Hankou railway station
Hankou railway station is one of the three main railway stations in the city of Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei Province of the People's Republic of China. It is located within the section of the city known as Hankou, although a long distance to the north from the historical center of Hankou; when the Jinghan Railway from Beijing reached Hankou in the early 20th century, its terminus was the Hankou Dazhimen Station, located right outside the walls of the bustling port city of Hankou. In 1991 the old station was closed, services were relocated to the present Hankou railway station, located much further to the north from the central Hankou. Hankou railway station became connected to Wuhan Metro on December 28, 2012, with the opening of Line 2 of the city's subway system. Like the Wuchang railway station on the other side of the Yangtze, the Hankou station is served by trains going in all directions. After the completion of the high-speed Hefei–Wuhan Passenger Railway from Hefei in April 2009, the Hankou Station became the main Wuhan terminal for the high-speed trains arriving to the city on this line from Shanghai via Nanjing and Hefei, although as of December 2013 at least three of these trains arrives to the Wuhan railway station instead, some go to Wuchang.
The Hankou railway station is Wuhan's station for the Hanyi Railway, which goes west, to Yichang. Both the Hewu and Hanyi Railways will become sections of the Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu High-Speed Railway from Shanghai to Hankou to Chengdu. Hankou Station is served by a station of the same name on Line 2 of Wuhan Metro. There are two other major passenger railway stations in Wuhan: Wuchang railway station Wuhan railway station Hankou Railway Station
Chengdu romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an; as of 2014, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name unchanged throughout the imperial and communist eras.
It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. It is now one of the most important economic, commercial, cultural and communication centers in Western China. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates. More than 260 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu; the name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial and communist eras, although it had other names, for example it was known as Xijing in the 17th century; the Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, three to become a metropolis".
There are, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters. The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization, its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c. and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo. Although the official name of the city has remained constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou. Chinese nicknames for the city include the Turtle City, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird, an ancient artifact unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins. Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago.
At the time of China's Xia and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu. In the early 4th century BC, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in the settlement re-founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States which had succeeded the Zhou. Under the Han, the brocade produced in Chengdu was exported throughout China. A "Brocade Official" was established to oversee its supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu, his minister Zhuge Liang called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu was considered the second most prosperous city in China after Yangzhou.
Both Li Bai and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai praised it as "lying above the empyrean"; the city's present Caotang was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong was built in the 9th century. Chengdu was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han; the Later Shu was founded with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls; the Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first used paper money in the world. Su Shi praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Xianlin railway station
Xianlin railway station is a railway station of Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Railway located in Qixia District of Nanjing City, People's Republic of China. As of 2012, only one train a day in each direction stops at this station
Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway
The Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway is a high-speed railway 1,318 kilometres long that connects two major economic zones in the People's Republic of China: the Bohai Economic Rim and the Yangtze River Delta. Construction began on April 18, 2008, with the line opened to the public for commercial service on June 30, 2011, it is the world's longest high-speed line constructed in a single phase. The line is one of the busiest high speed railways in the world, transporting over 180 million annual passengers in 2017, more than the annual ridership of the entire TGV or Intercity-Express network, it is China's most profitable high speed rail line, reporting a 6.6 billion yuan net operational profit in 2015. Under former Minister of Railways Liu Zhijun, the railway line was the first one designed for a maximum speed of 380 km/h in commercial operations; the non-stop train from Beijing South to Shanghai Hongqiao was expected to finish the 1,305-kilometre journey in 3 hours and 58 minutes, averaging 329 kilometres per hour, making it the fastest scheduled train in the world, compared to 9 hours and 49 minutes on the fastest trains running on the parallel conventional railway.
But following Liu Zhijun's dismissal in February 2011, several major changes were announced. First, trains would be slowed to a maximum speed of 300 km/h. At this speed, the fastest trains would take 4 hours and 48 minutes to travel from Beijing South to Shanghai Hongqiao, making one stop at Nanjing South. Additionally, a slower class of trains running at 250 km/h would be operated, making more stops and charging lower fares. On September 21, 2017, 350 km/h operation was restored with the introduction of China Standardized EMU; this reduced travel times between Beijing and Shanghai to about 4 hours 24 minutes on the fastest scheduled trains, attaining an average speed of 291.9 km/h over a journey of 1,302 km making those services the fastest in the world. The Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway Co. Ltd. was in charge of construction. The project was expected to cost 220 billion yuan. An estimated 220,000 passengers are expected to use the trains each day, double the current capacity. During peak hours, trains should run every five minutes.
1,140 km, or 87% of the railway is elevated. There are 244 bridges along the line; the 164-km long Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge is the longest bridge in the world, the 114-km long viaduct bridge between Langfang and Qingxian is the second longest in the world, the Cangde Grand Bridge between Beijing's 4th Ring Road and Langfang is the fifth longest. The line includes 22 tunnels, totaling 16.1 km. A total of 1,268 km of the length is ballastless. According to Zhang Shuguang deputy chief designer of China's high-speed railway network, the designed continuous operating speed is 350 km/h, with a maximum speed of up to 380 km/h; the average commercial speed from Beijing to Shanghai was planned to be 330 km/h, which would have cut the train travel time from 10 hours to 4 hours. The rolling stock used on this line consists of CRH380 trains; the CTCS-3 based train control system is used on the line, to allow for a maximum speed of 380 km/h of running and a minimum train interval of 3 minutes. With power consumption of 20 MW and capacity of about 1,050 passengers, the energy consumption per passenger from Beijing to Shanghai should be less than 80kWh.
China's two most important cities and Shanghai, were not linked by rail until 1912, when the Jinpu railway was completed between Tianjin and Pukou. With the existing railway between Beijing and Tianjin, completed in 1900, the Huning railway between Nanjing and Shanghai opened in 1908, interrupted by a ferry between Pukou and Nanjing across the Yangtze River. A weekly Beijing–Shanghai direct train was first introduced in 1913. In 1933 a train ride from Beijing to Shanghai took at an average speed of 33 km/h. Passengers had to get off in Pukou with their luggage, board a ferry named "Kuaijie" across the Yangtze, get on another connecting train in Xiaguan on the other side of the river. In 1933 the Nanjing Train Ferry was opened for service; the new train ferry, "Changjiang", built by a British company, was 113.3 meters long, 17.86 meters wide, was able to carry 21 freight cars or 12 passenger cars. Passengers could remain on the train when crossing the river, the travel time was thus cut to around 36 hours.
The train service was suspended during the Japanese invasion. In 1949 from Shanghai's North railway station toward Beijing it took 36 hours, 50 minutes, at an average speed of 40 km/h. In 1956 the trip time was cut to 17 minutes. In the early 1960s the travel time was further cut to 39 minutes. In October 1968, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was opened; the travel time was cut to 34 minutes. As new diesel locomotives were introduced in the 1970s, the speed was increased further. In 1986, the travel time was 59 minutes. China introduced six line schedule reductions from 1997 to 2007. In October 2001, train T13/T14 took about 14 hours from Beijing to Shanghai. On April 18, 2004, Z-series trains were introduced; the trip time was cut to 58 minutes. There were five trains departing around 7 pm every day, each 7 minutes apart, arriving at their destination the next morning; the railway was electrified in 2006. On April 18, 2007, the new CRH bullet train was introduced on the upgraded railway as part of the Sixth Railway Speed-Up Campaign.
A day-time train D31 served the route, departing from Beijing at 10:50 every morning, arriving at Shanghai at 20:49 in the e
Hefei railway station
The Hefei railway station is a major railway station in Hefei, China. It was built in 1934, served as of 2019 by the Hening Passenger Railway, Western Union Railway, Huainan Railway and Hefei-Jiujiang Railway
Wuchang railway station
Wuchang railway station is a major railway station on the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway, the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway and the Hankou–Danjiangkou Railway, located on the east side of Zhongshan Road in Wuchang District, Hubei, China. Founded as the Tongxiang Gate Station in 1916, the station was moved several times and settled in the current location on 1957, it is the largest transportation center in Wuhan with daily traffic of 77,000 passengers and 20,000 packages as of 2000, a record of 80,000 passengers per day during the Chunyun period as of 2008. In 2010, some timetable systems started referring to the Wuchang railway station as "Wuhan South Station". However, "Wuchang" continues to be both the official and used name. Wuchang station is served by a station of the same name on Line 4 of Wuhan Metro. Line 4 connects this station to Wuhan railway station, the Wuhan terminus for high-speed services. Bus No. 10 and Special Line 561 run between this station and Hankou. Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway Media related to Wuchang Railway Station at Wikimedia Commons Official website