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Hedgehog (weapon)

The Hedgehog was a forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon, used during the Second World War. The device, developed by the Royal Navy, fired up to 24 spigot mortars ahead of a ship when attacking a U-boat, it was deployed on convoy escort warships such as destroyers and corvettes to supplement the depth charges. As the mortar projectiles employed contact fuzes rather than time or barometric fuzes, detonation occurred directly against a hard surface such as the hull of a submarine making it more deadly than depth charges, which relied on damage caused by hydrostatic shockwaves. During WWII out of 5,174 British depth charge attacks there were 85.5 kills, a ratio of 60.5 to 1. In comparison, the Hedgehog made 268 attacks for 47 kills, a ratio of 5.7 to 1. The "Hedgehog", so named because the empty rows of its launcher spigots resembled the spines of a hedgehog, was a replacement for the unsuccessful Fairlie Mortar, trialled aboard HMS Whitehall in 1941; the Fairlie was designed to fire depth charges ahead of a ship.

The principle of firing projectiles forwards, instead of dropping depth charges over the stern, was considered viable, despite the failure of the Fairlie. This secret research by the Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapons Development led to the development of the Hedgehog; the weapon was a multiple'spigot mortar' or spigot discharger, a type of weapon developed between the wars by Lieutenant Colonel Stewart Blacker, RA. The spigot mortar was based on early infantry trench mortars; the spigot design allowed a single device to fire warheads of different sizes. The propelling charge was part of the main weapon and worked against a rod set in the baseplate which fitted inside a tubular tail of the'bomb'; this principle was first used on the Blacker Bombard 29 mm Spigot Mortar and the PIAT anti-tank weapon. The adaptation of the bombard for naval use was made in partnership with MIR under Major Millis Jefferis who had taken Blacker's design and brought it into use with the Army; the weapon fires a salvo of 24 bombs in an arc, aimed to land in a circular or elliptical area about 100 feet in diameter at a fixed point about 250 yards directly ahead of the attacking ship.

The mounting was fixed, but was replaced by a gyro-stabilised one to allow for the rolling and pitching of the attacking ship. The system was developed to solve the problem of the target submarine disappearing from the attacking ship's ASDIC when closer than the sonar's minimum range. Due to the speed of sound in water, the time taken for the'ping' echo to return to the attacking ship from the target submarine became too short to allow the human operator to distinguish the returning audible echo from the initial sound pulse emitted by the sonar – the so-called "instantaneous echo", where the output sound pulse and returning echo merge, with the submarine still out of depth charge range; this "blind spot" made the submarine invisible to the sonar, allowing it to make evasive manoeuvres undetected. The solution was a weapon mounted on the foredeck that discharged the projectiles up and over the ship's bow while the submarine was still detectable by the sonar, entering the water some distance in front of the ship.

The Hedgehog entered service in 1942. Carrying a 16 kg Torpex charge, each mortar projectile had a diameter of 18 cm and weighed about 29.5 kg. The spigots were angled so the projectiles would land in a circular pattern with a diameter of 40 m, about 180 m ahead of the ship's position; the projectiles would sink at about 7 m/s. They would reach a submerged U-boat, for example at 200 ft in under 9 seconds. Sympathetic detonation of projectiles near those contacting hard surfaces was a possibility, but the number of explosions counted was fewer than the number of projectiles launched; the prototype launcher was tested aboard HMS Westcott in 1941, but there were no submarine kills until November 1942, after it had been installed aboard one hundred ships. Initial success rates, of about 5%, were only better than depth charges. Swells and spray covered the launcher during heavy North Atlantic weather, subsequent attempts to launch from the soaked launcher were hindered by firing circuit problems, launching an incomplete pattern.

A depth charge total miss would still produce an explosion, leading crews to think that they might have damaged their target or at least demoralised its personnel. The Royal Navy launched Hedgehog so in early 1943 that a directive was issued ordering captains of ships equipped with Hedgehog to report why they had not used Hedgehog on an underwater contact; the results were blamed on low confidence in the weapon. However, after an officer from the DMWD was sent to Londonderry Port, where the convoy crews were based, with better training and shipwide talks on examples of successful Hedgehog attacks, the kill rate improved considerably. By the end of the war, statistics showed that on average, one in every five attacks made by Hedgehog resulted in a kill. In response to this new deadly threat to its U-boats, the Kriegsmarine brought forward its programme of acoustic torpedoes in 1943, beginning with the Falke; these new "homing" acoustic torpedoes could be employed without the use of a periscope, providing submarines a better chance to remain undetected and evade counterattack.

In the Pacific Theatre, USS England sank six Japanese submarines in two-week period with Hedgehog in May 1944. In 1946, USS Solar was destroyed after a crewman accidentally dropped a Hedgehog charge near one

Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research

The Oeschger Centre for Climate and Climate Change Research, is the interdisciplinary centre of excellence for climate research of the University of Bern. The centre was established in 2007 and was named after Hans Oeschger, a pioneer of modern climate research, who worked in Bern; the OCCR brings together researchers from four faculties. It has more than 200 members working in 26 research groups; the OCCR is at the forefront of international research in a number of different fields. Researchers from the University of Bern have participated as co-chair, coordinating lead authors or lead authors in all the assessment reports so far published by the IPCC. Many of them are still working today at the OCCR. In addition to research within disciplines, the OCCR puts special emphasis on interdisciplinary projects. Regionally rooted and globally linked, the OCCR hopes to find ways to meet the challenge of global climate change at many different levels through the collaboration of experts in the natural and social sciences, in economics and law.

The OCCR is active not only in research. The Oeschger Centre conducts research on the one hand into the long-term development and dynamics of the climate system and the climate of the present and the future. On the other hand, it investigates the impact of climate change on important land ecosystems as well as on the economy and society. In particular it works on strategies to adapt to the changing climate and to slow down climate change. At the centre of the OCCR's research is the climate system and its interaction with society and the economy. Specific areas of research include: the climate system with its different interactive components in the oceans, continents and in the atmosphere energy and material cycles from the global to the local level; the dynamics of the climate and environment over long periods of time from the late Pleistocene and the present day to the near future the interaction of changes in the climate and environment with the economy and society, in particular the economics of climate change and the consequences of extreme events on the economy and societyThe Oeschger Centre uses models of varying kinds and complexity, takes measurements and carries out reconstructions of important climate variables.

The Oeschger Centre runs the University of Bern's Graduate School of Climate Sciences and offers academic training to MSc and PhD level. For the specialist "MSc in Climate Sciences", applicants have to pass through a selection process. Students put together their own curriculum by selecting courses from a range of topics offered by several different faculties; the selection can lead to any one of five specialisations. The OCCR's main areas of research are reflected in the curriculum of the courses offered by the Graduate School of Climate Sciences; the Oeschger Centre has a decidedly international outlook in its teaching, works with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich. More than a third of its students come from abroad, all teaching is conducted in English; the PhD programme is research-orientated, lasts for three to four years. Students with a degree from the Graduate School of Climate Sciences may take up academic careers, work in the private sector – for example in banks or in insurance – or in the environmental sector for the government or with non-governmental organisations.

The Oeschger Centre for Climate Research is an interdisciplinary centre at the University of Bern, made up of research groups from the participating institutes. Administratively it is part of the Faculty of Science; the OCCR received its mandate from the university's governing body. The president, director and a scientific committee made up of representatives of the participating faculties and institutes are responsible for the strategic management of the OCCR; the OCCR is run by a management centre which encourages collaboration between the research groups, provides services for the researchers and publicises the work of the OCCR. The Oeschger Centre includes the following research groups: Analytical Chemistry Research Aquatic Paleoecology Atmospheric Radiometry and Processes Dendroclimatology Earth System Modeling – Bio-Geo-Chemical Cycles Earth System Modeling – Atmosphere Ocean Dynamics Hydrology Environmental Isotopes and Gases Climatology Climate Change and Environmental Economy Laboratory for the Analysis of Radiocarbon with AMS Air Pollution/Climate Mobiliar Group for Climate Change Impact Research Past Climate and Biogeochemical Studies on Ice Cores Plant Nutrition and Ecophysiology Plant Ecology Environmental Policy Analysis Lake Sediments and Paleolimnology Terrestrial Paleoecology Environmental and Climate Economics Environmental and Climate Economics Environmental History and Historical Climatology Webpage of the Oeschger Centre National Centre of Competence in Research Climate Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern Past Global Changes PAGES

Wilfred Shingleton

Wilfred Shingleton was an English art director. He enjoyed a distinguished career in the British film industry from his debut in 1937; some of his early assignments were several George Formby vehicles – hugely popular with wartime audiences. His career kicked off into a higher gear in 1947 when he won the Academy Award for his atmospheric sets for David Lean's Great Expectations; this led to a string of high-profile projects, including Anna Karenina, The African Queen and Beat the Devil, both for director John Huston, Hobson's Choice and Tunes of Glory. He won a BAFTA for the wartime flying epic The Blue Max in 1966, after which he moved seamlessly into the world of TV, working on the stylish hit series The Avengers, he received an Emmy nomination for the miniseries Holocaust in 1978, winning the award two years for the TV movie Gauguin the Savage. His last film – for which he received a BAFTA nomination – was the Merchant-Ivory film Heat and Dust in 1983; the Fortunate Fool It's in the Air Trouble Brewing The Four Just Men Great Expectations The Cure for Love Shadow of the Eagle The Rival of the Empress The African Queen Who Goes There!

Beat the Devil Hobson's Choice Carrington V. C. I was Monty's Double The Pure Hell of St. Trinian's The Innocents The Blue Max The Avengers The Fearless Vampire Killers Macbeth Endless Night Heat and Dust Wilfred Shingleton on IMDb

Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the ABIM Foundation about unnecessary health care. The campaign identifies over 500 tests and procedures and encourages doctors and patients to discuss and get second opinions, before proceeding with them, though doctors say they lack time for these discussions. To conduct the campaign, the ABIM Foundation asks medical specialty societies to make five to ten recommendations for preventing overuse of a treatment in their field; the foundation publicizes this information, the medical specialty societies disseminate it to their members. The campaign has garnered both praise and criticism, some of its ideas have spread to other countries, it does not include evaluation of its effects on discussions or on medical outcomes. Https:// In 2002 the ABIM Foundation published Medical professionalism in the new millennium: a Physician Charter. The charter states that physicians have a responsibility to promote health equity when some health resources are scarce.

As a practical way of achieving distributive justice, in 2010 physician Howard Brody recommended that medical specialty societies, being stewards of a field, ought to publish a list of five things which they would like changed in their field and publicize it to their members. In 2011, the National Physicians Alliance tested a project in which it organized the creation of some "top 5 lists". Analysis of the National Physician's Alliance project predicted that the health field could have saved US$6.8 billion in 2009 by cutting spending on the 15 services in the lists from three societies, out of total US health spending that year of US$2.5 trillion. US$5.8 billion of the savings were from one recommendation: using generic rather than brand name statin. Continuing this project, Choosing Wisely was created to organise the creation of more "lists of five," ten, their distribution to more physicians and patients. Executive boards of societies, with or without participation by members, identify practices which their field may overuse.

Each recommendation in the program must have the support of clinical guidelines, evidence, or expert opinion. To participate in Choosing Wisely, each society developed list of tests, treatments, or services which that specialty overuses; the society shares this information with their members, as well as organizations who can publicize to local community groups, in each community patients and doctors can consider the information as they like. The ABIM Foundation gave grants to help societies participate; as of April 2018, there were 552 recommendations targeting a range of procedures to either question or avoid without special consideration. They can be searched online by key words, such as "back pain" but the numerous supporting footnotes on each recommendation are only in a pdf on the clinician page, without links to the papers; some examples of the information shared in Choosing Wisely include the following: Acknowledge that physicians are increasing their use of diagnostic procedures without a proportional increase in patient benefits.

Consider the effects of overuse of diagnostic services. Physicians overuse radiography services. In many cases this fails to improve patient outcomes; this subjects patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and the possibility of further unnecessary testing. Before the 39th week of pregnancy, doctors should not perform a Caesarean section or induce labor unless medically necessary; the Choosing Wisely campaign identifies the following difficulties in achieving its goals: In communicating with patients a major challenge in the campaign is the problem inherent in patient-centered care of giving patients some basis for understanding how to make decisions about their health care. Many recommendations in the campaign require clinical education to understand fully. Many patients tend to follow the recommendations of their physicians without question if they have questions; the United States medical system is based on a fee-for-service model, in which doctors are paid on the basis of work they do, so they are paid for procedures they do, though not tests or procedures which they refer to others.

This system creates incentives for doctors to provide additional treatments, rather than exercising evidence-based restraint. Critics tend to view efforts to reduce medical services as "healthcare rationing in the United States". Since doctors do not want to be seen as withholding care, they are hesitant to change established behavior in any way that lessens the amount of treatment they order. Doctors say that they feel pressure to engage in defensive medicine by conducting extra testing to avoid lawsuits; the motives of professional societies with Choosing Wisely lists has been questioned, as societies avoid targeting low-value care that generates income for their members, instead target the practice of other health professionals The American College of Emergency Physicians formed three independent task forces to evaluate whether to participate. In 2012 The New York Times said that the campaign was to "alter treatm

The Fruits of the Earth

The Fruits of the Earth is a prose-poem by André Gide, published in France in 1897. The book appeared in a review in 1896 before publication the next year. Gide admitted to the intellectual influence of Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra but the true genesis was the author's own journey from the deforming influence of his puritanical religious upbringing to liberation in the arms of North African boys. Andre Maurois draws attention to the similarity of moral outlook between the two works in these words: "Like Thus Spake Zarathustra, Les Nourritures Terrestres is a gospel in the root sense of the word: glad tidings. Tidings about the meaning of life addressed to a dearly loved disciple whom Gide calls Nathanael." "Nathanael" comes from the Hebrew name נְתַנְאֵל, "Nethan'el", meaning "God has given". The book has three characters: the narrator, the narrator's teacher and the young Nathanael. Menalque has two lessons; the first is to flee families, stability. Gide himself suffered so much from "snug homes".

The second is to seek adventure, fervor. "Not affection, Nathanael: love..." A subtly structured collection of lyrical fragments, poems, travel notes, aphorisms, the book came to command such a following after World War I that Gide wrote a preface stressing the work's self-critical dimension. It influenced a generation of young writers, including the existentialists Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre, to cast off all, artificial or conventional. In Roger Martin du Gard’s The Thibaults, two of the main characters, Jacques Thibault and Daniel de Fontanin, are changed after reading the book. Les nourritures terrestres, original French version in the public domain at

William Harrington (knight)

Sir William Harrington of Hornby, son of Sir Nicholas Harrington, was an early fifteenth-century English northern knight, fighting in the Hundred Years' War and serving the crown in the north of England. He served Henry V while the latter was Prince of Wales, in 1415 fought at the Battle of Agincourt as the king's standard-bearer, he was elected a knight of the Garter two years and, acting again as standard-bearer at the siege of Rouen in 1419, he was badly wounded. At some point he is known to have married Margaret Neville of Lancashire; this was not, however the principal branch of the magnatial Neville family, his new wife was not an heiress. However, through the death of her niece and great-nephew, she became a co-heiress with Sir John Langton of the family estates, Harrington, jure uxoris gained Hornby Castle in 1433, his marriage gave him a connection to the duke of Exeter, husband of Margaret's niece. Around 1420 he married his heir Thomas to his newly acquired ward, Elizabeth Dacre, which brought him in Dacre's castles of Heysham and Tatham.

He died in 1440. He was sheriff of Yorkshire four times from 1408, was appointed to various royal offices in the duchy of Lancaster in Lancashire, including the important position of chief-steward of the north in 1428. In 1423, he had been part of a committee to negotiate with the Scots over the intended release of James I, captured by the English on his way to France in 1408. Four years he led an embassy to James in an attempt to make him pay the balance of his ransom