnal is what helped contribute to the success of many mammals; this evolutionary movement to nocturnality allowed them to better avoid predators and gain resources with less competition from other animals. This did come with some adaptations. Vision has been one of the most affected senses from switching back and forth from diurnality to nocturnality, this can be seen using biological and physiological analysis of rod nuclei from primate eyes; this includes losing two of four cone opsins that assists in colour vision, making many mammals dichromats. When early primates converted back to diurnality, better vision that included trichromatic colour vision became advantageous, making diurnality and colour vision adaptive traits of simiiformes, which includes humans.
Studies using chromatin distribution analysis of rod nuclei from different simian eyes found that transitions between diurnality and nocturnality occurred several times within primate lineages, with switching to diurnality being the most common transitions. Still today, diurnality seems to be reappearing in many lineages of other animals, including small rodent mammals like the Nile grass rat and golden mantle squirrel and reptiles. More geckos, which have thought to be nocturnal have shown many transitions to diurnality, with about 430 species of geckos now showing diurnal activity. With so many diurnal species recorded, comparative analysis studies using newer lineages of gecko species have been done to study the evolution of diurnality. With about 20 transitions counted for the gecko lineages, it shows the significance of diurnality. Strong environmental influences like climate change, predation risk, competition for resources are all contributing factors. Using the example of geckos, it is thought that species like Mediodactylus amictopholis that live at higher altitudes have switched to diurnality to help gain more heat through the day, therefore conserve more energy when colder seasonal temperatures hit.
Light is one of the most defining environmental factors that determines an animal’s activity pattern. Photoperiod or a light dark cycle is determined by the geographical location, with day time being associated with lots of ambient light, night time being associated with little ambient light. Light is one of the strongest influences of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, part of the hypothalamus in the brain that controls the circadian rhythm in most animals; this is. The SCN uses visual information like light to start a cascade of hormones that are released and work on many physiological and behavioural functions. Light can produce powerful masking effects on an animal’s circadian rhythm, meaning that it can “mask” or influence the internal clock, changing the activity patterns of an animal, either temporarily or over the long term if exposed to enough light over a long period of time. Masking can be referred to either as positive masking or negative masking, with it either increasing an diurnal animals activity or decreasing a nocturnal animal's activity, respectively.
This can be depicted. When a diurnal Nile grass rat and nocturnal mouse are exposed to the same photoperiod and light intensity, increased activity occurred within the grass rat, decreased activity within the mouse. Small amounts of environmental light change have shown to have an effect on the activity of mammals. An observational study done on the activity of nocturnal owl monkeys in the Gran Chaco in South America showed that increased amounts of moonlight at night increased their activity levels through the night, which led to a decrease of daytime activity. Meaning that for this species, ambient moonlight is negatively correlated with diurnal activity; this is connected with the foraging behaviours of the monkeys, as when there were nights of little to no moonlight, it affected the monkey’s ability to forage efficiently, so they were forced to be more active in the day to find food. Diurnality has shown to be an evolutionary trait in many animal species, with diurnality re
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
The grivet known as African green monkey and savannah monkey is an Old World monkey with long white tufts of hair along the sides of the face. Some authorities consider this and all of the members of the genus Chlorocebus to be a single species, Cercopithecus aethiops; as here defined, the grivet is restricted to Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea. In the southern part of its range, it comes into contact with the related vervet monkey and Bale Mountains vervet. Hybridization between them is possible, may present a threat to the vulnerable Bale Mountains vervet. Unlike that species, the grivet is common and rated as Least Concern by the IUCN; the grivet's facial skin and feet are black. The face has a white line above the eyes, it has long white whiskers on the cheeks. The fur on the back has an olive color; the skin on the stomach has a blue tint. The fur has a bristly feel; the approximate head and body length for males is 42.6 cm for females. The length of the tail for males is 30–50 cm; the body mass ranges from 3.4 to 8.0 kg with females at the smaller end of the scale.
The main habitat of the grivet is savanna woodlands. Its range is Sudan east of the White Nile and Ethiopia east to the Rift Valley, it is found in Djibouti and Eritrea. The grivet needs to live around a source of water during the dry season, it is able to adapt to many environments. The grivet is most active in the morning and in early evening, it stays on the ground most of the day to eat and at night it sleeps in trees. The grivet spends a lot of time grooming, playing and play fighting, its eating habits consist of eating fruits and sometimes small mammals and birds, making it an omnivore. It will scavenge for human food, it must drink water daily in the dry seasons. It is one of few species. In the hierarchy of males, an individual shows its dominance by putting its tail in a stiff upright position and strolling past lower-ranked males, they travel in packs and move on all fours or quadrupedally, except when using both hands for carrying, when they manage to walk and run quite comfortably on two legs.
Groups can range from five to over 70. Females will have a limited number of mates. Swelling of the female's vulva alerts males as to. Giving birth to one baby at a time is common and the pregnancy lasts two to three months; when the baby is born the mother will bite off the umbilical cord. Young have black hair, it will take around two months for them to get their adult coats. The first few months, the infant will stay close to its mother, but after six months, the infant is weaned; the grivet is hunted as bushmeat. They are killed for either commercial or subsistence purposes. Although not endangered, it is threatened through destruction of habitat by way of disappearing forests, it is preyed on by large snakes, leopards and sometimes baboons. The grivet may live for 13 years; the grivet is one of five species of monkey known to have been kept in ancient Egypt, the others being the hamadryas baboon, the olive baboon, the patas monkey and the barbary macaque. Grivets were imported from the land of Punt, as attested in paintings and in the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor.
They were sometimes traded as far afield as Assyria. They are rarer in representations than baboons and, unlike baboons, do not seem to have borne individual names. Grivets are depicted on Egyptian tombs on leashes. In some depictions the grivet may symbolize male sexuality. Early Dynastic statuettes of grivets have been found in sanctuaries, where they may have been votive offerings to the baboon god. A grivet shooting a bow was an aspect of the invisible god Atum and at Deltaic Babylon a grivet was the town god represented by a statue in the temple