Heel (professional wrestling)

In professional wrestling, a heel is a wrestler who portrays a villain or a "bad guy" and acts as an antagonist to the faces, who are the heroic protagonist or "good guy" characters. Not everything a heel wrestler does must be villainous: heels need only to be booed or jeered by the audience to be effective characters. To gain heat, heels are portrayed as behaving in an immoral manner by breaking rules or otherwise taking advantage of their opponents outside the bounds of the standards of the match. Others do not break rules, but instead exhibit unlikeable and deliberately offensive and demoralizing personality traits such as arrogance, cowardice or contempt for the audience. Many heels do both. No matter the type of heel, the most important job is that of the antagonist role, as heels exist to provide a foil to the face wrestlers. If a given heel is cheered over the face, a promoter may opt to turn that heel to face or the other way around, or to make the wrestler do something more despicable to encourage heel heat.

In "local" wrestling e.g. American wrestling, it was common for the faces to be "local" and the heels to be portrayed as "foreign". In the world of lucha libre wrestling, most rudos are known for being brawlers and for using physical moves that emphasize brute strength or size having outfits akin to demons, devils, or other tricksters; this is contrasted with most heroic técnicos that are known for using moves requiring technical skill aerial maneuvers. Common heel behavior includes cheating to win, employing dirty tactics such as blatant chokes or raking the eyes, attacking other wrestlers backstage, interfering with other wrestlers' matches, insulting the fans or city they are in and acting in a haughty or superior manner. More theatrical heels would feature dramatic outfits giving off a nasty or otherwise dangerous look, such as wearing corpse paint over their faces, putting on demonic masks, covering themselves in dark leather and the like. Gorgeous George is regarded as the father of the wrestling gimmick, by extension the heel gimmick.

Starting in the 1940s, he invented an extravagant, flamboyant "pretty boy" gimmick who wore wavy blonde hair, colorful robes and ritzy outfits, was accompanied by beautiful valets to the ring for his matches. The crowd jeered his persona, came out to his matches in hopes of seeing him defeated, he in turn relished the attention, exploded in to the one of the most famous heels not only of his era, but of all time. Another example of a dramatic looking heel is the wrestler The Undertaker. During his period in The Ministry of Darkness, he undertook performances where he would appear as a priest of the occult in a hooded black robe and sit on a devilish throne. Faces who have turned from being heels still exhibit characteristics from their heel persona; this occurs due to fans being entertained by a wrestler despite their heel persona due to the performer's charisma or charm in playing the role. Certain wrestlers such as Eddie Guerrero and Ric Flair gained popularity as faces by using tactics that would be associated with heels, while others like Stone Cold Steve Austin, Scott Hall and more Becky Lynch displayed heelish behavior during their careers yet got big face reactions, leading them to be marketed as antiheroes.

On other occasions, wrestlers who are positioned as faces receive a negative audience reaction despite their portrayal as heroes. An example is Roman Reigns, who in 2018 was a top face in WWE, but got booed in his matches while his opponents got cheered regardless of them being face or heel, due to perceived favoritism from WWE bookers and executive and a lack of character development; such characters become nudged into becoming villains over time or retooled to present a different public image, such as The Rock's heel turn from a clean-cut face to self-absorbed narcissist in the heel Nation of Domination stable. The term heel does not describe a typical set of attributes or audience reaction by itself, but a wrestler's presentation and booking as an antagonist. Depending on the angle, a heel can act overpowering to their opponents. For instance, a "closet champion" in particular is a term for a heel in possession of a title belt who dodges top flight competition and attempts to back down from challenges.

Examples include Seth Rollins during his first WWE World Heavyweight Championship run, Charlotte during her Divas/Raw Women's Championship reign, the Honky Tonk Man during his long Intercontinental Championship reign, Tommaso Ciampa during his NXT Championship reign and The IIconics during their WWE Women's Tag Team Championship reign. This helps to affirm the intended kayfabe reactions that the face that said heel is feuding with is/are more deserving of the title. Heels may in fact beg for mercy during a beat down at the hands of faces if they have delivered similar beat downs with no mercy, with Ric Flair in particular being well known for this. Other heels may act overpowering to their opponents as to play up the scrappy underdog success story for the face instead. Brock Lesnar has played heel in both capacities, but has become quite famous as an almost-unstoppable machine who can take down anything in his path. Face Glossary of professional wres

Sol Zim

Sol Zim is an American cantor. He lives in New York. Sol Zim is known for his classic Jewish songs, he is considered to be one of the most important Jewish cantors. Sol Zim has been featured in The New York Times, Daily News, The Chicago Tribune and newspapers from Brazil, South Africa and the United Kingdom. In 1960, he performed with the Jewish Minister Cantor Association at Madison Square Garden. In the late 1970s, many Jewish rock operas were produced, David Superstar, one of the most important was composed by Sol Zim, it is said. It was performed one night at the Hollis Hills Jewish Center in 1974, he was part of a Jewish group that performed in front of the Pope John Paul II, being the first time in history that such a large group of Jewish clergy men met with a Pope. Sol Zim is Professor of Jewish Music in New York at the Academy for Jewish Religion, he has been featured on books about Jewish music like "And You Shall Know Us By The Trail Of Our Vinyl". He has written books on Jewish music.

In 1992, the Academy for Jewish Religion of New York added a Cantorial Program directed by Kenneth Cohen, further developed by Sol Zim and Ram’n Tasat. Sol Zim graduated at the Jewish Theological Seminary Cantorial Institute, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Music. Zim studied with other musicians as Kurt Baum, Julius Rudel, Samuel Weisser, others. Sol Zim is the descendant of five generations of cantors. Zim's father, Samuel Zimelman, served as cantor of the Hochschule Synagogue in Łomazy and Congregation Shaarey Tphiloh in Portland, Maine. Zim's brother, Paul Zim, has served as cantor for B'nai Jeshurun in Manhattan. Zim's other brother, Sidney Zim, was the rabbi at Flatbush Jewish Center in Brooklyn. "Hazzan Max Wohlberg Award" from The Cantors Assembly. "The Yuval Award" for his contribution to Synagogue Music, from The Cantors Assembly. The Jewish Music Leadership Award, for his advancement of Jewish Music throughout the world, from The Academy for Jewish Religion; the Amit Humanities Award, in recognition of his achievements in preserving the Jewish Heritage for future generations through his musical work.

Honorary fellow of the Cantors Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary. Shabbat Rock: An Original Friday Evening Rock Joy of Shabbos: A Family Singalong Chanukah: A Children's Sing Along Family Celebration Live in Concert Passover Seder: A Passover Sing-Along The Joy of Israel: Jewish-Israeli Ballads The Joy Of Cantorial Prayer Cantor Sol Zim Sings Avinu Shebashamayim: A Prayer for the State of Israel, Much More. Jewish Memories of Papa Greatest Yiddish Memories The Joy Of Israel: Jewish-Israeli Ballads America's Best Loved Jewish Singer Sings Sings Jewish Memories Official website


Camposanto is a comune in the Province of Modena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 35 kilometres northwest of Bologna and about 20 kilometres northeast of Modena on the Panaro river. Although the name in Italian means "saint's field", which means "cemetery" in Italian, its original name, "Campus Sanctus" honoured the 14th century Ferrara family of Santi, who owned the land; the Battle of Campo Santo was fought here in 1743. Camposanto borders the following municipalities: Bomporto, Finale Emilia, Ravarino, San Felice sul Panaro, San Prospero. In May 2012 Camposanto was the epicenter of a 6.0-magnitude earthquake. Official website