Nivelles is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. The Nivelles municipality includes the old communes of Baulers, Thines, the Nivelles district includes all the municipalities in Walloon Brabant. The Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude has been classified as a site of Wallonia. Starting in 4000 BC, the Nivelles region was turned into agricultural land by the Danubian settlers. Most of their ancestral Rubanean civilization was destroyed by the Roman invaders during the first century AD, in turn, most of the Roman constructions, including villas, were destroyed during the Germanic invasions of the 3rd century. In the 7th century, the territory was part of the Austrasian Frankish kingdom, after Pippins death in 640, the bishop of Maastricht, the future Saint Amand, urged Pippins widow, Itta, to found an abbey in their villa. Ittas daughter, became the monasterys first abbess and was venerated as a saint upon her death, the growing influx of pilgrims necessitated the construction of ever-bigger churches, which culminated in the huge Romanesque structure that still stands today.
The dedication of the church took place in 1046 in the presence of Wazo, Prince-Bishop of Liège and this was the golden age of the Nivelles monastery, which now owned territories as far as Friesland, the Moselle and the Rhine. In the 13th century, the city grew around the church became part of the Duchy of Brabant. The population was mainly artisans and guild members, who did not hesitate to fight the abbesses and these rights were finally granted by Joanna, Duchess of Brabant in the 14th century. In 1647, an important uprising by the thread manufacturers resulted in many of the citys entrepreneurs leaving for France, the wars of the 17th century between France and the Spanish Netherlands made the situation worse as Nivelles went through successive sieges and military occupations. The Austrian and French regimes of the 18th century brought religious, in 1830, Nivelles was one of the first cities to send patriotic troops to Brussels to fight in the Belgian Revolution. The following years were marked by the growth of industry, including metallurgy.
The rebuilding of the church was completed in 1984, but remains can be seen of wall fragments on the side of the collegiate. The collegiate church of Gertrude of Nivelles, patron saint of the city and it has been classified as one of Europes major heritage sites. Tombs from the Merovingian and Carolingian periods have found under the church. The Romanesque crypt is one of the largest of its kind in Europe, the two-meter-tall statue that strikes the hours in one of the towers is affectionately known as Jean de Nivelles. The Recollets convent and its date from the 16th century
Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude, Nivelles
The Collegiate Church of St. Gertrude is a historical building in Nivelles, Walloon Brabant, which was built in the 11th century. Her remains are buried in a chapel of the church and this structure was built in the early 11th century and consecrated in 1046 by Wazo, Bishop of Liège, in the presence of the Emperor Henry III. It is an example both of Mosan art and of Ottonian architecture, at that point, the church acquired its status of collegiate church. Claudine Donnay-Rocmans writes in the Patrimoine majeur de Wallonie that the interior dimensions recall and its current appearance is the result of a long reconstruction finished in 1984, following severe damage from bombing by the German Luftwaffe in May 1940, in the course of the Battle of Belgium. The noble Chapter of the canonesses regular became very known and had important privileges, marie Magdeleine de Montmorency, daughter of John II de Montmorency, prince of Robecque. Marie Anne of Grave, granddaughter of Gilles van der Noot, Maria Clara de t Serclaes, daughet of Count John t Serclaes.
Antoinette Francoise of Arberg, daughter of Nicolas, count of Arberg, marie Josepha Taye, daughter of the Marquess of Wemmel, married to the Marquess of Assche. Isabeau-Angélique Van Zuylen, dite dErpe Helen de Lannoy, daughter of Valentin, anna Maria de Robles, daughter of Juan, married to Conrad dUrsel. Marie-Francoise dEstourmel, married to Jean-Francois de Jauche, itta of Metz, foundress of the abbey Gertrude of Nivelles, first abbess of the monastery which this church served Ermentrude, daughter of Reginar IV, Count of Mons and Hedwig of France
County of Hainaut
The County of Hainaut, sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons. The name comes from the river Haine, besides Mons, it included the cities of Cambrai and Charleroi. It consisted of what is now the Belgian province of Hainaut, originally a gau of Lotharingia, Hainaut was briefly a part of West Francia before becoming definitively attached to Germany. The county was divided in 958 and only emerged in its more or less final form in 1071, during the High Middle Ages, Hainaut became culturally and linguistically French. In 1432, Hainaut was acquired by the House of Valois-Burgundy and in 1477 passed to the Habsburgs with the rest of the Burgundian Netherlands and it was ruled by the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs from 1555 to 1714. In 1659 and 1678 southern Hainaut was acquired by France, and in 1797 the rest of the county was ceded to France by the Emperor Francis II, who was count of Hainaut.
In Roman imperial times, Hainaut was, at least for the most part, as the empire lost control, this entire region came under the lordship of the Salian Franks, within their Neustrian territory. By the time of Charlemagne, the Frankish empire had declared a new Holy Roman Empire. After the death of the last Carolingian king in East Francia, Louis the Child in 911, following Gilberts death in 939, his successors from the House of Reginar failed to retain the ducal title, but continued to rule over the Hainaut region. After Count Reginar III Longneck had unsuccessfully rebelled against Duke Bruno the Great, however, in 998 the Reginars regained control over the County of Mons. When the last Count, died without issue in 1051, his widow Richilde married Baldwin VI, on the death of his father in 1067, Baldwin VI became the ruler of both Hainaut and Mons. He was succeeded by his son Arnulf III, who was killed at the Battle of Cassel in 1071 in a dispute with his uncle. The victorious Robert acquired Flanders, but his sister-in-law Richilde retained the adjacent Lower Lorraine territories in the Holy Roman Empire as her dowry.
Henry IV ordered the Prince-Bishop of Liège to purchase the fiefs and return them as a county to the countess Richilde. The Counts of Hainaut had several connections with the counts of Flanders and Holland. Throughout its history, the county of Hainaut formed a union with other states. The last independent countess died early on 8 October 1436 in Teylingen Castle, near The Hague, when Charles the Bold of Burgundy was killed at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the male line of the Burgundian dukes became extinct. In the same year, Charles daughter Mary of Burgundy married Archduke Maximilian I of Habsburg, King Louis XI of France hoped to take advantage of the death of his cousin and sent an army to invade the Netherlands
Adelaide of Aquitaine
Adbelahide or Adele or Adelaide of Aquitaine, was queen consort of France by marriage to Hugh Capet. Adelaide was the daughter of William III, Duke of Aquitaine and Adele of Normandy and her father used her as security for a truce with Hugh Capet, whom she married in 969. In 987, after the death of Louis V, the last Carolingian king of France and they were proclaimed at Senlis and blessed at Noyon. They were the founders of the Capetian dynasty of France and Hughs children were, Countess of Mons, wife of Reginar IV, Count of Mons Robert II, the future king of France. Crowned co-king 987 in order to consolidate the new dynasty Gisèle, Countess of Ponthieu, wife of Hugh I, Count of Ponthieu A number of other daughters are less reliably attested
Hugh Capet was the first King of the Franks of the House of Capet from his election in 987 until his death. He succeeded the last Carolingian king, Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks, and Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born in 941. Hugh Capet was born into a well-connected and powerful family with ties to the royal houses of France. Through his mother, Hugh was the nephew to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, Bruno the Great, Archbishop of Cologne, and finally, Gerberga of Saxony, Queen of France. Gerberga was the wife of Louis IV, King of France and mother of Lothair of France and Charles and his paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France. His grandfather had been King Robert I, King Odo was his granduncle and King Rudolph was his uncle by affinity. Hughs paternal grandmother was a descendant of Charlemagne, after the end of the ninth century, the descendants of Robert the Strong became indispensable in carrying out royal policies.
As Carolingian power failed, the nobles of West Francia began to assert that the monarchy was elective, not hereditary. Robert I, Hugh the Greats father, was succeeded as King of the Franks by his son-in-law, when Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great had to decide whether he ought to claim the throne for himself. To block his rivals, Hugh the Great brought Louis dOutremer and this maneuver allowed Hugh to become the most powerful person in France in the first half of the tenth century. Once in power, Louis IV granted him the title of dux Francorum, Louis officially declared Hugh the second after us in all our kingdoms. Hugh gained power when Herbert II of Vermandois died in 943, Hugh the Great came to dominate a wide swath of central France, from Orléans and Senlis to Auxerre and Sens, while the king was rather confined to the area northeast of Paris. The realm in which Hugh grew up, and of which he would one day be king, Hughs predecessors did not call themselves kings of France, and that title was not used by his successors until the time of his descendant, Philip II.
Kings ruled as rex Francorum, the remaining in use until 1190 The lands they ruled comprised only a small part of the former Carolingian Empire. The eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire, were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hughs first cousin Otto II and by Ottos son, Otto III. The lands south of the river Loire had largely ceased to be part of the West Francia kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. Both the Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were largely independent, in 956, when his father Hugh the Great died, the eldest son, was about fifteen years old and had two younger brothers. In 954, Otto I appointed his brother Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lorraine, as guardian of Lothair, in 956, Otto gave him the same role over Hugh and the Robertian principality