Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
A tawaif was a sophisticated courtesan who catered to the nobility of the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal era. The tawaifs excelled in and contributed to music, dance and the Urdu literary tradition, were considered an authority on etiquette. Tawaifs were a North Indian institution central to Mughal court culture from the 16th century onwards and became more prominent with the weakening of Mughal rule in the mid-18th century, they contributed to the continuation of traditional dance and music forms and emergence of modern Indian cinema. The patronage of the Mughal court before and after the Mughal Dynasty in the Doab region and the artistic atmosphere of 16th century Lucknow made arts-related careers a viable prospect. Many girls were taken at a young age and trained in both performing arts as well as literature to high standards. Once they had matured and possessed a sufficient command over dancing and singing, they became a tawaif, high-class courtesans who served the rich and noble.
The tawaif's introduction into her profession was marked by a celebration, the so-called missī ceremony, that customarily included the inaugural blackening of her teeth. It is believed that young nawabs-to-be were sent to these "tawaifs" to learn "tameez" and "tehzeeb" which included the ability to differentiate and appreciate good music and literature even practice it the art of ghazal writing. By the 18th century, they had become the central element of refined culture in North India; these courtesans would dance, recite poetry and entertain their suitors at mehfils. Like the geisha tradition in Japan, their main purpose was to professionally entertain their guests, while sex was incidental, it was not assured contractually. High-class or the most popular tawaifs could pick and choose among the best of their suitors; some of the popular tawaifs were Begum Samru, Moran Sarkar, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Umrao Jaan, Gauhar Jaan, Zohrabai Agrewali. The annexation of Oudh by the British in 1856 sounded the first death-knell for this medieval institution.
It soon was not favoured by the British, the women were branded as prostitutes to defame them. Social reformers opposed them as social decadence; the institutions survived until India's Independence. Some of the famous Tawaifs include: Malka Jaan, daughter Gauhar Jan who created the first Indian song recording in 1902. Jaddanbai - a master music composer, singer and film maker. Begum Akhtar Padma Bhushan Zohrabai Ambalewali Binodini Dasi Fatma Begum and daughter Zubeida, who acted in the first Indian talkie movie Alam Ara Rasoolan Bai Roshan Ara Begum Sitara-e-Imtiaz Zareena Begum of Lucknow They used to be the only source of popular music and dance and were invited to perform on weddings and other occasions; some of them became concubines of wealthy individuals. With the emergence of movies and record industry, they lost popularity; the image of the tawaif has had an enduring appeal, immortalized in Bollywood movies. Films with a tawaif as a central character include Devdas, Pakeezah, Amar Prem, Umrao Jaan, Pati Patni Aur Tawaif and Umrao Jaan and documentary film, The Other Song.
Other films depict a tawaif in a supporting role in situations where a man in a loveless marriage goes to her. Martha Feldman, Bonnie Gordon; the courtesan's arts: cross-cultural perspectives. Pp. 312–352. Essay on Asia art, history and culture in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya The Tawaif, The Anti - Nautch Movement, the Development of North Indian Classical Music
Anarkali Bazaar is a major bazaar in Lahore, Pakistan. Anarkali serves as a neighbourhood and union council of Data Gunj Buksh Tehsil of Lahore. Anarkali remains one of the oldest surviving markets in South Asia, dating back at least 200 years and derives its name from the nearby mausoleum thought to be that of a courtesan girl named Anārkalī, who was'chased out of town' by order of the Mughal Emperor Akbar for having a love affair with his son, Prince Salīm, who would become Emperor Jahāngīr. Anarkali sells textiles, garments and many other items; the bazaar is now divided into two sections: the'Old Anarkali Bazaar' and the'New Anarkali Bazaar'. The Old Anarkali Bazaar is noted for its traditional food items while the New Anarakli Bazaar is noted for its traditional handicraft and embroidery; the mausoleum of Sultan Qutb ud-Din Aibak of Mamluk Sultanate is located at Anarkali Bazaar. In the early 1970s, the mausoleum was renovated at the orders of the Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Bazaar History of marketing Ichhra Market Naulakha Bazaar Retail
Mojari or Khussa or Saleem Shahi's is a style of handcrafted footwear produced in South Asia. They are traditionally made by artisans using tanned leather; the uppers are made of one piece of leather or textile embroidered and embellished with brass nails, cowry shells, mirrors and ceramic beads. The bonding from the upper to the sole is done by cotton thread, not only eco-friendly but enmeshes the leather fibers with great strength; some product range uses bright and ornate threads. As it evolved through the centuries and is being produced by individual artisans, products vary in designs and colours, it encapsules local ethos and ethnicity. It is believed that one of the earliest examples of footwear worn on the Indian subcontinent is a sandal of wood, datable to circa 200 BC. During the 3rd and 4th Centuries in the Buddhist period, it was quite common to wear strapped sandals, Indian kings wore sandals ornamented with precious jewels. Jaina literature shows that leather was used for the making of shoes, which protected the toes from getting injured.
Hides of cows, goats and other wild animals were used. The Mojari originated under the Mughal Empire, where it was decorated with colours and other ornaments, they are said to have been popularized under the Mughal King Saleem Shah and are referred to as Saleem Shahis as a result. They are commonly worn with Shalwar Kameez. Although leather shoes have been worn for over 5,000 years by various civilizations, they should not be confused with Mojaris, because Mojaris are unique in their ornamental style and appearance. Jutti Kolhapuri chappal Multani Khussa Paduka BBC Culture - Includes image of golden mojari of a 19th-century Nizam of Hyderabad
Fouzia Saeed is a social activist, gender expert, trainer/facilitator, development manager, folk culture promoter, television commentator and author. She is the author of two well regarded books, her first book is an ethnographic look at prostitution in Pakistan, TABOO!: The Hidden Culture of a Red Light District. Her second book, Working with Sharks: Countering Sexual Harassment in our Lives, was an autobiographical exposé on sexual harassment in the United Nations and the revenge meted out by the UN management she and 10 other women faced for making their case. Saeed is well known in the activist circles of Pakistan's social movement, having worked for decades on women's issues those linked to violence against women, women in the entertainment business, women’s mobility and sexual harassment, her work on violence against women spans over 20 years and includes founding Bedari, the first women’s crisis center in Pakistan in 1991. For over a decade, she focused on reducing the level of sexual harassment and the impact of debt bondage on Hindu women.
On 10 March 2009, the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Yousaf Raza Gilani, named Saeed to a three-year term as one of the 15 members of the National Commission on the Status of Women. Subsequently, she was appointed as the Chair of the Sexual Harassment Legislation Implementation Watch Committee from May 2010 to May 2012. In February 2015, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif appointed Saeed as the Executive Director of Lok Virsa, the National Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage, she completed her term on 9 February 2018 with exuberant accolades from the press and civil society for her stellar success in revitalizing Lok Virsa and expanding the space for performance culture in Pakistan. Saeed says of herself: "I want to be judged by my abilities, my struggles and my achievements and not labeled or stereotyped by my gender, my economic background, my nationality or my beliefs." Saeed was born on 3 June 1959, in Pakistan. She received most of her schooling and early college education in Peshawar, Pakistan where she graduated from the University of Peshawar with a BS in Home Economics as the University Gold Medalist for Academic Excellence in 1979.
As a result of her academic achievements, she received a Quaid-e-Azam Overseas Educational Award and spent 8 years at the University of Minnesota, where she earned an MS in Design and a Doctorate in Education. She received additional funding from the Ethel L. Parker International Fellowship Award of the American Home Economics Association for her doctoral research. Saeed returned to her native land after completing her degrees, but has returned to Minneapolis on several occasions as a visiting lecturer and to receive a Distinguished International Alumni Award in 1998 and the International Leadership Award in 2008, both presented by the University of Minnesota in recognition of her contributions to the field of education and the women’s movement in Pakistan; the government of Japan named Saeed as one of seven Asian Leadership Fellows for 2010. She attended the Fellowship program in Tokyo from September to November 2010 and gave lectures at numerous Japanese universities and wrote about her experiences on her return.
Saeed was awarded the 2012 Battle of Crete Award by the Oxi Day Foundation for'courageous action for freedom and democracy' based on her decade-long struggle for the criminalisation of sexual harassment in Pakistan. She served as the Director of Mehergarh: A Center for Learning where she headed its programs on youth and human rights from 2004 until 2012, she remains as an informal advisor. Between September 2012 and February 2015, Saeed was a Fellow at the US National Endowment for Democracy, Draper-Hills Fellow at Stanford University, Visiting Fellow at George Mason University and Pakistan Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars under the Smithsonian Institution, she lives in Sri Lanka with her husband, Paul Lundberg, whom she met in 1995 when they were both working in the United Nations in Pakistan. They have lived together in Manila and Cairo, she is one of the few Pakistani women of her generation who has learned how to SCUBA dive and has dived in Pakistan, the Bahamas, the Mergui Archipelago of Burma and various islands of the Philippines.
In 2000, Saeed was instrumental in forming a network called AASHA in Pakistan. Six organisations form the core membership of AASHA. They, along with several hundred individuals and organisations serve as partners and friends of AASHA. In 2002, AASHA, together with the Government, developed a Code of Conduct on gender relations at the workplace, adopted voluntarily by over 130 companies in Pakistan. From 2002 onwards, AASHA continued to collaborate with the Government to press for the passage of a law requiring all public and private organisations to adopt and implement the Code. On November 2009 an amendment to the Pakistan Penal Code was passed by the Pakistan National Assembly explicitly making sexual harassment a cognisable offence anywhere in the country; this was ratified by the Senate on 20 January 2010 and signed into law with immediate effect by President Zardari on 29 January 2010. On 21 January 2010, the National Assembly approved a second bill requiring all organisations in Pakistan to adopt and implement the Code of Conduct.
After lengthy debate, this bill was passed by the Senate on 25 February and signed into law by the President on 9 March 2010. On 10 May 2010, Saeed was named by the NCSW to head the Government's Implementation Watch Committee, which will facilitate and monitor the progress of adoption of the sexual harassment legislation. On 22 December 2010, Dr. Saeed, under the AASHA banner, o