Communes of Luxembourg
Luxembourg's 102 Communes conform to LAU Level 2 and are the country's lowest administrative divisions. Communes rank below cantons in Luxembourg's hierarchy of administrative subdivisions. Communes are re-arranged, being merged or divided as demanded by demographic change over time. Unlike the cantons, which have remained unchanged since their creation, the identity of the communes has not become ingrained within the geographical sensations of the average Luxembourger; the cantons are responsible for the ceremonial and statistical aspects of government, while the communes provide local government services. The municipal system was adopted when Luxembourg was annexed into the French département of Forêts in 1795. Despite ownership passing to the Netherlands, this system was maintained until it was introduced upon independence in 1843; the province of Luxembourg, which now constitutes part of Belgium, was part of Luxembourg prior to 1839 when it possessed a low degree of sovereignty. Due to Luxembourg's incorporation into the main country by its occupying powers, the modern municipal system in Luxembourg is less than two centuries old.
Luxembourg has three official languages: French and the national language Luxembourgish. Some government websites offer English versions The communes have no legislative control over matters relating to the national interest, which reside with the Chamber of Deputies. Below this level, they have wide-ranging powers; the communes provide public education, maintain the local road network and other infrastructure, ensure basic public health, provide most social security. Communes have discretionary powers for comprehensive health care within their borders, land-use planning, funds for cultural activities, provision of care to the elderly, providing a sufficient supply of water and electricity. There are 102 communes in the 12 cantons; the 12 communes with city status are Diekirch, Dudelange, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Remich, Rumelange and Wiltz. Since the country's creation in 1839, eight communes have changed their name and thirty-nine communes have been merged, resulting in the 102 communes that exist today.
These defunct communes are listed in the table below. The municipal system was created during the French occupation to mirror the systems employed in the rest of the French Republic; these were overhauled in 1823, but the system itself was retained until independence, granted under the 1839 Treaty of London. The law regulating their creation and organisation dates to 24 February 1843, enshrined in the Luxembourgian constitution promulgated on 17 October 1868. Upon independence, there were 120 communes. A series of mergers and partitions between 1849 and 1891 increased this number to 130. Most of these were brought about by asymmetrical population growth, as population growth in the south caused the balance of population in the country to shift. For instance, some of the communes born in that era include Rumelange and Walferdange. In the pattern of Nordstad and Schieren were separated from Ettelbruck. Since the end of the First World War, during which Luxembourg was occupied by Germany, the number of communes has dropped steadily.
In 1920, Luxembourg City was expanded. Another wave of mergers took place in the 1970s when sparsely-populated areas in the north and west of the country were merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Wincrange. 2006 saw the creation of Kiischpelt and Tandel from four smaller communes, further reducing them to just 116. 2012 saw the creation of Käerjeng, Vallée de l'Ernz and Parc Hosingen from smaller communes, the merger of Clervaux, Esch-sur-Sûre and Schengen into adjacent ones. Eschweiler was merged into Wiltz in 2015. Following the mergers of Boevange-sur-Attert and Tuntange into the new commune of Helperknapp, the merger of Septfontaines and Hobschied into the new commune of Habscht, the merger of Rosport and Mompach into Rosport-Mompach in 2018, there are now only 102 communes. Category:Lists of communes of Luxembourg Statec. Recueil de statistiques par commune 2003. Luxembourg City: Statec. ISBN 2-87988-053-X. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-07-18. / "Archives of Mémorial A".
Service central de législation. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-18
Vallée de l'Ernz
Vallée de l'Ernz is a commune in northern Luxembourg, in the canton of Diekirch. The commune of Vallée de l'Ernz was formed on 1 January 2012 from the former communes of Ermsdorf and Medernach; the law creating the Vallée de l'Ernz was passed on 24 May 2011. It has an area of 39.73 km2. Media related to Vallée de l'Ernz at Wikimedia Commons
Consdorf is a commune and town in eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Echternach, part of the district of Grevenmacher; as of 2005, the town of Consdorf, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 1,200. Other towns within the commune include Scheidgen. Media related to Consdorf at Wikimedia Commons
The Loschbour man is a skeleton of Homo sapiens from the European Mesolithic discovered in 1935 in Mullerthal, in the commune of Waldbillig, Luxembourg. The skeleton, nearly complete, was discovered on 7 October 1935 under a rock shelter in Mullerthal on the banks of the Black Ernz, it was found by school teacher Nicolas Thill. It is now at the National Museum of Natural History in Luxembourg City. Loschbour man was a hunter-gatherer, the flint tools used for stalking and killing prey were found by his body, he was one of the last of his kind, soon to be supplanted by new populations more to herd rather than hunt—and with paler skins. According to DNA tests reported in 2014, Loschbour man was male, had dark skin, brown or black hair, blue eyes. In contrast to 90% of modern Europeans, he was lactose-intolerant; when he died, he was between 34 and 47 years old, 1.6 m tall, weighed between 58 and 62 kg. The cremated remains of a person an adult woman, were found nearby, in a pit, first excavated in the 1930s and rediscovered.
The bones of the feet were absent, remains from the thorax underrepresented, the remaining bones had scrapemarks, evidencing a de-fleshing treatment before cremation, including removal of the mandible and scraping of the skull. Loschbour man lived over 8,000 years ago, making the skeleton the oldest human remains found in the country; the remains contained Y-DNA of the Haplogroup I-M423*. DNA testing indicates that West-European hunter-gatherers like Loschbour man "contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to near-Easterners"; the results of the 2014 DNA testing allowed the Luxembourg Centre National de Recherche Archéologique and the Musée National d'Histoire et d'Art to make a 3-D reconstruction of the man. L'homme de Loschbour is a 2012 animated movie, seven minutes long, by Nic Herber. "Redonner vie à l’Homme de Loschbour" was a one-day conference at the National Museum of Natural History, which presented an overview of the results of recent investigations. List of human evolution fossils, Holocene L'homme de Loschbour, 3-D animation by Nic Herber, 2012
Bech is a commune and small town in eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Echternach, part of the district of Grevenmacher; as of 2005, the town of Bech, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 368. Villages within the commune include Rippig. Media related to Bech at Wikimedia Commons
Mersch is a commune and town in central Luxembourg, capital of the canton of Mersch. It is situated at the confluence of the rivers Alzette and Eisch; as of 2001, the town of Mersch, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 3,345. Other towns within the commune include Beringen, Moesdorf, Reckange and Schoenfels. Mersch is the home of Luxembourg's national literary archive; the town is the site of one of the six regional headquarters of the Grand Ducal Police. Mersch Castle is one of the castles belonging to the Valley of the Seven Castles. Located in the centre of the town, its history goes back to the 13th century. Today the castle houses the administrative offices of the local commune; some 3 kilometres north of Mersch, Pettingen Castle in the village of Pettingen is one of the best preserved fortified castles in the country. Mersch is connected to the centre and north of the country on Line 10 trains serving Mersch railway station. Media related to Mersch at Wikimedia Commons
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012